The reliability of genome analysis and proficiency of genetic manipulation requires knowledge of the correspondence between the genetic and cytogenetic maps. In the present study, we integrated cytogenetic and microsatellite-based linkage maps for Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri. Thirty-eight marker-anchored BAC clones standing for the 19 linkage groups were used to be FISH probes. Of 38 BAC clones, 30 were successfully located on single chromosome by FISH and used to integrate the genetic and cytogenetic map. Among the 19 linkage groups, 12 linkage groups were physically anchored by 2 markers, 6 linkage groups were anchored by 1 marker, and one linkage group was not anchored any makers by FISH. In addition, using two-color FISH, six linkage groups were distinguished by different chromosomal location; linkage groups LG6 and LG16 were placed on chromosome 10, LG8 and LG18 on chromosome 14. As a result, 18 of 19 linkage groups were localized to 17 pairs of chromosomes of C. farreri. We first integrated genetic and cytogenetic map for C. farreri. These 30 chromosome specific BAC clones in the cytogenetic map could be used to identify chromosomes of C. farreri. The integrated map will greatly facilitate molecular genetic studies that will be helpful for breeding applications in C. farreri and the upcoming genome projects of this species.
Scallops represent economically important aquaculture shellfish. The identification of genes and genetic variants related to scallop growth could benefit high-yielding scallop breeding. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is essential for growth and development, with IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) serving as the major regulators of IGF actions. Although an effect of IGF on growth was detected in bivalve, IGFBP has not been reported, and members of the IGF system have not been characterized in scallop.
We cloned and characterized an IGFBP (PyIGFBP) gene from the aquaculture bivalve species, Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis, Jay, 1857). Its full-length cDNA sequence was 1,445 bp, with an open reading frame of 378 bp, encoding 125 amino acids, and its genomic sequence was 10,193 bp, consisting of three exons and two introns. The amino acid sequence exhibited the characteristics of IGFBPs, including multiple cysteine residues and relatively conserved motifs in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Expression analysis indicated that PyIGFBP was expressed in all the tissues and developmental stages examined, with a significantly higher level in the mantle than in other tissues and a significantly higher level in gastrulae and trochophore larvae than in other stages. Furthermore, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this gene. SNP c.1054A>G was significantly associated with both shell and soft body traits in two populations, with the highest trait values in GG type scallops and lowest in AG type ones.
We cloned and characterized an IGFBP gene in a bivalve, and this report also represents the first characterizing an IGF system gene in scallops. A SNP associated with scallop growth for both the shell and soft body was identified in this gene. In addition to providing a candidate marker for scallop breeding, our results also suggest the role of PyIGFBP in scallop growth.
DNA methylation plays a vital role in tissue development and differentiation in eukaryotes. Epigenetic studies have been seldom conducted in the extremely diverse and evolutionarily highly successful bilaterian lineage Mollusca. In the present study, we conducted the genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation for five tissues of a bivalve mollusc, Chlamys farreri using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The methylation levels were quite similar among tissues, ranging from 20.9% to 21.7%. CG methylation was the dominant type (14.9%–16.5%) in the C. farreri genome, but CHG methylation also accounted for a substantial fraction of total methylation (5.1%–6.3%). Relatively high methylation diversity was observed within tissues. Methylation differentiation between tissues was evaluated and 460 tissue-specific epiloci were identified. Kidney differs from the other tissues in DNA methylation profiles. Our study presents the first look at the tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns in a bivalve mollusc and represents an initial step towards understanding of epigenetic regulatory mechanism underlying tissue development and differentiation in bivalves.
