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1.  Self-Medication Practice and Perceptions Among Undergraduate Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Background: Self-medication practice is widespread in many countries and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern.It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are exposed to knowledge about diseases and drugs.
Aim: To assess practice and perception of self medication among undergraduate medical students.
Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study in which study population consisted of undergraduate medical students of Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College Gulbarga, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted from March to April 2014. Total 448 students were taken. Out of which 8 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 440 were analysed. The students who took self-medication during last six months were included. Written informed consent was obtained from each volunteer prior to the study. Students were given a questionnaire that include both open and close ended questions about self-medication practice.
Ethical Approval: Ethics Committee approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga, India, prior to the commencement of the study.
Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed and presented as counts and percentages.
Results: It was found that 388 (88.18%) students practiced self medication. The principal morbidity for seeking self medication was cold and cough as reported by 304 (78.35%) students. Antibiotics were most commonly self medicated as reported by 248 (63.91%) students, out of which only 92 (37.1%) students completed the full course of antibiotic regimen. Only 176 (40%) students opined that self medication is part of self care.
Conclusion: Self-medication is widely practiced among undergraduate medical students. In this situation, we should educate the students about advantages and disadvantages of self medication.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10579.5313
PMCID: PMC4316275  PMID: 25653969
Antibiotics; Generic drugs; Over the Counter; Questionnaire
2.  Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study 
Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored.
Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing.
Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.
Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The study results suggested that among the patients with periodontal disease, serum VB12 levels are directly related while serum FA levels are inversely related to inflammation and tissue destruction in periodontium as occurred in Group IV.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10575.5356
PMCID: PMC4316346  PMID: 25654040
Chronic periodontitis; Folic acid; Gutkha; Smoking; Vitamin B12
3.  Saliva as a surrogate to explore the association between lipid profiles and chronic periodontitis: A case-control study 
Dental Research Journal  2014;11(6):619-623.
Background:
There is abundance of literature delving into whether periodontal infection contributes to changes in serum lipid profiles. Whole saliva is an important physiologic fluid that contains a highly complex mixture of substances. Research on salivary lipid profiles and chronic periodontitis remains unexplored and limited. This study was designed with an aim to investigate the association between the chronic periodontitis and salivary lipid levels and to make use of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic aid.
Materials and Methods:
This case-control study included 60 subjects of which, 40 were diagnosed as having chronic periodontitis based on the probing depth and clinical attachment levels and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Whole saliva was collected and lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein [LDL] and high density lipoprotein [HDL]) were assessed by enzymatic methods and the values were read in ultraviolet-Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed using student's t test for equality of means. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results:
The mean difference in the concentrations of TC and TG in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients were statistically significant (P = 0.02) when compared to the healthy. HDL and LDL concentrations were not statistically significant, but there was a difference in their means. LDL was higher in chronic periodontitis and HDL mean levels were high among the healthy.
Conclusion:
Increased salivary lipids in chronic periodontitis patients suggest an association between hyperlipidemia and periodontitis. The relatively easy and non-invasive nature of saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the lipid status. Further research is needed to determine its specificity as a surrogate to serum lipid profiles.
PMCID: PMC4275628  PMID: 25540654
Chronic periodontitis; hyperlipidemia; lipids; saliva
4.  Growth Kinetics and Mechanistic Action of Reactive Oxygen Species Released by Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger on Escherichia coli 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:753419.
Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), the real silver bullet, are known to have good antibacterial properties against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study AgNPs were prepared from extracellular filtrate of Aspergillus niger. Characterization of AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrum reveals specific surface plasmon resonance at peak 416 nm; TEM photographs revealed the size of the AgNPs to be 20–55 nm. Average diameter of the produced AgNPs was found to be 73 nm with a zeta potential that was −24 mV using Malvern Zetasizer. SEM micrographs showed AgNPs to be spherical with smooth morphology. EDS revealed the presence of pure metallic AgNPs along with carbon and oxygen signatures. Of the different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL) used 10 μg/mL were sufficient to inhibit 107 CFU/mL of E. coli. ROS production was measured using DCFH-DA method and the the free radical generation effect of AgNPs on bacterial growth inhibition was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. This paper not only deals with the damage inflicted on microorganisms by AgNPs but also induces cell death through the production of ROS released by AgNPs and also growth kinetics of E. coli supplemented with AgNPs produced by A. niger.
