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author:("Ding, xuelong")
1.  Mycobacterial Phosphatidylinositol Mannoside 6 (PIM6) Up-Regulates TCR-Triggered HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80938.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) worldwide. HIV-1 load and heterogeneity are increased both locally and systemically in active TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection supports HIV-1 replication through dysregulation of host cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors. However the possibility that mycobacterial molecules released from MTB infected macrophages directly interact with CD4+ T cells triggering HIV-1 replication has not been fully explored. We studied the direct effect of different MTB molecules on HIV-1 replication (R5-tropic strain Bal) in anti-CD3- stimulated CD4+ T cells from healthy donors in an antigen presenting cell (APC)-free system. PIM6, a major glycolipid of the mycobacterial cell wall, induced significant increases in the percent of HIV-1 infected T cells and the viral production in culture supernatants. In spite of structural relatedness, none of the other three major MTB cell wall glycolipids had significant impact on HIV-1 replication in T cells. Increased levels of IFN-γ in culture supernatants from cells treated with PIM6 indicate that HIV-1 replication is likely dependent on enhanced T cell activation. In HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2, PIM6 was the strongest TLR2 agonist among the cell wall associated glycolipids tested. PIM6 increased the percentage of HIV infected cells and viral particles in the supernatant in a T-cell-based reporter cell line (JLTRg-R5) transfected with TLR1 and TLR2 but not in the cells transfected with the empty vector (which lack TLR2 expression) confirming that PIM6-induced HIV-1 replication depends at least partially on TLR2 signaling.
PMCID: PMC3839890  PMID: 24282561
2.  IgG3 deficiency extends lifespan and attenuates progression of glomerulonephritis in MRL/lpr mice 
Biology Direct  2012;7:3.
Antibodies of the IgG3 subclass have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the spontaneous glomerulonephritis observed in mice of the MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) inbred strain which have been widely studied as a model of systemic lupus erythematosus We have produced IgG3-deficient (-/-) mice with the MRL/lpr genetic background to determine whether IgG3 antibodies are necessary for or at least contributory to MRL/lpr-associated nephritis.
The gamma3 genotype (+/+ vs. +/- vs. -/-) did not appear to significantly affect serum titers of IgG auto-antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) or α-actinin. However, while substantial serum titers of IgG3 auto-antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) or α-actinin were seen in gamma3 +/+ mice, somewhat lower serum titers of these IgG3 auto-antibodies were found in gamma3 +/- mice, and gamma3 -/- mice exhibited baseline concentrations of these auto-antibodies. Analysis of immunoglobulins eluted from snap-frozen kidneys obtained from mice of all three gamma3 genotypes at ~18 weeks of age revealed much higher quantities of IgG in the kidneys from gamma3 +/+ than gamma3 -/- mice, and most IgG eluted from +/+ mice was IgG3. The serum creatinine levels in gamma3 +/+ mice substantially exceeded those of age-matched gamma3 -/- mice after ~21 weeks of age. Histopathological examination of kidneys from mice sacrificed at pre-determined ages also revealed more extensive glomerulosclerosis in gamma3 +/+ or +/- mice than in -/- mice beginning at 21 weeks of age. Survival analysis for IgG3-deficient and IgG3-producing MRL/lpr mice revealed that gamma3 -/- mice lived significantly longer (p = 0.0006) than either gamma3 +/- or +/+ mice. Spontaneous death appeared to be due to irreversible renal failure, because > 85% of glomeruli in kidneys from mice that died spontaneously were obliterated by glomerulosclerosis.
The available evidence suggests that IgG3 deficiency partially protects MRL/lpr mice against glomerulonephritis-associated morbidity and mortality by slowing or arresting the progression to glomerulosclerosis.
This article was reviewed by Pushpa Pandiyan, Irun Cohen, and Etienne Joly.
PMCID: PMC3293080  PMID: 22248284
3.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoproteins Directly Regulate Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Activation via Toll-Like Receptors 1 and 2▿  
Infection and Immunity  2010;79(2):663-673.
