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1.  Laccase-catalyzed decolorization and detoxification of Acid Blue 92: statistical optimization, microtoxicity, kinetics, and energetics 
Background
In recent years, enzymatic-assisted removal of hazardous dyes has been considered as an alternative and eco-friendly method compared to those of physicochemical techniques. The present study was designed in order to obtain the optimal condition for laccase-mediated (purified from the ascomycete Paraconiothyrium variabile) decolorization of Acid Blue 92; a monoazo dye, using response surface methodology (RSM). So, a D-optimal design with three variables, including pH, enzyme activity, and dye concentration, was applied to optimize the decolorization process. In addition, the kinetic and energetic parameters of the above mentioned enzymatic removal of Acid Blue 92 was investigated.
Results
Decolorization of Acid Blue 92 was maximally (94.1% ± 2.61) occurred at pH 8.0, laccase activity of 2.5 U/mL, and dye concentration of 75 mg/mL. The obtained results of kinetic and energetic studies introduced the laccase-catalyzed decolorization of Acid Blue 92 as an endothermic reaction (Ea, 39 kJ/mol; ΔS, 131 J/mol K; and ΔH, 40 kJ/mol) with Km and Vmax values of 0.48 mM and 227 mM/min mg, respectively. Furthermore, the results of microtoxicity study revealed that the toxicity of laccase-treated dye was significantly reduced compared to the untreated dye.
Conclusions
To sum up, the present investigation introduced the Paraconiothyrium variabile laccase as an efficient biocatalyst for decolorization of synthetic dye Acid Blue 92.
doi:10.1186/s40201-015-0183-1
PMCID: PMC4407540  PMID: 25908991
Enzyme Biocatalysis; Optimization; Waste Treatment; Bioremediation; Laccase; Decolorization
2.  Toxicity of nanomaterials; an undermined issue 
Nanomaterials are employed in extensive variety of commercial products such as electronic components, cosmetics, food, sports equipment, biomedical applications, and medicine. With the increasing utilization of engineered nanomaterials, the potential exposure of human to nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Nowadays when new nanomaterials with new applications are introduced, mostly good and positive effects are mentioned whereas possible hazards arising from nanosize of the compounds are undermined. Toxicology studies of nanomaterials demonstrate some adverse effects in some human organs such as central nerve system, immune system, and lung. There is lack of complete information about human toxicity and environmental waste of nanomaterials. We aimed to highlight current toxicological concerns of potentially useful nanomaterials which are now used in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences.
doi:10.1186/s40199-014-0059-4
PMCID: PMC4189150  PMID: 25123555
Adverse health effects; Drug delivery; Nanomaterials; Nanomedicine; Toxicity
3.  Safety concerns to application of graphene compounds in pharmacy and medicine 
Graphene, the new allotrope of carbon is a single layer of monocrystalline graphite with sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. This compound has received worldwide attention due to its extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Duo to the widespread application of geraphenes, concerns are raising about its environmental safety or the safety protocols for handling and waste of graphene-based materials. The generation of reactive free radicals, adsorption of important biomolecules, and physical toxicity of graphene also matter. Hereby we criticize the concerns on the toxicity of graphenes to provide some perspective on the potential hazards of future development in graphene-based biomaterials.
doi:10.1186/2008-2231-22-23
PMCID: PMC3922742  PMID: 24450435
Graphene; Graphene oxide; Membrane; Reactive oxygen species; Safety; Toxicity
4.  Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes 
Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.
doi:10.1155/2012/823830
PMCID: PMC3415199  PMID: 22899898

Results 1-4 (4)