The subjectivity of the West-Haven criteria (WHC) hinders hepatic encephalopathy (HE) evaluation. The new HE classification has emphasised assessment of orientation. The modified-orientation log (MO-log, eight questions, scores 0–24; 24 normal) is adapted from a validated brain injury measure.
To validate MO-log for HE assessment in cirrhosis.
Cirrhotics admitted with/without HE were administered MO-log. We collected cirrhosis/HE details, admission/daily MO-logs and WHC (performed by different examiners), time to reach normal mentation (MO-log ≥23) and MO-log/WHC change (Δ) over day 1. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, duration to normal mentation and length-of-stay (LOS). Regressions were performed for each outcome. MO-log inter-rater reliability was measured.
Ninety-six HE (55 ± 8 years, MELD 21) and 20 non-HE (54 ± 5 years, MELD 19) in-patients were included. In HE patients, median admission WHC was 3 (range 1–4). Mean MO-log was 12 ± 8 (range 0–22). Their LOS was 6 ± 5 days and 13% died. Time to reach normal mentation was 2.4 ± 1.7 days. Concurrent validity: there was a significant negative correlation between admission MO-log and WHC (r = −0.79, P < 0.0001). Discriminant validity: admission MO-logs were significantly lower in those who died (7 vs. 12, P = 0.03) and higher in those admitted without HE (23.6 vs. 12, P < 0.0001). MO-log improved in 69% on day 1 (ΔMO-log 4 ± 8) which was associated with lower duration to normal mentation (2 vs. 3.5 days, P = 0.03) and mortality (3% vs.43%, P < 0.0001), not ΔWHC. Regression models for all outcomes included admission/ΔMO-log but not WHC as a predictor. Inter-rater reliability: ICC for MO-log inter-rater observations was 0.991.
Modified-orientation log is a valid tool for assessing severity and is better than West-Haven criteria in predicting outcomes in hospitalised hepatic encephalopathy patients.
One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine, and healthy control (HC) subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward) vs. learning from negative feedback (punishment). Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject’s relative sensitivity to positive vs. negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and HC groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979) Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback) to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback). However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not “normal” when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the cognitive consequences of MDD from those of SSRI treatment, and from cognitive evaluation of MDD subjects in a medication-naïve state before the administration of antidepressants. Future research is needed to correlate the mood-elevating effects and the cognitive balance between reward- and punishment-based learning related to SSRIs.
major depressive disorder; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; basal ganglia; reward; punishment
Confirmative diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still a challenge at the primary health care facilities in most of the rural areas of endemicity in the Indian subcontinent. Conventional methods for parasitological confirmation are risky and require skilled personnel, and hence they are unavailable to the poor people in the regions of endemicity. Buffy coat smear microscopy, as a minimally invasive, simple alternative for the parasitological diagnosis of VL, was evaluated in this prospective study. One hundred twelve VL patients were enrolled in this study. The buffy coat was separated from peripheral blood of all enrolled subjects using Histopaque-1119 solution. Leishman-stained buffy coat smears were examined for Leishmania donovani bodies, and buffy coat was also utilized for detection of parasite DNA by Leishmania nested PCR (LnPCR) for all cases. Concomitant splenic smears could be examined for L. donovani bodies in 66 cases, and the parasite load was graded on a scale of 1+ to 6+ for L. donovani-positive smears. All splenic smear-positive cases were also found to be positive by LnPCR. Of 112 enrolled VL cases, 103 (92%) were found to be positive for L. donovani bodies in buffy coat smear microscopy, which is promising as a confirmative diagnosis tool. We have also found a significant association of the buffy coat smear positivity with parasitic burden in the spleen smear. In this preliminary observation in Bangladesh, buffy coat smear microscopy has been found to be very simple, minimally invasive, and risk-free method of parasitological diagnosis of VL with a good diagnostic accuracy and potential for field use.
