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1.  Displacive-type ferroelectricity from magnetic correlations within spin-chain 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5636.
Observation of ferroelectricity among non-d0 systems, which was believed for a long time an unrealistic concept, led to various proposals for the mechanisms to explain the same (i.e. magnetically induced ferroelectricity) during last decade. Here, we provide support for ferroelectricity of a displacive-type possibly involving magnetic ions due to short-range magnetic correlations within a spin-chain, through the demonstration of magnetoelectric coupling in a Haldane spin-chain compound Er2BaNiO5 well above its Néel temperature of (TN = ) 32 K. There is a distinct evidence for electric polarization setting in near 60 K around which there is an evidence for short-range magnetic correlations from other experimental methods. Raman studies also establish a softening of phonon modes in the same temperature (T) range and T-dependent x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns also reveal lattice parameters anomalies. Density-functional theory based calculations establish a displacive component (similar to d0-ness) as the root-cause of ferroelectricity from (magnetic) NiO6 chain, thereby offering a new route to search for similar materials near room temperature to enable applications.
PMCID: PMC4088096  PMID: 25005869
2.  Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and their haplotypes modulate the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients 
Molecular Vision  2014;20:704-713.
Persistent inflammation and impaired neovascularization in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients may lead to development of macro- and microvascular complications. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the secondary microvascular complications of T2DM. Improper activation of the innate immune system may be an important contributor in the pathophysiology of DR. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of innate immunity, and genetic alterations in TLR4 support inflammation in the hyperglycemic condition. The present work was designed to investigate whether the TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790, rs4986791, rs10759931, rs1927911, and rs1927914 are associated with DR in a north Indian population.
The study group of 698 individuals (128 DR, 250 T2DM, 320 controls) was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs were determined using Haploview software.
Combined risk genotypes of TLR4 SNPs rs10759931 (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, p = 0.05) and rs1927914 (OR 1.48, p = 0.05) were found to be significantly associated with pathogenesis of DR. A total of 14 haplotypes with frequency >1% were obtained using Haploview software. Haplotypes ACATC (37.5%) and ACATT (14.8%) were the two most common haplotypes obtained.
Results of the present case-control study that included 698 north Indian subjects suggested that TLR4 SNPs rs10759931 and rs1927914 modulate the risk of DR in T2DM cases. Association analysis using haplotypes showed none of the haplotypes were associated with either susceptibility or resistance to DR in a north Indian population.
PMCID: PMC4037533  PMID: 24883015
3.  Novel dielectric anomalies due to spin-chains above and below Néel temperature in Ca3Co2O6 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:3104.
We bring out novel dielectric behavior of a spin-chain compound, Ca3Co2O6, undergoing Néel order at (TN = ) 24 K. It is found that the virgin curve in the plot of isothermal dielectric constant (ε') versus magnetic-field lies outside the ‘butterfly-shaped’ envelope curve well below TN (e.g., 2.6 K), with a signature of a partial arrest of the high-field magnetoelectric (ME) phase in zero-field after travelling through magnetic-field-induced magnetic transitions. This behavior is in contrast to that observed in the isothermal magnetization data. Thus, this work brings out a novel case for ‘phase-coexistence phenomenon’ due to ME coupling. Another strange finding is that there is a weak, but a broad, peak in ε' around 85–115 K well above TN, attributable to incipient spin-chain magnetic ordering. This finding should inspire further work to study ME coupling on artificial assemblies of magnetic chains, also keeping in mind miniaturization required for possible applications.
PMCID: PMC3813931  PMID: 24173211
4.  Association of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Polymorphisms with Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Application of Artificial Neural Network in DFU Risk Assessment in Type 2 Diabetes Patients 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:318686.
The Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in immunity, tissue repair, and regeneration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the association of TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536858 (merged into rs10759931), rs1927911, and rs1927914 with increased diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping TLR4 SNPs in 125 T2DM patients with DFU and 130 controls. The haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs were determined using Haploview software. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was done to observe their predictability for the risk of DFU in T2DM patients. Risk genotypes of all SNPs except rs1927914 were significantly associated with DFU. Haplotype ACATC (P value = 9.3E − 5) showed strong association with DFU risk. Two haplotypes ATATC (P value = 0.0119) and ATGTT (P value = 0.0087) were found to be protective against DFU. In conclusion TLR4 SNPs and their haplotypes may increase the risk of impairment of wound healing in T2DM patients. ANN model (83%) is found to be better than the MLR model (76%) and can be used as a tool for the DFU risk assessment in T2DM patients.
PMCID: PMC3725976  PMID: 23936790
5.  Association of the IL1RN Gene VNTR Polymorphism with Human Male Infertility 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51899.