doi:10.1155/2014/753419
PMCID: PMC4083831  PMID: 25028666
5.  5′-([1,1′-Biphen­yl]-4-yl)-1′,1′′,3′′-tri­methyl­dispiro[indane-2,2′-pyrrolidine-4′,5′′-[1,3]diazin­ane]-1,3,2′′,4′′,6′′-penta­one 
In the title compound, C30H25N3O5, the central five-membered heterocyclic ring adopts an envelope conformation, with the N atom as the flap. The dihedral angles between this central ring and the pendant indane ring system, the trione and benzene rings are 87.49 (5), 82.95 (10) and 72.42 (10)°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the rings of the biphenyl group is 45.99 (13)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into [101] C(12) chains.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814013117
PMCID: PMC4120593  PMID: 25161552
6.  DNA Cleavage, Cytotoxic Activities, and Antimicrobial Studies of Ternary Copper(II) Complexes of Isoxazole Schiff Base and Heterocyclic Compounds 
Novel mixed ligand bivalent copper complexes [Cu. L. A. ClO4] and [Cu. L. A] where “L” is Schiff bases, namely 2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol (DMIIMBP)/2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-chlorophenol (DMIIMCP), and “A” is heterocyclic compound, such as 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)/2,21-bipyridyl (bipy)/8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine)/5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (5-Cl-oxine), have been synthesized. These complexes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis, ESR, elemental analysis, magnetic moments, TG, and DTA. On the basis of spectral studies and analytical data, five-coordinated square pyramidal/four-coordinated square planar geometry is assigned to all complexes. The ligands and their ternary complexes with Cu(II) have been screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi by paper disc method. The antimicrobial studies of Schiff bases and their metal complexes showed significant activity and further it is observed that the metal complexes showed more activity than corresponding Schiff bases. In vitro antitumor activity of Cu(II) complexes was assayed against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cancer cells and it was observed that few complexes exhibit good antitumor activity on HeLa cell lines. The DNA cleavage studies have also been carried out on pBR 322 and it is observed that these Cu(II) complexes are capable of cleaving supercoiled plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 and UV light.
doi:10.1155/2014/691260
PMCID: PMC4034397  PMID: 24895493
7.  Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2014;5(2):182-186.
Background:
Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN) has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP.
Aims and Objectives:
The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects.
Materials and Methods:
Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30), CP (n = 30), smokers (n = 30), and gutka chewers (n = 30) with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer.
Results:
Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone.
Conclusion:
The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.132312
PMCID: PMC4067780  PMID: 24963243
Chronic periodontitis; gutka chewers; salivary thiocyanate; smokers; ultraviolet-spectrophotometer
8.  Optimization and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle by Endophytic Fungi Penicillium sp. Isolated from Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and Application Studies against MDR E. coli and S. aureus 
Development of ecofriendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology because of its tremendous impetus in modulating metals into nanosize to their potential use for human benefits. In this study an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., isolated from healthy leaves of Curcuma longa (turmeric) was subjected to extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) and their activity against MDR E. coli and S. aureus. The biosynthesized AgNps optimization was studied and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then produced AgNps were tested against MDR E. coli and S. aureus. The endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. from healthy leaves of C. longa (turmeric) was found to be a good producer of AgNps. Parametric optimization showed maximum absorbance of 420–425 nm at pH-7, 25°C with 1 mM AgNO3 concentration and 15–20 g of wet biomass. Further TEM revealed the formation of spherical, well-dispersed nanoparticles with size ranging between 25 and 30 nm and FTIR shows the bands at 1644 and 1538 cm−1 corresponding to the binding vibrations of amide I and II bands of proteins, respectively. Antibacterial activity against MDR E. coli and S. aureus showed good results showing maximum zone of inhibition of 17 mm and 16 mm, respectively, at 80 µL of AgNps.
doi:10.1155/2014/408021
PMCID: PMC3930180  PMID: 24639625
9.  Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):205-211.
Background:
It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride.
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing.
Results:
Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months.
