Burn-induced gut dysfunction plays an important role in the development of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is critical in paracelluar barrier functions via regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. Previous studies have also demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can repress HIF-1α. This study aims to examine whether valproic acid (VPA), a HDACI, protects against burn-induced gut barrier dysfunction via repressing HIF-1α-dependent upregulation of VEGF and MLCK expression.
Rats were subjected to third degree 55% TBSA burns and treated with/ without VPA (300mg/kg). Intestinal barrier dysfunction was evaluated by permeability of intestinal mucosa to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and histologic evaluation. Histone acetylation, tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), VEGF, MLCK and HIF-1α were measured. In addition, CaCO2 cells were transfected with siRNA directed against HIF-1α and were stimulated with CoCl2 (1mM) for 24 hours with/without VPA (2mM) followed by analysis of HIF-1α, MLCK, VEGF and ZO-1.
Burn insults resulted in a significant increase in intestinal permeability and mucosal damage, accompanied by a significant reduction in histone acetylation, ZO-1, upregulation of VEGF, MLCK expression, and an increase in HIF-1α accumulation. VPA significantly attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability, mucosa damage, histone deacetylation and changes in ZO-1 expression. VPA also attenuated the increased VEGF, MLCK and HIF-1α protein levels. VPA reduced HIF-1α, MLCK and VEGF production and prevented ZO-1 loss in CoCl2-stimulated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, transfection of siRNA directed against HIF-1α led to inhibition of MLCK and VEGF production, accompanied by upregulation of ZO-1.
These results indicate that VPA can protect against burn-induced gut barrier dysfunction. These protective effects may be due to its inhibitory action on HIF-1α, leading to a reduction in intestinal VEGF and MLCK expression and minimizing ZO-1 degradation.
To determine whether enzyme therapy with imiglucerase/alglucerase demonstrates dose-response relationships with doses and disease parameters used in routine clinical practice for Gaucher disease type 1 patients.
Analyses included all patients with Gaucher disease type 1 on enzyme therapy and with intact spleens in the large observational database of the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry. Propensity scoring was used to match patients between enzyme therapy dose groups categorized as Group A (5 U to <29 U/kg/2 weeks), Group B (29 U to <48 U/kg/2 weeks), Group C (48 U to <75 U/kg/2 weeks). Hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and hepatic and splenic volumes were assessed after initiation of enzyme therapy using nonlinear mixed effects models. The maximal effect (Emax) and half-time to Emax (T50) of enzyme therapy for each parameter were compared across dosing groups.
Propensity score matching resulted in three comparable groups of 122 patients each (enzyme therapy in Groups A, B, and C). Dose-response relationships were found with regard to Emax and T50 over 96 months for each disease parameter.
Enzyme therapy with imiglucerase/alglucerase displays a dose-dependent improvement in hematological and visceral parameters in Gaucher disease type 1 patients. Group C displayed greater treatment effects than Groups A or B. Propensity score matching and nonlinear mixed effects model analyses provide a prototype for assessment of treatment outcomes based on observational data from international rare disease registries.
propensity scoring; inborn errors of metabolism; lysosomal storage disease; sphingolipids
Tidal (12.4 hr) cycles of behavior and physiology adapt intertidal organisms to temporally complex coastal environments, yet their underlying mechanism is unknown. However, the very existence of an independent “circatidal” clock has been disputed, and it has been argued that tidal rhythms arise as a submultiple of a circadian clock, operating in dual oscillators whose outputs are held in antiphase i.e., ∼12.4 hr apart.
We demonstrate that the intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra (Leach) exhibits robust tidal cycles of swimming in parallel to circadian (24 hr) rhythms in behavioral, physiological and molecular phenotypes. Importantly, ∼12.4 hr cycles of swimming are sustained in constant conditions, they can be entrained by suitable stimuli, and they are temperature compensated, thereby meeting the three criteria that define a biological clock. Unexpectedly, tidal rhythms (like circadian rhythms) are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of Casein kinase 1, suggesting the possibility of shared clock substrates. However, cloning the canonical circadian genes of E. pulchra to provide molecular markers of circadian timing and also reagents to disrupt it by RNAi revealed that environmental and molecular manipulations that confound circadian timing do not affect tidal timing. Thus, competent circadian timing is neither an inevitable nor necessary element of tidal timekeeping.