Five new organotin(IV) complexes of 2-hydroxyacetophenone-2-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone [H2dampt, (1)] with formula [RSnCln-1(dampt)] (where R = Me, n = 2 (2); R = Bu, n = 2 (3); R = Ph, n = 2 (4); R = Me2, n = 1 (5); R = Ph2, n = 1 (6)) have been synthesized by direct reaction of H2dampt (1) with organotin(IV) chloride(s) in absolute methanol. The ligand (1) and its organotin(IV) complexes (2–6) were characterized by CHN analyses, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR spectral studies. H2dampt (1) is newly synthesized and has been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Spectroscopic data suggested that H2dampt (1) is coordinated to the tin(IV) atom through the thiolate-S, azomethine-N, and phenoxide-O atoms; the coordination number of tin is five. The in vitro antibacterial activity has been evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. The screening results have shown that the organotin(IV) complexes (2–6) have better antibacterial activities and have potential as drugs. Furthermore, it has been shown that diphenyltin(IV) derivative (6) exhibits significantly better activity than the other organotin(IV) derivatives (2–5).
The purpose of this study was to estimate the serum levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA in nephrotic syndrome (NS) cases, in activity or in remission, and to detect their levels in relation to steroid response by evelautingthe relationship between IgG/IgM ratio and response to steroids. We investigated 27 cases with NS in activity and in remission and 20 healthy children as controls. Group A included 16 NS patients (12.3±1.4 years) who were steroid-resistant, frequent relapsers, or steroid dependent. Group B included 11 steroid-sensitive NS patients with a mean age of 11.6±2.1 years. Group C included 20 healthy children with a mean age of 12.1±2.3 years who were the control group. We found lower serum IgG level in NS cases compared with the control group; and it was lower in activity than in remission. The levels were lower in Group A compared with those of Group B. Serum IgG levels in Group A were as follows: in activity, 2.29±1.13 g/L and in remission, 4.3±2 g/L. In Group B, they were 6.2±1.2 g/L and 6.5±1.15 g/L in activity and in remission, respectively, and 11.8±2.5 g/L in the healthy control group (P<0.05). There was a direct correlation between serum albumin and serum IgG. We found no significant difference in serum IgM and IgA levels among studied groups whether in activity or in remission. Serum IgG/IgM ratio was lower in activity and in remission in the patient groups than in the control group as it was 9.3±4.7 in healthy subjects. It was 1.8±1.5 in Group A in activity and 3.2±2 in remission, and in Group B 4.8±2.39 in activity and 4.8±2.4 in remission. We conclude that IgM and IgA show no significant difference in NS patients. Serum IgG is lower in NS than in the control group and is much lower in activity than in remission. It is lower in patients with poor steroid response. We propose a predictive value of IgG/IgM ratio in activity, that is, the higher the IgG/IgM ratio in activity, the better the prognosis.
Humoral immunity; nephrotic syndrome; steroids
Antimicrobial peptides represent an important component of the innate immune defenses of living organisms, including humans. They are broad-spectrum surface-acting agents secreted by the epithelial cells of the body in response to infection. Recently, L-isoleucine and its analogues have been found to induce antimicrobial peptides. The objectives of the study were to examine if addition of L-isoleucine to oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution would reduce stool output and/or duration of acute diarrhoea in children and induce antimicrobial peptides in intestine. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. Fifty male children, aged 6-36 months, with acute diarrhoea and some dehydration, attending the hospital, were included in the study. Twenty-five children received L-isoleucine (2 g/L)-added ORS (study), and 25 received ORS without L-isoleucine (control). Stool weight, ORS intake, and duration of diarrhoea were the primary outcomes. There was a trend in reduction in mean±standard deviation (SD) daily stool output (g) of children in the L-isoleucine group from day 2 but it was significant on day 3 (388±261 vs 653±446; the difference between mean [95% confidence interval (CI) (-)265 (−509, −20); p=0.035]. Although the cumulative stool output from day 1 to day 3 reduced by 26% in the isoleucine group, it was not significant. Also, there was a trend in reduction in the mean±SD intake of ORS solution (mL) in the L-isoleucine group but it was significant only on day 1 (410±169 vs 564±301), the difference between mean (95% CI) (-)154 (-288, −18); p=0.04. The duration (hours) of diarrhoea was similar in both the groups. A gradual increase in stool concentrations of ß-defensin 2 and 3 was noted but they were not significantly different between the groups. L-isoleucine-supplemented ORS might be beneficial in reducing stool output and ORS intake in children with acute watery diarrhoea. A further study is warranted to substantiate the therapeutic effect of L-isoleucine.