Conclusion:
Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131973
PMCID: PMC4078470  PMID: 24991068
Lemongrass essential oil gel; local drug delivery; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; periodontitis; phytoscience
10.  Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Periodontal Regeneration 
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search). All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.109175
PMCID: PMC3632019  PMID: 23626951
Bone; Bone morphogenetic proteins; Gene therapy; Osteogenic protein; Periodontal regeneration
11.  Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Activity of Mixed Ligand Complexes of Ni(II) with 1,10-Phenanthroline and Heterocyclic Schiff Bases 
Mixed ligand complexes of Ni(II) with 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-Phen) and Schiff bases L1(MIIMP); L2(CMIIMP); L3(EMIIMP); L4(MIIMNP); L5(MEMIIMP); L6(BMIIMP); L7(MMIIMP); L8(MIIBD) have been synthesized. These metal chelates have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass, UV-Vis, magnetic moments, and thermogravimetric (TG&DTA) analysis. Spectral data showed that the 1,10-phenanthroline act as neutral bidentate ligand coordinating to the metal ion through two nitrogen donor atoms and Schiff bases acts as monobasic bidentate coordinating through NO donor atoms. All Ni(II) complexes appear to have an octahedral geometry. The antimicrobial activity of mixed ligand complexes has been studied by screening against various microorganisms, it is observed that the activity enhances upon coordination. The DNA binding studies have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, and the experimental results indicate that these complexes bind to CT DNA with the intrinsic binding constant Kb = 2.5 ± 0.2 × 105 M−1. MTT is used to test the anticancer effect of the complexes with HL60 tumor cell. The inhibition ratio was accelerated by increasing the dosage, and it had significant positive correlation with the medication dosage.
doi:10.1155/2012/948534
PMCID: PMC3467759  PMID: 23082074
12.  Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42935.
Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042935
PMCID: PMC3423436  PMID: 22916184
13.  Triorchidism with Torsion 
Polyorchidism is a rare anomaly; triorchidism is the commonest type and is frequently associated with cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, and testicular torsion. It is also reported as an increased risk of testicular malignancy. We report a case of 72-year-old man with left supernumerary testes in the left hemiscrotum. He presented with pain in his left hemiscrotum of short duration. Physical examination revealed tender hemiscrotum. Both ultrasound and MRI examinations revealed polyorchidism. One of the testes in the left hemiscrotum revealed features of torsion and hemorrhagic necrosis. Polyorchidism is a rare entity. In most cases, sonography alone is diagnostic of polyorchidism. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide additional information in complicated cases of polyorchidism.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.105673
PMCID: PMC3573518  PMID: 23439922
Magnetic resonance imaging; Polyorchidism; Sonography; Torsion; Triorchidism
14.  Intratesticular Varicocele 
We report case of a 28-year-old male who had extratesticular varicocele which was associated with intratesticular varicocele. The patient was referred to our department with pain in scrotal region. Routine scrotal sonography revealed extratesticular varicocele which was confirmed by color Doppler. It was associated with intratesticular varicocele. Intratesticular varicocele is a rare condition with a variable sonographic appearance. Color Doppler sonography is helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Detection of intratesticular component is essential in the management of varicoceles.
doi:10.4103/1117-6806.103115
PMCID: PMC3761996  PMID: 24027402
Color Doppler; extratesticular; intratesticular; varicocele
15.  Female sex hormones and periodontal health-awareness among gynecologists – A questionnaire survey 
The Saudi Dental Journal  2012;24(2):99-104.
Sex hormones play an important role in periodontal health and disease. For example, puberty, menses, pregnancy, menopause, and oral contraceptive use influence a woman’s periodontal health. Periodontal infection has also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Subsequently, it is important that gynecologists are educated about hormonal effects on women’s oral health. The current study assessed gynecologist’s awareness regarding the effect of female sex hormones on periodontal health, preterm delivery, and maternal periodontal disease.
Methods
Gynecologists from the Bagalkot district of the Karnataka state, India, completed a questionnaire regarding female hormonal and periodontal health. Respondents were divided into two groups: Group A (doctors that practiced at a medical college or hospital) and Group B (doctors that practiced at private hospitals). Out of 73 gynecologists, 62 (85%) completed the survey, with 19 (30.6%) participants in Group A and 43 (69.4%) participants in Group B. Survey responses were collected in the presence of the investigator, and data between the groups were statistically compared.
Results
Our findings showed that most gynecologists were aware and concerned about female patient’s oral health during various hormonal phases. However, gynecologists practicing at medical colleges and hospitals (Group A) had significantly greater health awareness than doctors practicing at private hospitals (Group B).
Conclusion
Women have special periodontal health care considerations, and there is a need for better oral health education among caregivers. Our results suggest that increasing dental health awareness among gynecologists would significantly improve women’s health and pregnancy outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.sdentj.2011.12.001
PMCID: PMC3723266  PMID: 23960536
Periodontal health; Pregnancy; Periodontal disease; Preterm low birth weight; Gynecologist; Questionnaire
17.  Markers of renal function tests 
Background:
The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function). If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney.