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to regulate the host immune response. M. tuberculosis can manipulate adaptive T cell responses indirectly by modulating antigen-presenting cell (APC) function or by directly interacting with T cells. Little is known about the role of M. tuberculosis molecules in direct regulation of T cell function. Using a biochemical approach, we identified lipoproteins LprG and LpqH as major molecules in M. tuberculosis lysate responsible for costimulation of primary human CD4+ T cells. In the absence of APCs, activation of memory CD4+ T cells with LprG or LpqH in combination with anti-CD3 antibody induces Th1 cytokine secretion and cellular proliferation. Lipoprotein-induced T cell costimulation was inhibited by blocking antibodies to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR1, indicating that human CD4+ T cells can use TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers to directly respond to M. tuberculosis products. M. tuberculosis lipoproteins induced NF-κB activation in CD4+ T cells in the absence of TCR co-engagement. Thus, TLR2/TLR1 engagement alone by M. tuberculosis lipoprotein triggered intracellular signaling, but upregulation of cytokine production and proliferation required co-engagement of the TCR. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that M. tuberculosis lipoproteins LprG and LpqH participate in the regulation of adaptive immunity not only by inducing cytokine secretion and costimulatory molecules in innate immune cells but also through directly regulating the activation of memory T lymphocytes.
PMCID: PMC3028837  PMID: 21078852
4.  Enhanced immunogenicity of pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in mice via fusion to recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) 
Biology Direct  2011;6:9.
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands that mediates its action through three known receptors. BLyS has been shown to enhance the production of antibodies against heterologous antigens when present at elevated concentrations, supporting an immunostimulatory role for BLyS in vivo.
We constructed a fusion protein consisting of human BLyS and Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA) and used this molecule to immunize mice. The immunostimulatory attributes mediated by BLyS in vivo were evaluated by characterizing immune responses directed against PsaA.
The PsaA-BLyS fusion protein was able to act as a co-stimulant for murine spleen cell proliferation induced with F(ab')2 fragments of anti-IgM in vitro in a fashion similar to recombinant BLyS, and immunization of mice with the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein resulted in dramatically elevated serum antibodies specific for PsaA. Mice immunized with PsaA admixed with recombinant BLyS exhibited only modest elevations in PsaA-specific responses following two immunizations, while mice immunized twice with PsaA alone exhibited undetectable PsaA-specific serum antibody responses. Sera obtained from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited high titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3, but no IgA, while mice immunized with PsaA admixed with BLyS exhibited only elevated titers of IgG1 following two immunizations. Splenocytes from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited elevated levels of secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, and a very modest but consistent elevation of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with PsaA. In contrast, mice immunized with either PsaA admixed with BLyS or PsaA alone exhibited modestly elevated to absent PsaA-specific recall responses for the same cytokines. Mice deficient for one of the three receptors for BLyS designated Transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor (TACI) exhibited attenuated PsaA-specific serum antibody responses following immunization with PsaA-BLyS relative to wild-type littermates. TACI-deficient mice also exhibited decreased responsiveness to a standard pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
This study identifies covalent attachment of BLyS as a highly effective adjuvant strategy that may yield improved vaccines. In addition, this is the first report demonstrating an unexpected role for TACI in the elicitation of antibodies by the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein.
This article was reviewed by Jonathan Yewdell, Rachel Gerstein, and Michael Cancro (nominated by Andy Caton).
PMCID: PMC3055212  PMID: 21306646
5.  Relationship between Surface Accessibility for PpmA, PsaA, and PspA and Antibody-Mediated Immunity to Systemic Infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(3):1304-1312.
Antibodies to capsular polysaccharide (PS) are protective against systemic infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, but the large number of pneumococcal serogroups and the age-related immunogenicity of pure PS limit the utility of PS-based vaccines. In contrast, cell wall-associated proteins from different capsular serotypes can be cross-reactive and immunogenic in all age groups. Therefore, we evaluated three pneumococcal proteins with respect to relative accessibility to antibody, in the context of intact pneumococci, and their ability to elicit protection against systemic infection by encapsulated S. pneumoniae. Sequences encoding pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), putative protease maturation protein A (PpmA), and the N-terminal region of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from S. pneumoniae strain A66.1 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The presence of genes encoding PsaA, PpmA, and PspA in 11 clinical isolates was examined by PCR, and the expression of these proteins by each strain was examined by Western blotting with antisera raised to the respective recombinant proteins. We used flow cytometry to demonstrate that PspA was readily detectable on the surface of the pneumococcal strains analyzed, whereas PsaA and PpmA were not. Consistent with these observations, mice with passively or actively acquired antibodies to PspA or type 3 PS were equivalently protected from homologous systemic challenge with type 3 pneumococci, whereas mice with passively or actively acquired antibodies to PsaA or PpmA were not effectively protected. These experiments support the hypothesis that the extent of protection against systemic pneumococcal infection is influenced by target antigen accessibility to circulating host antibodies.