Dehydration; Diarrhoea, Acute; Diarrhoea, Infantile; Double-blind method; Oral rehydration solutions; Randomized controlled trials; Bangladesh
The 13 non-H atoms comprising the title compound, C9H10N2O2, are close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.140 Å), with maximum deviations of 0.292 (1) and 0.210 (1) Å to either side of the least-squares plane exhibited by the hydroxy and carbonyl O atoms, respectively. The observed conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The conformation about the N=C double bond [1.2909 (16) Å] is E. The hydroxy OH group also forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond to a carbonyl O atom, and the amine H atom similarly forms an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond to a second carbonyl O atom. The result is the formation of a double layer with a flat topology. Layers stack along the a-axis direction connected by C—H⋯π interactions.
Diarrheal illnesses remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with increasing recognition of long-term sequelae, including postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and growth faltering, as well as cognitive deficits in children. Identification of specific etiologic agents is often lacking. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) may contribute to the burden of colonic inflammatory diarrheal disease. The study goal was to investigate the pathogenesis of ETBF diarrheal illnesses.
We performed an observational study of children and adults with acute diarrheal illnesses in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2004 through November 2005, to define the clinical presentation, intestinal inflammatory responses, and systemic and intestinal antibody responses to ETBF. Other enteric pathogens were also evaluated.
ETBF was identified to cause a clinical syndrome with marked abdominal pain and nonfebrile inflammatory diarrhea in both children (age, >1 year) and adults. Fecal leukocytes, lactoferrin, and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor–α)—as well as B. fragilis toxin systemic antitoxin responses—increased rapidly in ETBF-infected patients. Evidence of intestinal inflammation often persisted for at least 3 weeks, despite antibiotic therapy.
ETBF infection is a newly recognized cause of inflammatory diarrhea in children and adults. Future studies are needed to evaluate the role of ETBF in persistent colonic inflammation and other morbid sequelae of acute diarrheal disease.
A chitinase producing bacterium Enterobacter sp. NRG4, previously isolated in our laboratory, has been reported to have a wide range of applications such as anti-fungal activity, generation of fungal protoplasts and production of chitobiose and N-acetyl D-glucosamine from swollen chitin. In this paper, the gene coding for Enterobacter chitinase has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The structural portion of the chitinase gene comprised of 1686 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of chitinase has high degree of homology (99.0%) with chitinase from Serratia marcescens. The recombinant chitinase was purified to near homogeneity using His-Tag affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant chitinase had a specific activity of 2041.6 U mg−1. It exhibited similar properties pH and temperature optima of 5.5 and 45°C respectively as that of native chitinase. Using swollen chitin as a substrate, the Km, kcat and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) values of recombinant chitinase were found to be 1.27 mg ml−1, 0.69 s−1 and 0.54 s−1M−1 respectively. Like native chitinase, the recombinant chitinase produced medicinally important N-acetyl D-glucosamine and chitobiose from swollen chitin and also inhibited the growth of many fungi.
Chi gene; Enterobacter sp. NRG4; Expression; His-Tag affinity chromatography; Recombinant chitinase
A case of typhus fever is presented. On admission, the clinical diagnosis was typhoid fever. Forty-eight hours after admission, the presence of subconjunctival haemorrhage, malena, and jaundice raised the possibility of a different aetiology, the two most likely differentials being dengue and typhus. Finally, a co-infection of typhoid and typhus was discovered. This uncommon clinical scenario should be taken into account in the management of patients with high fever on admission being treated as a case of typhoid fever.