We demonstrate that tidal rhythms are driven by a dedicated circatidal pacemaker that is distinct from the circadian system of E. pulchra, thereby resolving a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the circatidal mechanism.
•The intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra exhibits circadian and tidal phenotypes•We have cloned and characterized the canonical circadian factors of Eurydice•While sensitive to CK1 inhibition, circadian and tidal clocks can be dissociated•Eurydice has a dedicated circatidal clock independent of its circadian clock
Objective: Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period. Methods: Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were made in 7-d, 15-d, and 40-d old (adult) chickens of either sex (n=15). The myenteric plexus was studied after nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry using light microscopy, digital photography, and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The numbers of positively stained neurons and ganglia were counted in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and colon in the different age groups. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD), and statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The positively stained neurons showed various morphologies and staining intensities, and formed bead-shaped and U-shaped arrangements in the myenteric plexus. The densities of neurons and ganglia increased with age. However, the number of positive neurons per ganglion increased. The number of NADPH-d-positive neurons was highest in the colon, followed by the ileum, the jejunum, the duodenum, and the caeca in all age groups. Conclusions: Developmental changes in the myenteric plexus of chickens continue in the postnatal period, indicating that the maturation process of the gastrointestinal function is gradual. In addition, no significant difference is happening among different intestinal segments during postnatal development, suggesting that the function of different intestinal segments had been determined after birth.
NADPH-d histochemistry; Enteric nervous system (ENS); Development; Myenteric plexus; Chicken
DYT1 dystonia, a common and severe primary dystonia, is caused by a 3-bp deletion in TOR1A which encodes torsinA, a protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several cellular functions are altered by the mutant protein, but at a systems level the link between these and the symptoms of the disease is unclear. The most effective known therapy for DYT1 dystonia is use of anticholinergic drugs. Previous studies have revealed that in mice, transgenic expression of human mutant torsinA under a non-selective promoter leads to abnormal function of striatal cholinergic neurons. To investigate what pathological role torsinA plays in cholinergic neurons, we created a mouse model in which the Dyt1 gene, the mouse homolog of TOR1A, is selectively deleted in cholinergic neurons (ChKO animals). These animals do not have overt dystonia, but do have subtle motor abnormalities. There is no change in the number or size of striatal cholinergic cells or striatal acetylcholine content, uptake, synthesis, or release in ChKO mice. There are, however, striking functional abnormalities of striatal cholinergic cells, with paradoxical excitation in response to D2 receptor activation and loss of muscarinic M2/M4 receptor inhibitory function. These effects are specific for cholinergic interneurons, as recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed normal responses. Amphetamine stimulated dopamine release was also unaltered. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of Dyt1 deletion on striatal cholinergic function. Therapies directed at modifying the function of cholinergic neurons may prove useful in the treatment of the human disorder.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or disease of small airways. It has been reported that the genetic variation may play a role in the development and severity of COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in interleukin (IL)-12A and IL-12B were associated with COPD in a Chinese population. The IL-12A rs2243115 and IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphisms were genotyped by performing polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 298 patients with COPD and 346 healthy controls. We observed that the frequencies of GT and GT+GG of IL-12A rs2243115 were significantly different from TT in the COPD group and the control group (GT vs. TT: odds ratio [OR]=2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55–3.57, p<0.001; GT+GG vs. TT: OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.63–3.71, p<0.001). These data suggest that the IL-12A rs2243115 polymorphism may contribute to genetic susceptibility to COPD in a Chinese population.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused by both environmental factors (such as smoking) and underlying genetic polymorphisms. In this article, a role of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-12, is shown to be associated with the risk of disease.
How to resect the caudate lobe safely is a major challenge to current liver surgery which requires further study.
Nine cases (6 hepatic cell carcinoma, 2 cavernous hemangioma and 1 intrahepatic cholangiocacinoma) were performed using the anterior transhepatic approach in the isolated complete caudate lobe resection. During the operation, we used the following techniques: the intraoperative routine use of Peng’s multifunction operative dissector (PMOD), inflow and outflow of hepatic blood control, low central venous pressure and selective use of liver hanging maneuver.
There were no perioperative deaths observed after the operation. The median operating time was 230 ± 43.6 minutes, the median intraoperative blood loss was 606.6 ± 266.3 ml and the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 ± 2.9 days. The incidence of complications was 22.22% (2/9).