Mollusca is the second most diverse group of animals in the world. Despite their perceived importance, omics-level studies have seldom been applied to this group of animals largely due to a paucity of genomic resources. Here, we report the first large-scale gene-associated marker development and evaluation for a bivalve mollusc, Chlamys farreri. More than 21,000 putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the C. farreri transcriptome. Primers and probes were designed and synthesized for 4500 SNPs, and 1492 polymorphic markers were successfully developed using a high-resolution melting genotyping platform. These markers are particularly suitable for population genomic analysis due to high polymorphism within and across populations, a low frequency of null alleles, and conformation to neutral expectations. Unexpectedly, high cross-species transferability was observed, suggesting that the transferable SNPs may largely represent ancestral genetic variations that have been preserved differentially among subfamilies of Pectinidae. Gene annotations were available for 73% of the markers, and 65% could be anchored to the recently released Pacific oyster genome. Large-scale association analysis revealed key candidate genes responsible for scallop growth regulation, and provided markers for further genetic improvement of C. farreri in breeding programmes.
mollusca; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); transcriptome; high resolution melting (HRM); genome-wide association (GWAS)
Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic, genomic and breeding studies. As one of genotyping-by-sequencing methods, RAD-Seq (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing) has gained particular popularity for construction of high-density linkage maps. Current RAD analytical tools are being predominantly used for typing codominant markers. However, no genotyping algorithm has been developed for dominant markers (resulting from recognition site disruption). Given their abundance in eukaryotic genomes, utilization of dominant markers would greatly diminish the extensive sequencing effort required for large-scale marker development. In this study, we established, for the first time, a novel statistical framework for de novo dominant genotyping in mapping populations. An integrated package called RADtyping was developed by incorporating both de novo codominant and dominant genotyping algorithms. We demonstrated the superb performance of RADtyping in achieving remarkably high genotyping accuracy based on simulated and real mapping datasets. The RADtyping package is freely available at http://www2.ouc.edu.cn/mollusk/ detailen.asp?id=727.
Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic and genomic studies. Recent development of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods holds great promise for constructing high-resolution linkage maps in organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present study, linkage mapping was conducted for a bivalve mollusc (Chlamys farreri) using a newly developed GBS method—2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD). Genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a preliminary reference genome that was utilized to facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in C. farreri. A high-resolution linkage map was constructed with a marker density (3806) that has, to our knowledge, never been achieved in any other molluscs. The linkage map covered nearly the whole genome (99.5%) with a resolution of 0.41 cM. QTL mapping and association analysis congruously revealed two growth-related QTLs and one potential sex-determination region. An important candidate QTL gene named PROP1, which functions in the regulation of growth hormone production in vertebrates, was identified from the growth-related QTL region detected on the linkage group LG3. We demonstrate that this linkage map can serve as an important platform for improving genome assembly and unifying multiple genomic resources. Our study, therefore, exemplifies how to build up an integrative genomic framework in a non-model organism.
bivalve; genome sequencing; 2b-RAD genotyping; linkage mapping; quantitative trait locus mapping
Bivalves comprise around 30,000 extant species and have received much attention for their importance in ecosystems, aquaculture and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing application of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gene expression studies on bivalve species, little research has been conducted on reference gene selection which is critical for reliable and accurate qRT-PCR analysis. For scallops, systematic evaluation of reference genes that can be used among tissues or embryo/larva stages is lacking, and β-actin (ACT) is most frequently used as qRT-PCR reference gene without validation.
In this study, 12 commonly used candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome data of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten
yessoensis) for suitable qRT-PCR reference genes identification. The expression of these genes in 36 tissue samples and 15 embryo/larva samples under normal physiological conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and their expression stabilities were evaluated using three statistic algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and comparative ∆Ct method. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and the least stably expressed genes. Final comprehensive ranking for the 12 genes combing the results from the three programs showed that, for different tissues, DEAD-box RNA helicase (HELI), ubiquitin (UBQ), and 60S ribosomal protein L16 (RPL16) were the optimal reference genes combination, while for different embryo/larva stages, gene set containing Cytochrome B (CB), Cytochrome C (CC), Histone H3.3 (His3.3), and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were recommended for qRT-PCR normalization. ACT was among the least stable genes for both adult tissues and embryos/larvae.
This work constitutes the first systematic analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR normalization in scallop under normal conditions. The suitable reference genes we recommended will be useful for the identification of genes related to biological processes in Yesso scallop, and also in the reference gene selection for other scallop or bivalve species.
Bivalves are among the oldest classes of invertebrates, and they exhibit diverse types of sexual patterning. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in bivalves remains very limited. The retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which are members of the nuclear receptor family, are involved in sex differentiation in many organisms.