Co-infections; Morbidity; Typhoid; Typhus; Bangladesh
To investigate tobacco use practices, beliefs and attitude among medical students in Syria.
This is a cross-sectional study among a random sample of 570 medical students (1st and 5th year) registered at Damascus Faculty of Medicine, 2006–07. We used a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about demographic information, smoking behaviour (cigarette, waterpipe), family and peer smoking, attitudes and beliefs about smoking and future role in advising patients to quit smoking.
The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 10.9% for cigarette (15.8% men, 3.3% women), 23.5% for waterpipe (30.3% men, 13.4% women), and 7.3% for both (10.1% men, 3.1% women). Both smoking methods were more popular among 5th year students (15.4% and 27%) compared to their younger counterparts (6.6% and 19.7%). Regular smoking patterns predominated for cigarettes (62%), while occasional use patterns predominated for waterpipe (83%). More than two thirds of students (69%) think they may not or have difficulty addressing smoking in their future patients.
The level of tobacco use among Syrian medical students is alarming and point at the rapidly changing patterns towards waterpipe use, especially among female students. Medical schools should work harder to tackle this phenomenon and address it more efficiently in their curricula.
Cigarette smoking; waterpipe smoking; medical students; prevalence; Syria
On 8 May 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommended routine administration of zinc in the management of children, aged less than five years, with acute diarrhoea. In making the recommendation, WHO and UNICEF also suggested careful monitoring for adverse events associated with routine administration of zinc, particularly unusual or excess vomiting. The study assessed, in a phase IV trial, i.e. post-marketing surveillance of zinc, the occurrence of adverse events during the first hour after the administration of the first dose of zinc in children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. The study was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B and at an outpatient clinic operated by a local health NGO—Progoti Samaj Kallyan Protisthan (PSKP), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Eligible children, aged 3-59 months, were treated with 20 mg of zinc sulphate provided in a dispersible tablet formulation. The children were observed for 60 minutes following the initial treatment with zinc for adverse events, with particular attention given to vomiting or regurgitation. During the one-year observation period, 42,440 children (male 57% and female 43%) received zinc, and 20,246 (47.8%) of them were observed. Regurgitation and/or vomiting occurred in 4,392 (21.8%) of the children; 90.8% of these children had vomiting only once, 8.7% twice, and 0.5% more than twice. No children revisited the hospital for recurrent vomiting following their discharge. A significant proportion of infants and children may experience vomiting or regurgitation, usually once, following the administration of the first dose of zinc. This is a transient phenomenon that did not impact on continuation of treatment with zinc.
Diarrhoea; Diarrhoea, Infantile; Evaluation studies; Safety; Zinc therapy; Bangladesh
coronary heart disease; myocardial infarction; unstable angina
South Asia still has a long way to go to meet the United Nations' millennium development goals for maternal and child mortality
During March and April 2002, a resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 occurred in Dhaka and adjoining areas of Bangladesh with an estimated 30,000 cases of cholera. Patients infected with O139 strains were much older than those infected with O1 strains (p<0.001). The reemerged O139 strains belong to a single ribotype corresponding to one of two ribotypes that caused the initial O139 outbreak in 1993. Unlike the strains of 1993, the recent strains are susceptible to trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, and streptomycin but resistant to nalidixic acid. The new O139 strains carry a copy of the Calcutta type CTXCalc prophage in addition to the CTXET prophage carried by the previous strains. Thus, the O139 strains continue to evolve, and the adult population continues to be more susceptible to O139 cholera, which suggests a lack of adequate immunity against this serogroup. These findings emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of the new epidemic strains.
Cholera epidemic; Vibrio cholerae O139; CTX phage; drug resistance; Bangladesh
We evaluated the recently developed dipsticks for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae serotypes O1 and O139 from rectal swabs of hospitalized diarrheal patients after enrichment for 4 h in alkaline peptone water. The sensitivity and specificity of the dipsticks were above 92 and 91%, respectively. The dipsticks represent the first rapid test which has been successfully used to diagnose cholera from rectal swabs, and this would immensely improve surveillance for cholera, especially in remote settings.