PMOD and “curettage and aspiration” technique can be of great help of in the dissection of vessels and parenchyma, clearly making caudate lobe resection safer, easier and faster.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent and capable of undergoing multilineage differentiation into highly specialized cells including pancreatic islet cells. Thus, they represent a novel alternative source for targeted therapies and regenerative medicine for diabetes. Significant progress has been made in differentiating hESCs toward pancreatic lineages. One approach is based on the similarities of pancreatic β cell and neuroepithelial development. Nestin-positive cells are selected as pancreatic β cell precursors and further differentiated to secrete insulin. The other approach is based on our knowledge of developmental biology in which the differentiation protocol sequentially reproduces the individual steps that are known in normal β cell ontogenesis during fetal pancreatic development. In the present study, the hESC cell line PKU1.1 was induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) using both protocols. The differentiation process was dynamically investigated and the similarities and differences between both strategies were explored. Our results show that IPCs can be successfully induced with both differentiation strategies. The resulting IPCs from both protocols shared many similar features with pancreatic islet cells, but not mature, functional β cells. However, these differently-derived IPC cell types displayed specific morphologies and different expression levels of pancreatic islet development-related markers. These data not only broaden our outlook on hESC differentiation into IPCs, but also extend the full potential of these processes for regenerative medicine in diabetes.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 appear during early stages of progression from colitis to cancer. We investigated the role of p53 and its target, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), in inflammation-induced apoptosis of IECs.
Apoptosis was induced in mouse models of mucosal inflammation. Responses of IECs to acute, T-cell activation were assessed in wild-type, p53−/−, Bid−/−, Bim−/−, Bax3−/−, Bak−/−, PUMA−/−, and Noxa−/− mice. Responses of IECs to acute and chronic colitis were measured in mice following 1 or 3 cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining and measuring activity of caspases 3 and 9; levels of p53 and PUMA were assessed in colon tissue from patients with and without ulcerative colitis.
Apoptosis of IECs occurred in the lower crypts of colitic tissue from humans and mice. Colitis induction with anti-CD3 or 3 cycles of DSS increased apoptosis and protein levels of p53 and PUMA in colonic crypt IECs. In p53−/− and PUMA−/− mice, apoptosis of IECs was significantly reduced but inflammation was not. Levels of p53 and PUMA were increased in inflamed mucosal tissues of mice with colitis and in patients with UC, compared with controls. Induction of PUMA in IECs of p53−/− mice indicated that PUMA-mediated apoptosis was independent of p53.
In mice and humans, colon inflammation induces apoptosis of IECs via p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms; PUMA also activates an intrinsic apoptosis pathway associated with colitis.
IBD; UC; Crohn’s Disease; Cell Death; Signaling
Peptide LSARLAF (LSA) can bind and activate integrin αIIbβ3 in the absence of ‘inside-out’ signal. The active αIIbβ3 mediates ‘outside-in’ signaling that elicits platelet aggregation, granule secretion and TxA2 production. Here we identify the membrane glycoproteins which mediate LSA-induced platelet activation other than αIIbβ3, and determine the roles of Src, PLCγ2, FcRγ-chain, and SLP-76 in LSA-induced platelet activation.
Ligand-receptor binding assay was performed to study the effect of peptide LSA or its control peptide FRALASL (FRA) on integrins binding to their ligands. Spreading of CHO cells expressing αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 on immobilized fibrinogen was measured in the presence of LSA or FRA. Washed β3, Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets aggregation and secretion were tested in response to LSA.
Ligand-receptor binding assay indicated that LSA promoted the binding of multiple ligands to αIIbβ3 or αVβ3. LSA also enhanced CHO cells with αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 expression spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. β3 deficient platelets failed to aggregate and secrete in response to LSA. The phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and Syk was also β3 dependent. Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets did not aggregate, secrete ATP or produce TxA2 in response to LSA.
LSA-induced platelet activation is β3 dependent, and signaling molecules Src, FcRγ-chain, SLP-76 and LAT play crucial roles in LSA-induced β3 mediated signaling.
