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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications (1)
International Journal of Nanomedicine (1)
Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran (2)
Aboofazeli, Reza (1)
Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh (1)
Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam (1)
Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali (1)
Hadidi, Naghmeh (1)
Kobarfard, Farzad (1)
Mogharabi, Mehdi (1)
Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser (1)
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Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes
Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.
Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods
International Journal of Nanomedicine
In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs) was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations) was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.
phospholipid-PEG; D-optimal design; loading efficiency; Raman spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; theromogravimetric analysis; carbon nanotubes
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