To study autoimmunity among thyroid diseases, 397 thyroid patients (age 30 (13) years; M/F 75/322) from two referral centres in Bangladesh and 94 healthy controls (age 30 (13) years; M/F 24/70) were studied for antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Thyroid patients were clinically grouped as suspected autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), non-autoimmune, or indeterminate groups (where no decision could be reached). Antimicrosomal antibody was strongly positive in 19.4% and weakly positive in 7.3% of patients but only 4.3% and 2.1% respectively in the controls (χ2 = 17.852; p = 0.000) whereas strong and weak positivity were 27.2% and 6.8% in patients compared with 8.5% and 4.3% respectively in the controls (χ2 = 16.916; p = 0.000) for antithyroglobulin antibody. Antibodies were positive in 63.0% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 36.4% with Graves' disease, and 44.7% with atrophic thyroiditis among the autoimmune group. In the non-autoimmune group antibodies were positive in 100% with multinodular hypothyroidism, 46.7% with subacute thyroiditis, 40.0% with suspected iodine deficiency goitre, 31.3% with toxic multinodular goitre, 30.8% with non-toxic solitary nodules, and 19.4% with simple diffuse goitre. None was positive for antimicrosomal antibody without being positive for antithyroglobulin antibody. The two antibodies strongly correlated in both patients (r = 0.977, p = 0.000) and controls (r = 0.986, p = 0.000). About 9% (36/397) of patients were mismatched with the final diagnosis on antibody measurement; most of them had Hashimoto's thyroiditis (33/36). Prevalence of AITD among thyroid patients was 48.36%. Specificity of antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies were 93% and 87%. It was concluded that AITD is not uncommon in Bangladesh; antimicrosomal antibody is a useful marker for AITD and unless antibodies are checked, an appreciable number of patients with AITDs will remain undetected.
Keywords: thyroid autoimmunity; diagnostic dilemma
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. These responses were compared with those in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. Vibriocidal antibody responses were seen against bacteria of the homologous but not heterologous serogroup, and these responses reflect the lack of cross-protection between the infections caused by the two serogroups. The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC responses, with the IgG isotype dominating over the IgA isotype, as well as comparable antitoxic immune responses in plasma. These results suggest that despite having a polysaccharide capsule, V. cholerae O139 induces systemic and intestine-derived ASC responses in peripheral blood comparable to those seen in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease.
The mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) is a type 4 pilus present in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains of the El Tor biotype, as well as in strains of serogroup O139. It has been shown to be a colonization antigen in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate systemic and local antibody responses to MSHA in adult patients with cholera due to V. cholerae O1 and O139. Twenty-four of 28 (86%) patients with O1 cholera and 11 of 17 (65%) patients with O139 cholera showed significant increases in MSHA-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) 7 days after the onset of disease. However, the magnitude of the ASC response in O1 cholera patients was significantly higher than that in the O139 cholera patients in both IgA-producing (P = 0.015) and IgM-producing (P = 0.029) cells. Both groups of patients responded with antibody responses to MSHA in plasma, seroconverting with both IgA (63 to 70% of patients) and IgG (43 to 59% of patients) antibodies. Compared to the MSHA-specific antibody levels determined in healthy controls (n = 10), more than 90% of O1 and O139 cholera patients showed responses to MSHA of both the IgA and the IgG isotypes. About 70% of the patients in both groups also had antibody responses to MSHA in their feces. In summary, we demonstrated that MSHA is immunogenic, giving rise to both systemic and local antibodies in patients with cholera due to both O1 and O139 serogroups.
