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1.  Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals 
The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S55060
PMCID: PMC3949719  PMID: 24623976
lactoferrin; hydroxyapatite nanocrystals; biomimetism; biological activity; drug delivery
2.  Different corrosive effects on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and amine fluoride-based mouthwashes on dental titanium brackets: a comparative in vitro study 
Titanium plates treated in vitro with a mouthwash containing amine fluoride (100 ppm F−) and another containing zinc-substituted carbonate–hydroxyapatite have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to evaluate the modification of the surface roughness induced by treatment with these two different mouthwashes. The treatment with F−-based mouthwash produces a roughness characterized by higher peaks and deeper valleys in the streaks on the titanium bracket surface compared with those observed in the reference polished titanium plates. This effect causes a mechanical weakness in the metallic dental implant causing bacterial growth and therefore promotes infection and prosthesis contamination. However, the in vitro treatment with a mouthwash containing zinc-substituted carbonate–hydroxyapatite reduced the surface roughness by filling the streaks with an apatitic phase. This treatment counteracts the surface oxidative process that can affect the mechanical behavior of the titanium dental implant, which inhibits the bacterial growth contaminating prostheses.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S35245
PMCID: PMC3551457  PMID: 23355777
mouthwash; titanium brackets; corrosion; hydroxyapatite; aminic fluoride
3.  Electrospun Nanostructured Fibers of Collagen-Biomimetic Apatite on Titanium Alloy 
Titanium and its alloys are currently the mainly used materials to manufacture orthopaedic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Although these materials are bioinert, the improvement of biological properties (e.g., bone implant contact) can be obtained by the application of a material that mimics the bone extracellular matrix. To this aim, this work describes a new method to produce nanostructured collagen-apatite composites on titanium alloy substrate, by combining electrospinning and biomimetic mineralization. The characterization results showed that the obtained mineralized scaffolds have morphological, structural, and chemical compositional features similar to natural bone extracellular matrix. Finally, the topographic distribution of the chemical composition in the mineralized matrix evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy demonstrated that the apatite nanocrystals cover the collagen fibers assembled by the electrospinning.
doi:10.1155/2012/123953
PMCID: PMC3287036  PMID: 22400013
4.  Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite 
By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.
doi:10.2147/NSA.S9038
PMCID: PMC3781698  PMID: 24198477
hydroxyapatite; nanocrystals; biomimetism; biomaterials; drug delivery; remineralization
5.  Adsorption of human serum albumin on the chrysotile surface: a molecular dynamics and spectroscopic investigation 
The human serum albumin (HSA) secondary structure modifications induced by the chrysotile surface have been investigated via computational molecular dynamics (MD) and experimental infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on synthetic chrysotile nanocrystals coated with different amount of HSA. MD simulations, conducted by placing various albumin subdomains close to the fixed chrysotile surface, show an initial adsorption phase, accompanied by local rearrangements of the albumin motifs in contact with the chrysotile layer. Next, large-scale rearrangements follow with consequent secondary structure modifications.
Gaussian curve fitting of the FTIR spectra obtained for HSA-coated synthetic chrysotile nanocrystals has allowed the quantification of HSA structural modifications as a function of the amount of protein adsorbed. The experimental results support the atomistic computer simulations providing a realistic description of the adsorption of plasma proteins onto chrysotile and unravelling a key step in the understanding of asbestos toxicity.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2007.1137
PMCID: PMC2607402  PMID: 17626001
solid–liquid interface; molecular dynamics; Fourier transform infrared; human serum albumin

Results 1-5 (5)