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a regulatory cytokine that plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune environment of the testis, regulation of junction dynamics and cell differentiation during spermatogenesis. Members of the IL-1 family are pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in inflammation, immunoregulation and other homeostatic functions in the body. IL-1α, IL-1β, and the IL-1 receptor antagonistic molecule (IL-1 Ra) are expressed in the testis under normal homeostasis and they further increase upon infection/inflammation. In the present study we have examined the association of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) with human male infertility. The case-control study comprised of two groups: 331 idiopathic infertile patients and 358 fertile healthy men. The study indicates risk of IL1RN2 variant with male infertility (OR: 1.43, CI: 1.1546 to 1.7804, P = 0.001). To our best knowledge, this is the first report that links IL1RN VNTR polymorphism with human male infertility.
PMCID: PMC3522614  PMID: 23251650
6.  Spectroscopic, Thermal, and Antimicrobial Studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) Complexes Derived from Bidentate Ligands Containing N and S Donor Atoms 
Two new heterocyclic Schiff bases of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-H/propyl-1,2,4-triazole and 5-nitrofurfuraldehyde [HL1-2] and their cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, Fluorescence, and ESR) studies, thermal techniques, and magnetic moment measurements. The heterocyclic Schiff bases act as bidentate ligands and coordinate with metal ions through nitrogen and sulphur of the thiol group. The low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the metal complexes are nonelectrolytes. The magnetic moments and electronic spectral data suggest octahedral geometry for the Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes and square planar for Cu(II) complexes. Two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121), two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 1652 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741), and one yeast, Candida albicans, were used for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized compounds.
PMCID: PMC3512225  PMID: 23226991
7.  Study of human allergic milk whey protein from different mammalian species using computational method 
Bioinformation  2012;8(21):1035-1041.
Nowadays, safety and quality assessment of food used for human consumption have to consider by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. Milk is an important food with many nutrients. Cow milk is an important source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for the growing child as well as adults. But, numerous cow milk proteins have been implicated in allergic responses and most of these have been shown to contain multiple allergic epitopes. The present study disclosed best alternatives to cow milk, which are not allergic and as good as cow milk in nutritional value. The in silico analysis of casein (alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa) and beta-lactoglobulin, unveils that sheep milk is a more suitable alternate to cow milk for allergic infants and buffalo milk for allergic adult humans.
PMCID: PMC3524881  PMID: 23275703
Casein; Beta-lactoglobulin; Multiple Sequence Alignment; Neighbour joining method
8.  Metal-Based Biologically Active Compounds: Synthesis, Spectral, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes of Triazole-Derived Schiff Bases 
A series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was supported by infrared and thermal gravimetric studies. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus). The metal complexes exhibited significantly enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to their simple Schiff bases.
PMCID: PMC3246298  PMID: 22216017
9.  Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Isolated from Different Varieties of Soybean with 16SrDNA RFLP from Agricultural Land of Madhya Pradesh, India 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2011;50(4):404-411.
Madhya Pradesh is the major soybean contributor in India. The taxonomy of nitrogen fixing bacteria forming symbiotic associations with leguminous plants has been deeply changed in recent years. The use of very sensitive and accurate molecular methods has enabled the detection of large rhizobial diversity. Molecular biotyping and characterization the Bradyrhizobium, isolates from eleven varieties of soybean from agricultural field of Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh is done using 16S rDNA typing. Bradyrhizobia were identified genetically by determining the %Guanine plus Cytosine content of the whole genome, followed by 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis % Guanine plus Cytosine content of all the Bradyrhizobium isolates reflects similarity at generic level among all Bradyrhizobial isolates. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) further showed a considerable level of genetic diversity among the Bradyrhizobial isolates. PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA supported existence of two divergent groups among indigenous Bradyrhizobial isolates, at similarity level of 66, and 75 and 74% of similarity within the group. The technique used was helpful in characterizing Bradyrhizobium isolates to be used as inoculants for improving productivity of agricultural land of Madhya Pradesh (India).
PMCID: PMC3209834  PMID: 22282607
% Guanine plus Cytosine content (% G + C); 16S rDNA; Bradyrhizobium sp; DNA fingerprinting; Genetic diversity; Soybean
10.  Biological and Spectral Studies of Newly Synthesized Triazole Schiff Bases and Their Si(IV), Sn(IV) Complexes 
The Schiff bases HL1-3 have been prepared by the reaction of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/propyl/isopropyl-s-triazole, respectively. Organosilicon(IV) and organotin(IV) complexes of formulae (CH3)2MCl(L1-3), (CH3)2M(L1-3)2 were synthesized from the reaction of (CH3)2MCl2 and the Schiff bases in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 molar ratio, where M = Si and Sn. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been characterized with the aid of various physicochemical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 29Si, and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. Based on these studies, the trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral geometries have been proposed for these complexes. The ligands and their metal complexes have been screened in vitro against some bacteria and fungi.