PMCID: PMC1064945  PMID: 15731027
6.  Enhanced Immunogenicity of Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A by Genetic Fusion to Cytokines and Evaluation of Protective Immunity in Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(10):5589-5595.
Immunization of mice with pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) provides protection against systemic infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because the use of CFA is not acceptable in humans, we sought to develop alternative means of enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens of potential use in pneumococcal vaccines. We designed a series of genetic constructs in which coding sequences for PsaA were linked to sequences encoding either murine interleukin-2 (mIL-2), mIL-4, or two copies of an immunostimulatory nonapeptide derived from mIL-1β. The PsaA-cytokine constructs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Mice immunized twice with PsaA-IL-2, or PsaA-IL-4 responded with PsaA-specific antibody production comparable in magnitude to that of mice primed with PsaA in CFA and boosted with PsaA in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (PsaA-Adj). Antibodies elicited by PsaA-Adj were predominantly of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) subclass, while PsaA-IL-2 and PsaA-IL-4 elicited substantial amounts of IgG2a in addition to IgG1. Mice immunized with PsaA-Adj or PsaA-IL-4 were partially protected against intraperitoneal challenge with virulent S. pneumoniae (30% overall survival beyond 15 days postchallenge). Mice immunized with PsaA and no adjuvant or PsaA-IL-2 exhibited 0 or 5% survival rates, respectively, following challenge. In contrast, mice immunized twice with capsular polysaccharide were 100% protected. The modest levels of protection seen in mice immunized with PsaA and its more immunogenic derivatives may be explained in part by the relative inaccessibility of antibody to PsaA on the surface of encapsulated S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC128336  PMID: 12228286
7.  Indole Can Act as an Extracellular Signal in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  2001;183(14):4210-4216.
Previous work has shown that lacZ fusions to the cysK, astD, tnaB, and gabT genes in Escherichia coli are activated by self-produced extracellular signals. Using a combination of ethyl acetate extraction, reversed-phase C18 chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography, we have purified an extracellular activating signal from E. coli supernatants. Mass spectrometry revealed a molecule with an m/z peak of 117, consistent with indole. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the purified E. coli factor and synthetic indole revealed identical profiles. Using synthetic indole, a dose-dependent activation was observed with lacZ fusions to the gabT, astD, and tnaB genes. However, cysK::lacZ and several control fusions were not significantly activated by indole. Conditioned medium prepared from a tnaA (tryptophanase) mutant, deficient in indole production, supported 26 to 41% lower activation of the gabT and astD fusions. The residual level of activation may be due to a second activating signal. Activation of the tnaB::lacZ fusion was reduced by greater than 70% in conditioned medium from a tnaA mutant.
PMCID: PMC95310  PMID: 11418561
8.  Providencia stuartii Genes Activated by Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Identification of a Gene Required for Production or Activity of an Extracellular Factor 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(23):7185-7191.
By utilizing reporter transposons, five Providencia stuartii genes that are activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals have been identified. These genes have been designated cma for conditioned medium activated. The presence of conditioned medium from stationary-phase cultures grown in rich media resulted in the premature activation of each gene in cells at early log phase, with activation values ranging from 6- to 26-fold. Preparation of conditioned medium from an M9 salts medium and fractionation by gel filtration chromatography resulted in fractions within the included volume which activated three of the cma fusions. In addition, depending on the reporter fusion, peak activity was found in different fractions. The partially purified factors activated in a dose-dependent manner. Characterization of the factors activating the cma fusions indicated that they were stable to heat, alkali, and acid. Furthermore, for each cma fusion, factor activity was not reproduced by the addition of homoserine lactone, homocysteine thiolactone, pyruvate, Casamino Acids, or α-ketoglutarate. The identities of three cma genes have been determined and revealed physiological roles in amino acid biosynthesis and nutrient import. To begin to address the pathways for production of or response to the extracellular factors, we have identified a locus, aarA, that is required for the activation of four cma fusions. The AarA product was required for factor activity in extracellular supernatants, indicating a possible role in biosynthesis or export.
PMCID: PMC103678  PMID: 10572119

Results 1-8 (8)