Aim:
The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders.
Material & Methods:
An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases.
Results:
Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein.
Conclusion:
We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.
PMCID: PMC3354405  PMID: 22624135
Creatinine; creatinine clearance; urea; cystatin C; β-trace protein; inulin; iohexol; electrolyte
18.  Familial early onset of type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications 
Background:
Globally, the prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. Furthermore, approximately 197 million people worldwide have impaired glucose tolerance. Consequently, diabetes is rapidly emerging as a global health problem that threatens to assume a pandemic level by 2030. In Indian population, genetic predisposition to trigger diabetes at an early age as compared to western counterpart has been focused very much.
Aim:
To gain further insight into the positive correlation between the diabetes and family history was the objective of this study.
Materials and Methods:
Patients attending the Diabetes Centre, K.L.E.S Dr. Prabhakar. Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre; J. N. Medical College; KLE University Belgaum, Karnataka- India, were recruited, diagnosed and analyzed as per WHO criteria.
Results:
The prevalence of diabetes was higher among patients with diabetic mother (25.6%) compared to patients with diabetic father (21.2%) and there was early onset of type -2 diabetes among patients having both parents with diabetic when compared to other patients.
Conclusion:
Based on the present observation, it would be appropriate to emphasize again that a strong family history for diabetes, would signal at an early age, the onset of diabetes perhaps with its complications.
doi:10.4297/najms.2009.7377
PMCID: PMC3364686  PMID: 22666728
Family history; type-2 diabetes mellitus; retinopathy; nephropathy.
19.  A review on laboratory liver function tests  
Laboratory liver tests are broadly defined as tests useful in the evaluation and treatment of patients with hepatic dysfunction. The liver carries out metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. Some of the enzymes and the end products of the metabolic pathway which are very sensitive for the abnormality occurred may be considered as biochemical marker of liver dysfunction. Some of the biochemical markers such as serum bilirubin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, ratio of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, 5′ nucleotidase, ceruloplasmin, α-fetoprotein are considered in this article. An isolated or conjugated alteration of biochemical markers of liver damage in patients can challenge the clinicians during the diagnosis of disease related to liver directly or with some other organs. The term “liver chemistry tests” is a frequently used but poorly defined phrase that encompasses the numerous serum chemistries that can be assayed to assess hepatic function and/or injury.
PMCID: PMC2984286  PMID: 21532726
Laboratory liver test ;  bilirubin ;  alanine amino transferase ;  aspartate amino transferase ;  ratio of aminotransferases ;  alkaline phosphatase ;  gamma glutamyl transferase ;  5′ nucleotidase ;  ceruloplasmin ;  α-fetoprotein
20.  Binding, Electrochemical Activation and Cleavage of DNA by Cobalt(II)tetrakis-N-Methylpyridyl Porphyrin and its β-Pyrrole Brominated Derivative 
Bioconjugate chemistry  2006;17(6):1418-1425.
The binding of nucleic acids by water soluble cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methylpyridyl porphyrin, (TMPyP)Co and its highly electron deficient derivative, cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methyl pyridyl-β-octabromoporphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co was investigated by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism (CD), electrochemical and gel electrophoresis methods. The changes of the absorption spectra during the titration of these complexes with polynucleotides revealed a shift in the absorption maxima and a hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret bands. The intrinsic binding constants were found to be in the range of 105 – 106 M−1. These values were higher for more electron deficient (Br8TMPyP)Co. Induced CD bands were noticed in the Soret region of the complexes due to the interaction of these complexes with different polynucleotides and an analysis of the CD spectra supported mainly external mode of binding. Electrochemical studies revealed the cleavage of polynucleotide by (TMPyP)Co and (Br8TMPyP)Co in the presence of oxygen preferentially at the A-T base pair region. Gel electrophoresis experiments further supported the cleavage of nucleic acids. The results indicate that the β-pyrrole brominated porphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co binds strongly and cleaves nucleic acids efficiently as compared to (TMPyP)Co. This electrolytic procedure offers a unique tool in biotechnology for cleaving double-stranded DNA with specificity at the A-T regions.
doi:10.1021/bc060153x
PMCID: PMC2597228  PMID: 17105219

Results 1-20 (20)