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1.  Opportunities and obstacles to the development of nanopharmaceuticals for human use 
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has generated breakthrough developments in improving health care and human life from its emergence. The biomaterials employed mainly aim at improving drug delivery systems, imaging and diagnostic technologies while the nanoscale materials are in widespread use in other industries such as electronics and optics. Such advancement may revolutionize the drug development and therapy with new and more efficient treatments. Although, nanotechnology assists humankind in improving its well being, it has certain limitations that entail thorough investigation by the regulatory and scientific authorities. To address concerns regarding the safety and toxicity profile of the nanopharmaceuticals, we have reviewed the challenges and solutions of nanopharmaceuticals use in human health and the related health risks. In this regard, regulatory and scientific bodies such as countries’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Medicine Agency (EMA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and World Health Organization (WHO) can participate in developing and reinforcing safety measures and regulatory frameworks to insure the public health. The regulatory authorities may enforce the nanopharmaceutical industries to conduct comprehensive toxicity tests and monitor the adverse drug reaction reports in close collaboration with the scientific community to act accordingly and inform the public as the implementation of the strategy.
Graphical abstract
Nanopharmaceuticals have tremendous potential for human use as therapeutic or diagnostic agents. But their toxicity profile should be well addressed and the respective regulatory framework developed and reinforced by the authorities.
PMCID: PMC5052974  PMID: 27716350
Human Use; Nanopharmaceuticals; Toxicity Profile; Regulatory Framework
2.  Commercialization of biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran; challenges and solutions 
The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the university research findings or commercialization of the biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran and determine the challenges and propose some solutions.
A qualitative study including 19 in-depth interviews with experts was performed in 2011 and early 2012. National Innovation System (NIS) model was employed as the study design. Thematic method was applied for the analysis. The results demonstrate that policy making, regulations and management development are considered as fundamental reasons for current commercialization practice pattern. It is suggested to establish foundation for higher level documents that would involve relating bodies and provide them operational guidelines for the implementation of commercialization incentives.
Policy, regulations and management as the most influential issue should be considered for successful commercialization. The present study, for the first time, attempts to disclose the importance of evidence input for measures in order to facilitate the commercialization process by the authorities in Iran. Overall, the NIS model should be considered and utilized as one of the effective solutions for commercialization.
PMCID: PMC3974067  PMID: 24568555
Knowledge translation; Biopharmaceutical research; Facilitators and barriers
3.  Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Novel Hydrazide and Hydrazine Derivatives 
The uses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are limited by a variety of side effects. So research on preparing new analgesic agents is important. According to some reports about the analgesic activity of hydrazide and hydrazine derivatives a new series of these compounds were synthesized in order to obtain new analgesic compounds. The final compounds 10a-10e and 15a-15d were prepared by condensation of corresponding hydrazides 7,8 and 11-14 with different aldehydes 9a-9e. The structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectra. All compounds were evaluated for their analgesic activities by abdominal constriction test (writhing test). Most of the synthesized compounds induced significant reduction in the writhing response when compared to control and compound 15 was more potent than mefenamic acid in the writhing test.
PMCID: PMC3920700  PMID: 24523751
Hydrazide; Hydrazone; Analgesic activity; Fenamate
4.  Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes 
Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3415199  PMID: 22899898

Results 1-4 (4)