In the present study, four full-length RXR-encoding cDNAs (CfRXRs) named CfRXRa, CfRXRb, CfRXRc and CfRXRd were retrieved from Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri). The four RXRs exhibited the conserved five-domain structure of nuclear receptor superfamily members and differed from each other only in the T-box of the C domain. The three variants, designated T (+4), T (+20) and T (+24), contained insertions of 4, 20 and 24 amino acids, respectively. The entire CfRXR gene is composed of eight exons and seven introns, and the four isoforms are generated via alternative mRNA splicing. Expression analysis showed that all four isoforms were expressed in both the testis and the ovary during the differentiation stage, whereas no expression was detected in the growth, mature or resting stages. This result suggests that CfRXRs are involved in germ cell differentiation in both sexes. The expression of the four isoforms was also detected in other tissues examined, including mantle, gill, digestive gland, and adductor muscle of sexually mature male and female Zhikong scallops, implying the multiple biological functions of CfRXRs.
Our study presents the first report of RXR isoforms in bivalves. Further investigation of the functional roles of different RXR isoforms may provide deep insights into the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation in C. farreri.
Non-lethal DNA sampling has long appealed to researchers studying population and conservation genetics, as it does not necessitate removing individuals permanently from their natural environment or destroying valuable samples. However, such an approach has not yet been well established in bivalves. In this study, we demonstrate that the gill represents a good source of tissue for non-lethal sampling in scallops. Removal of a few gill filaments caused no noticeable behavioral abnormalities or increased mortality rates in Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) during a three-month period of observation. To facilitate rapid gill-based DNA extraction, six methods (MA-MF) were designed and evaluated, each requiring less than one hour of processing time. The optimal method was identified as MF, in terms of maintaining DNA integrity and genotyping accuracy. Further optimization of MF method by orthogonal experimental design suggested that the utilization of gills could be limited to 2 mg of sample, which is sufficient for performing up to 20,000 PCR reactions. We also demonstrate the excellent cross-species utility of MF in two additional scallop species, Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and bay scallop (Argopecten irradians). Taken together, our study provides a rapid and efficient approach for applying non-lethal DNA sampling in bivalve species, which would serve as a valuable tool for maintaining bivalve populations and conservation genetics, as well as in breeding studies.
Bivalves play an important role in the ecosystems they inhabit and represent an important food source all over the world. So far limited genetic research has focused on this group of animals largely due to the lack of sufficient genetic or genomic resources. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the most comprehensive expressed sequence tag resource for Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri), and conducted the first transcriptome comparison for scallops.
In a single 454 sequencing run, 1,033,636 reads were produced and then assembled into 26,165 contigs. These contigs were then clustered into 24,437 isotigs and further grouped into 20,056 isogroups. About 47% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Transcripts putatively involved in growth, reproduction and stress/immune-response were identified through Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses. Transcriptome comparison with Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) revealed similar patterns of GO representation. Moreover, 38 putative fast-evolving genes were identified through analyzing the orthologous gene pairs between the two scallop species. More than 46,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 350 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also detected.
Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for C. farreri. Based on this resource, we performed the first large-scale transcriptome comparison between the two scallop species, C. farreri and P. yessoensis, and identified a number of putative fast-evolving genes, which may play an important role in scallop speciation and/or local adaptation. A large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats were identified, which are ready for downstream marker development. This transcriptomic resource should lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on C. farreri.
The Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) has been introduced to China and has successfully been hybridized with the bay scallop (A. irradians irradians). The F1 hybrids of these two scallops exhibited a large increase in production traits and some other interesting new characteristics. To understand the genetic basis of this heterosis, nuclear gene and partial mtDNA sequences, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were employed to analyze the genomic organization of the hybrids. Amplification of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) showed that the parental ITS sequences were present in all the hybrid individuals, illustrating that the hybrid offspring inherited nuclear DNA from both parents. Sequence analyses of the ITS region further confirmed that the hybrids harbored alleles from their parents; some recombinant variants were also detected, which revealed some alterations in the nuclear genetic material of the hybrids. The analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA showed that the hybrids possessed sequences that were identical to the 16S rDNA of the female parents, proving a matrilineal inheritance of mitochondrial genes in scallops. In addition, GISH clearly discriminated between the parental chromosomes and indicated a combination of haploid genomes of duplex parents in the hybrids. The genetic analyses in our study illustrated that the F1 hybrids inherited nuclear material from both parents and cytoplasmic genetic material maternally, and some variations occurred in the genome, which might contribute to a further understanding of crossbreeding and heterosis in scallop species.