LSARLAF; integrin αIIbβ3; outside-in signaling; Src; FcR γ-chain; SLP-76; PLCγ2
Past studies have shown that the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase (PIB5PA), is commonly downregulated or lost in melanomas, which contributes to elevated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt in melanoma cells. In this report, we provide evidence that PIB5PA deficiency plays a role in resistance of melanoma cells to RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Ectopic expression of PIB5PA enhanced apoptosis induced by the RAF inhibitor PLX4720 in BRAFV600E and by the MEK inhibitor U0126 in both BRAFV600E and wild-type BRAF melanoma cells. This was due to inhibition of PI3K/Akt, as co-introduction of an active form of Akt (myr-Akt) abolished the effect of overexpression of PIB5PA on apoptosis induced by PLX4720 or U0126. While overexpression of PIB5PA triggered activation of Bad and down-regulation of Mcl-1, knockdown of Bad or overexpression of Mcl-1 recapitulated, at least in part, the effect of myr-Akt, suggesting that regulation of Bad and Mcl-1 is involved in PIB5PA-mediated sensitization of melanoma cells to the inhibitors. The role of PIB5PA deficiency in BRAF inhibitor resistance was confirmed by knockdown of PIB5PA, which led to increased growth of BRAFV600E melanoma cells selected for resistance to PLX4720. Consistent with its role in vitro, overexpression of PIB5PA and the MEK inhibitor selumetinib cooperatively inhibited melanoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. Taken together, these results identify loss of PIB5PA as a novel resistance mechanism of melanoma to RAF/MEK inhibitors and suggest that restoration of PIB5PA may be a useful strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma.
AIM: To assess whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the management of small bowel obstructions (SBOs) secondary to gastric cancer and its role in treatment strategies.
METHODS: The medical records of all of the patients who were admitted for an intestinal obstruction after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed. PET/CT was performed before a clinical treatment strategy was established for each patient. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with no evidence of a tumor recurrence and patients with evidence of a tumor recurrence. Tumor recurrences included a local recurrence, peritoneal carcinomatosis or distant metastases. The primary endpoint was the 1-year survival rate, and other variables included patient demographics, the length of hospital stay, complications, and mortality.
RESULTS: The median time between a diagnosis of gastric cancer and the detection of a SBO was 1.4 years. Overall, 31 of 65 patients (47.7%) had evidence of a tumor recurrence on the PET/CT scan, which was the only factor that was associated with poor survival. Open and close surgery was the main type of surgical procedure reported for the patients with tumor recurrences. R0 resections were performed in 2 patients, including 1 who underwent combined adjacent organ resection. In the group with no evidence of a tumor recurrence on PET/CT, bowel resections were performed in 7 patients, adhesiolysis was performed in 7 patients, and a bypass was performed in 1 patient. The 1-year survival curves according to PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence vs no PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence were significantly different, and the 1-year survival rates were 8.8% vs 93.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences (P = 0.71) in the 1-year survival rates based on surgical vs nonsurgical management (0% with nonoperative treatment vs 20% after exploratory laparotomy).
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to identify the causes of bowel obstructions in patients with a history of gastric cancer, and this method is useful for planning the surgical management of these patients.
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography; Small bowel obstructions; Gastric cancer; Clinical treatment strategy
AIM: To investigate the effect of being overweight on the surgical results of patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: Comprehensive electronic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were conducted. Studies were identified that included patients with surgical complications from gastric cancer who were classified as normal weight [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2] or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The operative time, retrieved lymph nodes, blood loss, and long-term survival were analyzed. A subgroup analysis was conducted based on whether patients received laparoscopic or open gastrectomy procedures. All statistical tests were performed using ReviewerManager 5.1.2 software.
RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 23 studies with 20678 patients (15781 with BMI < 25 kg/m2; 4897 with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Overweight patients had significantly increased operation times [MD: -29.14; 95%CI: -38.14-(-20.21); P < 0.00001], blood loss [MD: -194.58; 95%CI: -314.21-(-74.95); P = 0.001], complications (RR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.66-0.85; P < 0.00001), anastomosis leakages (RR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.42-0.82; P = 0.002), and pancreatic fistulas (RR: 0.486; 95%CI: 0.34-0.63; P < 0.00001), whereas lymph node retrieval was decreased significantly in the overweight group (MD: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.75-2.62; P < 0.0001). In addition, overweight patients had poorer long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.07-1.20; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was detected for the mortality and length of hospital stay.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that a high BMI not only increases the surgical difficulty and complications but also impairs the long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer.