Antibody responses to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of shigellae were compared between children with uncomplicated and complicated Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. One hundred fifteen children between 12 and 60 months of age with S. dysenteriae 1 infection were studied. Of these children, 42 had complications (leukemoid reaction and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome [complicated shigellosis] and 73 had no complications (uncomplicated shigellosis). Antibodies to the LPS of S. dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri Y were measured in plasma and stools, as were total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentrations in plasma and the total IgA concentration in stool, on enrollment and 3 to 5 days later. In the plasma, the concentrations of homologous (IgG) and heterologous (IgA) LPS antibodies on enrollment were higher in children with complicated shigellosis than in those with uncomplicated shigellosis. In stool, the concentrations on enrollment were similar between the two groups of children. There was a rise in antibody concentrations in the plasma (homologous and heterologous) and stool (homologous) between the day of enrollment and 3 to 5 days later in children with uncomplicated shigellosis but not in those with complicated shigellosis. These findings suggest that systemic stimulation is more marked in children with complications, so that a subsequent rise in plasma antibody concentrations does not occur in these children. In contrast, the lack of a rise in stool antibody concentrations in children with complicated shigellosis is suggestive of a lower-level mucosal response. Because the duration of diarrhea before enrollment influenced the homologous antibody concentrations, children were further divided into three subgroups (short [3 to 5 days], medium [6 to 9 days], and long [> 9 days] diarrhea durations before enrollment). Comparisons of homologous antibody concentrations between the two groups of children following such subdivisions showed that in children with complicated shigellosis, antibody concentrations were higher in the plasma of children in the short diarrhea duration subgroup but lower in the stool children in the medium diarrhea duration subgroup. No differences in antibody concentrations were observed in children in the other diarrhea duration subgroups. Thus, complications in shigellosis are associated with an early and strong systemic stimulation without a concomitant stimulation of the mucosal antibody response.
This study was designed to see whether alterations occur in peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype and function in children with Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection with complications (leukemoid reaction and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome) and whether there are any alterations prior to the development of complications. The following groups of children (ages, 12 to 60 months) were compared: children without any infection (n = 51), children with uncomplicated shigellosis (n = 65), children admitted with complicated shigellosis (leukemoid reaction and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome) (n = 29), and children with shigellosis who developed complications after enrollment (subsequently complicated shigellosis) (n = 12). Tests for the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD57 [corrected], CD20, and CD25), spontaneous proliferation, and the proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and the lipopolysaccharide of S. dysenteriae 1 were performed, as were skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). Children who subsequently developed complications differed from other groups of children as follows: (i) the numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ cells were lower than in uninfected children (P < 0.05), (ii) the CD4/CD8 ratio was lower than in children with uncomplicated shigellosis (P < 0.05) and in uninfected children (P < 0.05), and (iii) the levels of spontaneous proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were higher and DTH responses were lower than those in children with uncomplicated shigellosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.017, respectively). Children with complications differed by having (i) increased numbers of CD3- CD57- [corrected] CD20- cells (P < 0.05) compared with those in other groups of children and (ii) lower CD4/CD8 ratios (P < 0.05), higher levels of spontaneous proliferation (P < 0.05), and lower DTH responses (P = 0.005) than children with uncomplicated shigellosis. Three to five days after enrollment, the number of CD4+ cells increased in children who subsequently developed complications (P = 0.025), i.e., when they developed complications and at this time their CD4+ cell number was similar to that of other groups of children. Thus, lymphocyte phenotype and function are altered prior to the development of complications in children with shigellosis, and once complications develop, the pattern of alterations changes. Whether these alterations have a role in precipitating complications or whether they reflect early events underlying the development of complications remains to be elucidated.
Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, now considered to be the second organism capable of causing epidemic severe dehydrating cholera, contains a capsular polysaccharide which makes it difficult for it to be used in the conventional vibriocidal antibody assay optimized for V. cholerae O1. After modification of the procedure, which involved the use of specific bacterial strains, a lower bacterial inoculum, and increased amounts of complement, the vibriocidal antibody responses to V. cholerae O139 were measured in acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 33 V. cholerae O139-infected and 18 V. cholerae O1-infected patients and in single serum samples from 20 healthy control subjects. The responses in these individuals to V. cholerae O1 strains were also determined. Significant elevations in the homologous antibody response were found only in the convalescent-phase sera from both groups of patients with cholera. These findings may explain the basis for the lack of heterologous protection between the two serogroups of V. cholerae. Healthy controls had higher background levels of vibriocidal antibody to V. cholerae O1 than to V. cholerae O139.