Scallops are an economically important aquaculture species in Asian countries, and growth-rate improvement is one of the main focuses of scallop breeding. Investigating the genetic regulation of scallop growth could benefit scallop breeding, as such research is currently limited. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling through type I and type II receptors, plays critical roles in regulating cell proliferation and growth, and is thus a plausible candidate growth regulator in scallops.
We cloned and characterized the TGF-β type I receptor (Tgfbr1) gene from Zhikong scallops (Chlamys farreri). The deduced amino acid sequence contains characteristic residues and exhibits the conserved structure of Tgfbr1 proteins. A high expression level of scallop Tgfbr1 was detected during early embryonic stages, whereas Tgfbr1 expression was enriched in the gonad and striated muscle in adults. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c. 1815C>T) in the 3′ UTR was identified. Scallops with genotype TT had higher growth traits values than those with genotype CC or CT in a full-sib family, and significant differences were found between genotypes CC and TT for shell length, shell height, and striated muscle weight. An expression analysis detected significantly more Tgfbr1 transcripts in the striated muscle of scallops with genotype CC compared to those with genotype TT or CT. Further evaluation in a population also revealed higher striated muscle weight in scallops with genotype TT than those with the other two genotypes. The inverse correlation between striated muscle mass and Tgfbr1 expression is consistent with TGF-β signaling having a negative effect on cell growth.
The scallop Tgfbr1 gene was cloned and characterized, and an SNP potentially associated with both scallop growth and Tgfbr1 expression was identified. Our results suggest the negative regulation of Tgfbr1 in scallop growth and provide a candidate marker for Zhikong scallop breeding.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of genetic variation in eukaryotic genomes and have recently become the marker of choice in a wide variety of ecological and evolutionary studies. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has made it possible to efficiently genotype a large number of SNPs in the non-model organisms with no or limited genomic resources. Most NGS-based genotyping methods require a reference genome to perform accurate SNP calling. Little effort, however, has yet been devoted to developing or improving algorithms for accurate SNP calling in the absence of a reference genome.
Here we describe an improved maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm called iML, which can achieve high genotyping accuracy for SNP calling in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. The iML algorithm incorporates the mixed Poisson/normal model to detect composite read clusters and can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions. Through analysis of simulation and real sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that in comparison with ML or a threshold approach, iML can remarkably improve the accuracy of de novo SNP genotyping and is especially powerful for the reference-free genotyping in diploid genomes with high repeat contents.
The iML algorithm can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions, and thus outperforms the original ML algorithm by achieving much higher genotyping accuracy. Our algorithm is therefore very useful for accurate de novo SNP genotyping in the non-model organisms without a reference genome.
This article was reviewed by Dr. Richard Durbin, Dr. Liliana Florea (nominated by Dr. Steven Salzberg) and Dr. Arcady Mushegian.
Next-generation sequencing; single nucleotide polymorphism; genotyping; maximum likelihood; mixed Poisson/normal model
Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.
Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus.
In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome.
Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic markers were also identified from the A. japonicus transcriptome. This transcriptome resource would lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on this species.