Overweight; Body mass index; Gastric cancer; Gastrectomy
Patient-derived tumor xenograft models have been established and increasingly used for preclinical studies of targeted therapies in recent years. However, patient-derived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft mouse models are relatively few in number and are limited in their degree of genetic characterization and validation. In this study, we aimed to establish a variety of patient-derived NSCLC models and characterize these for common genetic aberrations to provide more informative models for preclinical drug efficacy testing.
NSCLC tissues from thirty-one patients were collected and implanted into immunodeficient mice. Established xenograft models were characterized for common genetic aberrations, including detection of gene mutations within EGFR and KRAS, and genetic amplification of FGFR1 and cMET. Finally, gefitinib anti-tumor efficacy was tested in these patient-derived NSCLC xenograft models.
Ten passable patient-derived NSCLC xenograft models were established by implantation of NSCLC specimens of thirty-one patients into immunodeficient mice. Genetic aberrations were detected in six of the models, including one model with an EGFR activating mutation (Exon19 Del), one model with KRAS mutation, one model with both KRAS mutation and cMET gene amplification, and three models with FGFR1 amplification. Anti-tumor efficacy studies using gefitinib demonstrated that the EGFR activating mutation model had superior sensitivity and that the KRAS mutation models were resistant to gefitinib. The range of gefitinib responses in the patient-derived NSCLC xenograft models were consistent with the results reported from clinical trials. Furthermore, we observed that patient-derived NSCLC models with FGFR1 gene amplification were insensitive to gefitinib treatment.
Ten patient-derived NSCLC xenograft models were established containing a variety of genetic aberrations including EGFR activating mutation, KRAS mutation, and FGFR1 and cMET amplification. Gefitinib anti-tumor efficacy in these patient-derived NSCLC xenografts containing EGFR and KRAS mutation was consistent with the reported results from previous clinical trials. Thus, data from our panel of patient-derived NSCLC xenograft models confirms the utility of these models in furthering our understanding of this disease and aiding the development of personalized therapies for NSCLC patients.
NSCLC; Patient-derived NSCLC xenograft; EGFR/KRAS mutations; FGFR1 amplification
The first step in bacteriophage infection is recognition and binding to the host receptor, which is mediated by the phage receptor binding protein (RBP). Different RBPs can lead to differential host specificity. In many bacteriophages, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcal phages, RBPs have been identified as the tail fiber or protruding baseplate proteins. However, the tail fiber-dependent host specificity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages has not been well studied. This study aimed to identify and investigate the binding specificity of the RBP of P. aeruginosa phages PaP1 and JG004. These two phages share high DNA sequence homology but exhibit different host specificities. A spontaneous mutant phage was isolated and exhibited broader host range compared with the parental phage JG004. Sequencing of its putative tail fiber and baseplate region indicated a single point mutation in ORF84 (a putative tail fiber gene), which resulted in the replacement of a positively charged lysine (K) by an uncharged asparagine (N). We further demonstrated that the replacement of the tail fiber gene (ORF69) of PaP1 with the corresponding gene from phage JG004 resulted in a recombinant phage that displayed altered host specificity. Our study revealed the tail fiber-dependent host specificity in P. aeruginosa phages and provided an effective tool for its alteration. These contributions may have potential value in phage therapy.
Evidences suggest that β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) plays an important role in heart failure (HF), although no data is reported indicating how these effects may change with the increasing age. Pulmonary congestion and edema are the major life-threatening complications associated with HF. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the anti-β3-AR autoantibody and the expression of β3-AR in the lungs and heart for both aged patients and rats with HF.
Synthetic β3-AR peptides served as the target antigens in ELISA were used to screen the anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats. Two aged rat models were constructed based on aortic banding and sham-operation. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in the lung and heart was measured in intervention and non-intervention groups by Western blot analysis at the baseline, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th week, respectively.
The frequency and titer of anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats with HF were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually from the 7th week (p<0.05), followed by HF observed during the 9th week. The expression of β3-AR in myocardial tissues continued to increase after the 9th week (p<0.05), and the expression of both β3-AR mRNA and protein in the BRL group [HF group with BRL37344 (4-[-[2-hydroxy-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl-amino] phenoxyacetic acid) (a β3-AR agonist) injection] was positively correlated with BRL37344 when compared with non-BRL group (HF group without BRL37344 injection) (p<0.05).
Anti-β3-AR autoantibody was detected in aged patients and rats with HF. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually, and began earlier than in the heart, but its expression in myocardial tissues increased continually and could be further promoted by β3-AR agonist.