Alterations in peripheral blood neutrophil function are known to occur in patients with colitis and may have a role in precipitating nonspecific tissue injury. It is not known whether neutrophil function is altered in patients with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection, during which there is extensive colitis and which may be associated with life-threatening complications in young children. Three aspects of peripheral blood neutrophil function, polarization, attachment to yeast particles, and locomotion, were therefore studied in 111 children with S. dysenteriae type 1 infection and 57 children without any infection. All children were aged 12 to 60 months. Of the children with S. dysenteriae type 1 infection, 42 had leukemoid reaction, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or septicemia (complicated shigellosis), while the others did not (uncomplicated shigellosis). Polarization and locomotion in the absence of chemoattractants and in response to N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (FMLP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. dysenteriae type 1 were determined. Attachment to unopsonized and opsonized yeast particles was also determined. Children with shigellosis (uncomplicated or complicated) had more polarized neutrophils with and without chemoattractants than uninfected children (P < 0.05). Children with complicated shigellosis had more polarized neutrophils with FMLP at 10(-7) and 10(-6) M (P < 0.05) and with LPS than children with uncomplicated shigellosis (P < 0.05). At 3 to 5 days after enrollment, the numbers of polarized neutrophils with 10(-8), 10(-6), and 10(-5) M FMLP declined in children with uncomplicated shigellosis but not in those with complicated shigellosis. Attachment to yeast particles was similar in all three groups of children. Locomotion was inhibited by LPS in children with shigellosis (P < 0.05), whether it was uncomplicated or complicated, compared with locomotion in uninfected children. Finally, neutrophil polarization in uninfected children was negatively influenced by nutritional status. Thus, poorly nourished uninfected children had more polarized neutrophils with FMLP at 10(-9) M (P < = 0.02) and 10(-5) M (P = 0.043) than their better-nourished counterparts. In summary, altered neutrophil responses are associated with both uncomplicated and complicated shigellosis.
To evaluate serum C reactive protein (CRP) and prealbumin concentrations as markers of disease activity in shigellosis this study serially measured serum concentrations of CRP and prealbumin in 39 patients infected with Shigella spp, and a comparison group of 10 patients infected with Vibrio cholerae serotype 01. On admission, patients with shigellosis had significantly higher median concentrations of CRP (109 v 5 mg/l; p < 0.01) and significantly lower median concentrations of prealbumin (16 v 23 mg/l; p < 0.01) than did patient with cholera. Among Shigella spp infected patients, CRP concentrations were significantly lower, and prealbumin concentrations significantly higher, on study days 3 and 5 when compared with admission values. Among Shigella spp infected patients, those in whom treatment failed had higher admission CRP concentrations than those in whom treatment was successful (p = 0.142). An admission CRP concentration > or = 110 mg/l had a 70% sensitivity and a 61% specificity in predicting failure of treatment among patients infected with Shigella spp; the predictive value of a positive and negative test was 14% and 96% respectively. In summary, acute shigellosis elicits an acute phase response, the magnitude of which predicts clinical outcome.
The pathogenesis of the systemic complications, leukemoid reaction and hemolytic uremic syndrome, associated with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection is not well understood. The excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), has been suggested as a possible factor. We measured IL-6 and TNF-alpha in stools of 56 children with S. dysenteriae 1 infection and 29 children without any apparent infection, all age 12 to 60 months. Sixteen children with S. dysenteriae 1 infection had leukemoid reaction or hemolytic uremic syndrome (complicated shigellosis), while the others did not (uncomplicated shigellosis). Stool IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations were higher in children with uncomplicated shigellosis than in children with complicated shigellosis (P = 0.009 and < 0.001, respectively) or in uninfected children (P < 0.001). It is concluded that complicated infection is not associated with higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in stool.