PMCID: PMC3150780  PMID: 21826133
11.  A386G polymorphism of the DAZL gene is not associated with idiopathic male infertility in North India 
Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder which affects approximately 10% of couples at childbearing age with substantial clinical and social impact. Genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to susceptibility to spermatogenic impairment in humans. The A386G (T54A) polymorphism of the autosomal gene, DAZL, has shown susceptibility to spermatogenic failure in Taiwanese population. However, no such association has been seen in infertile patients from Italy and South India.
This study aims to find out the possible association between A386G (T54A) polymorphism of the autosomal gene, DAZL and idiopathic male infertility in patients from North India.Case-control study.
Case-control study.
The prevalence of A386G (T54A) polymorphism was determined in 165 idiopathic infertile azoo-/oligospermic patients and 200 fertile healthy control men. PCR-RFLP analysis was employed to determine the genotypes. PCR amplicons were subjected to restriction digestion with AluI, as this mutation created a restriction site (AGCT), and separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel.
Analysis of 165 idiopathic infertile azoo-/oligospermic and 200 fertile control men revealed only one case of the variant as a heterozygote in the control population. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) was absent in the infertile patients.
As in the report from Italy and South India, our results illustrate the rarity of this mutation. Apparently, this mutation is of recent origin and/or has poor selective value. Its preponderance in infertile patients from Taiwan (all heterozygotes) suggests a founder effect and also that its low selective value could be due to impaired spermatogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2800927  PMID: 19881148
A386G polymorphism; azoospermia; DAZL gene; infertility; Y-chromosome microdeletion
12.  Y-haplotypes and idiopathic male infertility in an Indian population 
Infertility being a multifactorial disorder, both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of infertile phenotype. Chromosomal anomalies and Y-microdeletion are the established genetic risk factors of male infertility. Y-haplotypes has been found as risk factor for male infertility in certain populations, though in certain others no association has been reported, suggesting a population-specific association of these variations with male infertility. In a case-control study, 165 azoo-/oligospermic patients and 200 controls were haplotyped for certain Y-haplogroups for a possible association with idiopathic male infertility in an Indian population. Analysed Y-haplogroups showed no association with infertile phenotype. Thus this genetic factor is not a risk for infertility in the studied Indian population but that does not rule out the possibility of any of them, to be a risk in other populations.
PMCID: PMC2846564  PMID: 20407645
Male infertility; single nucleotide polymorphism; Y-haplotypes
13.  Positive and negative affect and oral health-related quality of life 
The aims of the study were to assess the impact of both positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) on self-reported oral health-related quality of life and to determine the effect of including affectivity on the relationship between oral health-related quality of life and a set of explanatory variables consisting of oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visiting pattern.
A random sample of 45–54 year-olds from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia was surveyed by mailed self-complete questionnaire during 2004–05 with up to four follow-up mailings of the questionnaire to non-respondents (n = 986 responded, response rate = 44.4%). Oral health-related quality of life was measured using OHIP-14 and affectivity using the Bradburn scale. Using OHIP-14 and subscales as the dependent variables, regression models were constructed first using oral health status, socio-economic characteristics and dental visit pattern and then adding PA and NA as independent variables, with nested models tested for change in R-squared values.
PA and NA exhibited a negative correlation of -0.49 (P < 0.01). NA accounted for a larger percentage of variance in OHIP-14 scores (3.0% to 7.3%) than PA (1.4% to 4.6%). In models that included both PA and NA, PA accounted for 0.2% to 1.1% of variance in OHIP-14 scores compared to 1.8% to 3.9% for NA.
PA and NA both accounted for additional variance in quality of life scores, but did not substantially diminish the effect of established explanatory variables such as oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visit patterns.
PMCID: PMC1626449  PMID: 17052358
14.  Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp. 
Mycobiology  2005;33(1):35-40.
Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe3+ EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability.
PMCID: PMC3774855  PMID: 24049472
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri; Fusarium wilt; Pseudobactin; Pseudomonas spp.; Salicylic acid
15.  Practice activity trends among oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia 
The aim of this study was to describe practice activity trends among oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia over time.
All registered oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia were surveyed in 1990 and 2000 using mailed self-complete questionnaires.
Data were available from 79 surgeons from 1990 (response rate = 73.8%) and 116 surgeons from 2000 (response rate = 65.1%). The rate of provision of services per visit changed over time with increased rates observed overall (from 1.43 ± 0.05 services per visit in 1990 to 1.66 ± 0.06 services per visit in 2000), reflecting increases in pathology and reconstructive surgery. No change over time was observed in the provision of services per year (4,521 ± 286 services per year in 1990 and 4,503 ± 367 services per year in 2000). Time devoted to work showed no significant change over time (1,682 ± 75 hours per year in 1990 and 1,681 ± 94 hours per year in 2000), while the number of visits per week declined (70 ± 4 visits per week in 1990 to 58 ± 4 visits per week in 2000).
The apparent stability in the volume of services provided per year reflected a counterbalancing of increased services provided per visit and a decrease in the number of visits supplied.
PMCID: PMC544360  PMID: 15613233

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