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1.  Design, Synthesis and Application of Fluorine-Labeled Taxoids as 19F NMR Probes for the Metabolic Stability Assessment of Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems 
Journal of fluorine chemistry  2014;171:148-161.
Novel tumor-targeting drug conjugates, BLT-F2 (1) and BLT-S-F6 (2), bearing a fluorotaxoid as the warhead, a mechanism-based self-immolative disulfide linker, and biotin as the tumor-targeting module, were designed and synthesized as 19F NMR probes. Fluorine atoms and CF3 groups were strategically incorporated into the conjugates to investigate the mechanism of linker cleavage and factors that influence their plasma and metabolic stability by real-time monitoring with 19F NMR. Time-resolved 19F NMR study on probe 1 disclosed a stepwise mechanism for release of a fluorotaxoid, which might not have been detected by other analytical methods. Probe 2 was designed to bear two CF3 groups in the taxoid moiety as “3-FAB” reporters for enhanced sensitivity and a polyethylene glycol oligomer insert to improve solubility. The clean analysis of the linker stability and reactivity of drug conjugates in blood plasma or cell culture media by HPLC and 1H NMR is troublesome, due to the overlap of key signals/peaks with background arising from highly complex ingredients in biological systems. Accordingly, the use of 19F NMR would provide a practical solution to this problem. In fact, our “3-FAB” probe 2 was proven to be highly useful to investigate the stability and reactivity of the self-immolative disulfide linker system in human blood plasma by 19F NMR. It has also been revealed that the use of polysorbate 80 as excipient for the formulation of probe 2 dramatically increases the stability of the disulfide linker system. This finding further indicates that the tumor-targeting drug conjugates with polysorbate 80/EtOH/saline formulation for in vivo studies would have high stability in blood plasma, while the drug release in cancer cells proceeds smoothly.
doi:10.1016/j.jfluchem.2014.08.006
PMCID: PMC4337250  PMID: 25722499
Fluorine Probe; 19F NMR; Fluorotaxoid; Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery System; Self-immolative Disulfide Linker
2.  Dynamic Mechanical Response of Biomedical 316L Stainless Steel as Function of Strain Rate and Temperature 
A split Hopkinson pressure bar is used to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of biomedical 316L stainless steel under strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 s−1 to 5 × 103 s−1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The results indicate that the flow stress, work-hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal activation energy are all significantly dependent on the strain, strain rate, and temperature. For a constant temperature, the flow stress, work-hardening rate, and strain rate sensitivity increase with increasing strain rate, while the thermal activation energy decreases. Catastrophic failure occurs only for the specimens deformed at a strain rate of 5 × 103 s−1 and temperatures of 25°C or 200°C. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the specimens fracture in a ductile shear mode. Optical microscopy analyses reveal that the number of slip bands within the grains increases with an increasing strain rate. Moreover, a dynamic recrystallisation of the deformed microstructure is observed in the specimens tested at the highest temperature of 800°C.
doi:10.1155/2011/173782
PMCID: PMC3246303  PMID: 22216015
3.  High Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Metal Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device 
This paper introduces the fundamental physical characteristics of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Photoelectric conversion efficiency is crucial to the evaluation of quality in OPV devices, and enhancing efficiency has been spurring on researchers to seek alternatives to this problem. In this paper, we focus on organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices and review several approaches to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of small molecular heterojunction OPV devices based on an optimal metal-phthalocyanine/fullerene (C60) planar heterojunction thin film structure. For the sake of discussion, these mechanisms have been divided into electrical and optical sections: (1) Electrical: Modification on electrodes or active regions to benefit carrier injection, charge transport and exciton dissociation; (2) Optical: Optional architectures or infilling to promote photon confinement and enhance absorption.
doi:10.3390/ijms12010476
PMCID: PMC3039965  PMID: 21339999
OPV; energy conversion efficiency; heterojunction

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