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) is extensively applied in clinical practice. However, in animal experiments, the application of clinical PET is difficult, due to limitations in sensitivity and spatial resolution. This study aimed to determine the potential of 18F-FDG PET with regard to the imaging of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) xenografts. Twenty-seven LSCC tumor-bearing nude mice were divided randomly into seven groups which were each handled differently; the anesthetization, fasting, warming and the time point at which scanning was initiated were varied. The size of each xenograft was measured prior to conducting the scan. Using the RAMLA 3D image reconstruction method, images were acquired. The region of interest (ROI) technology was adopted to calculate target and non-target (T/N) ratios. The results were subsequently analyzed by semiquantitative analysis. The analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between tumor size and PET image quality (r=0.381, P>0.05); however, the handling conditions of the mice had a greater influence on the tumor image quality. Fasting increased 18F-FDG uptake (T/N, 1.153±0.008) to a certain degree, although the effect was unstable. By contrast, combining warming and fasting increased 18F-FDG uptake significantly (T/N, 2.0±0.29; P<0.05). The acquisition time had no impact on the tumor image quality. The study demonstrated that the application of clinical PET scanning has potential in the study of human LSCC xenografts in nude mice, and that the quality of the image of the tumor is greatly influenced by the handling conditions of the animals.
laryngeal carcinoma; positron emission tomography; nude mice; xenograft; animal handling
Several members of the let-7 microRNA family are downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. They are thought to act as tumor suppressors by lowering growth-promoting and anti-apoptotic proteins. In order to measure cellular let-7 levels systematically, we have developed a highly sensitive let-7 reporter assay system based on the expression of a chimeric mRNA that contains the luciferase coding region and a 3′-untranslated region (UTR) bearing two let-7-binding sites. In cells expressing the reporter construct, termed pmirGLO-let7, luciferase activity was high when let-7 was absent, while luciferase activity was low when let-7 levels were elevated. The ovarian cancer cell lines BG-1 and UCI-101 were transfected with the let-7 reporter and surveyed with a library of kinase inhibitors in order to identify pathways affecting let-7 activity. Among the inhibitors causing changes in endogenous let-7 abundance, the lowering of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)β function specifically increased let-7 levels and lowered luciferase activity. Similarly, silencing GSK-3β increased both mature and primary-let-7 levels in BG-1 cells, and decreased BG-1 cell survival. Further studies identified p53 as a downstream effector of the GSK-3β-mediated repression of let-7 biosynthesis. Our studies highlight GSK-3β as a novel therapeutic target in ovarian tumorigenesis.
Rhamnolipids have multiple potential applications as “green” surfactants for industry, remediation, and medicine. As a result, they have been intensively investigated to add to our understanding of their biosynthesis and improve yields. Several studies have noted that the addition of a fatty acid cosubstrate increases rhamnolipid yields, but a metabolic explanation has not been offered, partly because biosynthesis studies to date have used sugar or sugar derivatives as the carbon source. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of fatty acid cosubstrates in improving rhamnolipid biosynthesis. A combination of stable isotope tracing and gene expression assays was used to identify lipid precursors and potential lipid metabolic pathways used in rhamnolipid synthesis when fatty acid cosubstrates are present. To this end, we compared the rhamnolipids produced and their yields using either glucose alone or glucose and octadecanoic acid-d35 as cosubstrates. Using a combination of sugar and fatty acids, the rhamnolipid yield was significantly higher (i.e., doubled) than when glucose was used alone. Two patterns of deuterium incorporation (either 1 or 15 deuterium atoms) in a single Rha-C10 lipid chain were observed for octadecanoic acid-d35 treatment, indicating that in the presence of a fatty acid cosubstrate, both de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation are used to provide lipid precursors for rhamnolipids. Gene expression assays showed a 200- to 600-fold increase in the expression of rhlA and rhlB rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes and a more modest increase of 3- to 4-fold of the fadA β-oxidation pathway gene when octadecanoic acid was present. Taken together, these results suggest that the simultaneous use of de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation pathways allows for higher production of lipid precursors, resulting in increased rhamnolipid yields.
