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1.  Toxicity of nanomaterials; an undermined issue 
Nanomaterials are employed in extensive variety of commercial products such as electronic components, cosmetics, food, sports equipment, biomedical applications, and medicine. With the increasing utilization of engineered nanomaterials, the potential exposure of human to nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Nowadays when new nanomaterials with new applications are introduced, mostly good and positive effects are mentioned whereas possible hazards arising from nanosize of the compounds are undermined. Toxicology studies of nanomaterials demonstrate some adverse effects in some human organs such as central nerve system, immune system, and lung. There is lack of complete information about human toxicity and environmental waste of nanomaterials. We aimed to highlight current toxicological concerns of potentially useful nanomaterials which are now used in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences.
PMCID: PMC4189150  PMID: 25123555
Adverse health effects; Drug delivery; Nanomaterials; Nanomedicine; Toxicity
2.  Safety concerns to application of graphene compounds in pharmacy and medicine 
Graphene, the new allotrope of carbon is a single layer of monocrystalline graphite with sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. This compound has received worldwide attention due to its extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Duo to the widespread application of geraphenes, concerns are raising about its environmental safety or the safety protocols for handling and waste of graphene-based materials. The generation of reactive free radicals, adsorption of important biomolecules, and physical toxicity of graphene also matter. Hereby we criticize the concerns on the toxicity of graphenes to provide some perspective on the potential hazards of future development in graphene-based biomaterials.
PMCID: PMC3922742  PMID: 24450435
Graphene; Graphene oxide; Membrane; Reactive oxygen species; Safety; Toxicity
3.  Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes 
Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3415199  PMID: 22899898

Results 1-3 (3)