Crossbreeding is a powerful tool for improving productivity and profitability in aquaculture. We conducted a pilot study of an artificial cross between two important cultivated scallops in China, Chlamys farreri and Mimachlamys nobilis, to test the feasibility of interspecific hybridization. Reciprocal hybridization experiments were performed using a single-pair mating strategy (M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ and C. farreri ♀ × M. nobilis ♂). The fertilization of each pair was tracked using fluorescence staining of the gametes, and the chromosomes of the F1 hybrid larvae were examined via conventional karyotyping and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We observed moderate fertilization success in both interspecific crosses, although the overall fertilization was generally less rapid than that of intraspecific crosses. Conventional karyotyping showed that 70.4% of the viable F1 larvae in M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ and 55.4% in C. farreri ♀ × M. nobilis ♂ comprised hybrid karyotypes (2n = 35 = 6m+5sm+11st+13t), and the results were further confirmed by GISH. Interestingly, we detected a few F1 from the M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ cross that appeared to have developed gynogenetically. In addition, chromosome fragmentations, aneuploids and allopolyploids were observed in some F1 individuals. Our study presents evidence that the artificial cross between M. nobilis and C. farreri is experimentally possible. Further investigations of the potential heterosis of the viable F1 offspring at various developmental stages should be conducted to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of crossbreeding between these two scallop species.
Bivalves comprise 30,000 extant species, constituting the second largest group of mollusks. However, limited genetic research has focused on this group of animals so far, which is, in part, due to the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables generation of genomic resources in a short time and at a minimal cost, and therefore provides a turning point for bivalve research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to first produce a comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis).
In a single 454 sequencing run, 805,330 reads were produced and then assembled into 32,590 contigs, with about six-fold sequencing coverage. A total of 25,237 unique protein-coding genes were identified from a variety of developmental stages and adult tissues based on sequence similarities with known proteins. As determined by GO annotation and KEGG pathway mapping, functional annotation of the unigenes recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts putatively involved in growth, reproduction and stress/immune-response were identified. More than 49,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2,700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also detected.
Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for P. yessoensis. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth, reproduction, and stress/immunity-response were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. A large number of SNPs and SSRs were also identified and ready for marker development. This resource should lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on this species.
The placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens has a compact genome with many primitive eumetazoan characteristics. In order to gain a better understanding of its genome architecture, we conducted a detailed analysis of repeat content in this genome. The transposable element (TE) content is lower than that of other metazoans, and the few TEs present in the genome appear to be inactive. A new phylogenetic clade of the gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons was identified, which includes the majority of gypsy-like elements in Trichoplax. A particular microsatellite motif (ACAGT) exhibits unexpectedly high abundance, and also has strong association with its nearby genes.
This article was reviewed by Dr. Jerzy Jurka and Dr. I. King Jordan.
Concerted evolution has been believed to account for homogenization of genes within multigene families. However, the exact mechanisms involved in the homogenization have been under debate. Use of interspecific hybrid system allows detection of greater level of sequence variation, and therefore, provide advantage for tracing the sequence changes. In this work, we have used an interspecific hybrid system of scallop to study the sequence homogenization processes of rRNA genes.
Through the use of a hybrid scallop system (Chlamys farreri ♀ × Argopecten irradians ♂), here we provide solid molecular and cellular evidence for homogenization of the rDNA sequences into maternal genotypes. The ITS regions of the rDNA of the two scallop species exhibit distinct sequences and thereby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, and such a difference was exploited to follow the parental ITS contributions in the F1 hybrid during early development using PCR-RFLP. The representation of the paternal ITS decreased gradually in the hybrid during the development of the hybrid, and almost diminished at the 14th day after fertilization while the representation of the maternal ITS gradually increased. Chromosomal-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in the hybrid revealed the presence of maternal ITS sequences on the paternal ITS-bearing chromosomes, but not vice versa. Sequence analysis of the ITS region in the hybrid not only confirmed the maternally biased conversion, but also allowed the detection of six recombinant variants in the hybrid involving short recombination regions, suggesting that site-specific recombination may be involved in the maternally biased gene conversion.
Taken together, these molecular and cellular evidences support rapid concerted gene evolution via maternally biased gene conversion. As such a process would lead to the expression of only one parental genotype, and have the opportunities to generate recombinant intermediates; this work may also have implications in novel hybrid zone alleles and genetic imprinting, as well as in concerted gene evolution. In the course of evolution, many species may have evolved involving some levels of hybridization, intra- or interspecific, the sex-biased sequence homogenization could have led to a greater role of one sex than the other in some species.