Host immune peptides, including cathelicidins, have been reported to possess anticancer properties. We previously reported that LL-37, the only cathelicidin in humans, suppresses the development of colon cancer. In this study, the potential anticancer effect of FK-16, a fragment of LL-37 corresponding to residues 17 to 32, on cultured colon cancer cells was evaluated. FK-16 induced a unique pattern of cell death, marked by concurrent activation of caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy. The former was mediated by the nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG whereas the latter was characterized by enhanced expression of LC3-I/II, Atg5 and Atg7 and increased formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes. Knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7 attenuated the cytotoxicity of FK-16, indicating FK-16-induced autophagy was pro-death in nature. Mechanistically, FK-16 activated nuclear p53 to upregulate Bax and downregulate Bcl-2. Knockdown of p53, genetic ablation of Bax, or overexpression of Bcl-2 reversed FK-16-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, abolition of AIF/EndoG-dependent apoptosis enhanced FK-16-induced autophagy while abolition of autophagy augmented FK-16-induced AIF−/EndoG-dependent apoptosis. Collectively, FK-16 induces caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy through the common p53-Bcl-2/Bax cascade in colon cancer cells. Our study also uncovered previously unknown reciprocal regulation between these two cell death pathways.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate guides the elongation of megakaryocytic proplatelet extensions and triggers their shedding.
Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here that the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) serves as a critical directional cue guiding the elongation of megakaryocytic PP extensions from the interstitium into BM sinusoids and triggering the subsequent shedding of PPs into the blood. Correspondingly, mice lacking the S1P receptor S1pr1 develop severe thrombocytopenia caused by both formation of aberrant extravascular PPs and defective intravascular PP shedding. In contrast, activation of S1pr1 signaling leads to the prompt release of new platelets into the circulating blood. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel function of the S1P–S1pr1 axis as master regulator of efficient thrombopoiesis and might raise new therapeutic options for patients with thrombocytopenia.
Aberrant Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is one of the most prevalent oncogenic alterations and confers survival advantage to tumor cells. Inhibition of this pathway can effectively suppress tumor cell growth. For example, sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting c-Raf and other oncogenic kinases, has been used clinically for treating advanced liver and kidney tumors, and also has shown efficacy against other malignancies. However, how inhibition of oncogenic signaling by sorafenib and other drugs suppresses tumor cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we found that sorafenib kills cancer cells by activating PUMA, a p53 target and a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein. Sorafenib treatment induces PUMA in a variety of cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status. Surprisingly, the induction of PUMA by sorafenib is mediated by IκB-independent activation of NF-κB, which directly binds to the PUMA promoter to activate its transcription. NF-κB activation by sorafenib requires GSK3β activation, subsequent to ERK inhibition. Deficiency in PUMA abrogates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and caspase activation, and renders sorafenib resistance in colony formation and xenograft tumor assays. Furthermore, the chemosensitization effect of sorafenib is dependent on PUMA, and involves concurrent PUMA induction through different pathways. BH3 mimetics potentiate the anticancer effects of sorafenib, and restore sorafenib sensitivity in resistant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a key role of PUMA-dependent apoptosis in therapeutic inhibition of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. They provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve sensitivity and overcome resistance to the therapies that target oncogenic kinase signaling.
sorafenib; PUMA; apoptosis; NF-κB; GSK3β; colon cancer
We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68–70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138–140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The physical properties of the machining-induced new surface depend on the performance of the initial defect surface and deformed layer in the subsurface of the bulk material. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation are preformed on the single-point diamond turning surface of single-crystal copper comparing with that of pristine single-crystal face-centered cubic copper. The simulation results indicate that the nucleation of dislocations in the nanoindentation test on the machining-induced surface and pristine single-crystal copper is different. The dislocation embryos are gradually developed from the sites of homogeneous random nucleation around the indenter in the pristine single-crystal specimen, while the dislocation embryos derived from the vacancy-related defects are distributed in the damage layer of the subsurface beneath the machining-induced surface. The results show that the hardness of the machining-induced surface is softer than that of pristine single-crystal copper. Then, the nanocutting simulations are performed along different crystal orientations on the same crystal surface. It is shown that the crystal orientation directly influences the dislocation formation and distribution of the machining-induced surface. The crystal orientation of nanocutting is further verified to affect both residual defect generations and their propagation directions which are important in assessing the change of mechanical properties, such as hardness and Young's modulus, after nanocutting process.
Machining-induced surface; Nanoindentation; Nucleation of dislocations; Molecular dynamics simulation