Corrigendum to Acta Cryst. (2009), E65, o1824.
The title of the paper by Li, Li, Li, Zhang & Li [Acta Cryst. (2009), E65, o1824] is corrected.
The title compound, C25H19N3O2, crystallizes as discrete molecules which are well ordered through one intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Structural analysis indicates that the molecules exist as the amine–one form.
Background and Purpose
The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) impacts on calcium ion signalling and has a plethora of ligands. This study investigated Sig1R and its ligands in relation to endogenous calcium events of endothelial cells and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.
Intracellular calcium and patch clamp measurements were made from human saphenous vein endothelial cells and HEK 293 cells expressing exogenous human TRPC5, TRPM2 or TRPM3. Sig1R ligands were applied and short interfering RNA was used to deplete Sig1R. TRP channels tagged with fluorescent proteins were used for subcellular localization studies.
In endothelial cells, 10–100 μM of the Sig1R antagonist BD1063 inhibited sustained but not transient calcium responses evoked by histamine. The Sig1R agonist 4-IBP and related antagonist BD1047 were also inhibitory. The Sig1R agonist SKF10047 had no effect. Sustained calcium entry evoked by VEGF or hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited by BD1063, BD1047 or 4-IBP, but not SKF10047. 4-IBP, BD1047 and BD1063 inhibited TRPC5 or TRPM3, but not TRPM2. Inhibitory effects of BD1047 were rapid in onset and readily reversed on washout. SKF10047 inhibited TRPC5 but not TRPM3 or TRPM2. Depletion of Sig1R did not prevent the inhibitory actions of BD1063 or BD1047 and Sig1R did not co-localize with TRPC5 or TRPM3.
Conclusions and Implications
The data suggest that two types of Sig1R ligand (BD1047/BD1063 and 4-IBP) are inhibitors of receptor- or chemically activated calcium entry channels, acting relatively directly and independently of the Sig1R. Chemical foundations for TRP channel inhibitors are suggested.
calcium channels; cationic channels; TRP channels; endothelial cells; Sigma-1 receptor; histamine; hydrogen peroxide; vascular endothelial growth factor
Progress in the development of nonviral gene delivery vectors continues to be hampered by low transfection activity and toxicity. Here we proposed to develop a lipid prodrug based on a polyamine analogue bisethylnorspermine (BSP) that can function dually as gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We synthesized a prodrug of BSP (LS-BSP) capable of intracellular release of BSP using thiolytically sensitive dithiobenzyl carbamate linker. Biodegradability of LS-BSP contributed to decreased toxicity compared with nondegradable control L-BSP. BSP showed a strong synergistic enhancement of cytotoxic activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human breast cancer cells. Decreased enhancement of TRAIL activity was observed for LS-BSP when compared with BSP. LS-BSP formed complexes with plasmid DNA and mediated transfection activity comparable to DOTAP and L-BSP. Our results show that BSP-based vectors are promising candidates for combination drug/gene delivery.
gene delivery; plasmid DNA; cationic lipid; bisethylnorspermine; TRAIL
Berberine (BER), a natural product and active ingredient of genera Berberis and Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activities. However, the poor bioavailability of this agent greatly limits its clinical application. In our previous study, we demonstrated that co-administration of sodium caprate, an absorption enhancer, with BER could significantly increase the bioavailability of BER without any serious mucosal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of BER on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/gluconeogenesis pathway and the effects of sodium caprate on hypoglycemic action of BER. The ability of BER co-administered with sodium caprate to reduce insulin resistance was investigated in diabetic rat model induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ. Western blot was performed to evaluate effects of BER on AMPK signaling proteins involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetic rat and HepG2 hepatocytes. BER reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake in diabetic rats. Similarly, BER reduced plasma triglycerides and improved insulin action in diabetic rats. BER down-regulated the elevated expressions of gluconeogenesis key enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, inhibited the translocation of TORC2 from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased AMPK activity in liver tissues. The effect of BER was higher when co-administered with sodium caprate. BER treatment resulted in reduced glucose production in HepG2 hepatocytes. BER increased AMPK activity, reduced the expression of PEPCK, and the nuclear transcription factors PGC-1, HNF-4α and FOXO1. The effect of BER on gluconeogenesis could be partly blocked by AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. BER could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rat model of diabetes at least in part via stimulation of AMPK activity and this action of BER is augmented by sodium caprate.
Berberine; Sodium caprate; AMP-activated protein kinase; Diabetes; Hepatic gluconeogenesis; Metabolic syndrome
The absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a marker of very low cardiovascular risk. Endothelial cells may have an effect on the initiation and propagation of arterial calcification. We aimed to identify the relationship between the absence of CAC and endothelial function in individuals without cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Methods and Results
CAC was assessed using electron-beam computed tomography and the calcium score was then computed. Endothelial function was measured by assessing reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation and expressed by the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Of 82 patients, 39 had non-detectable calcium (CAC score=0) and 43 had a CAC score >0. In the CAC score=0 group, the prevalence of normal endothelial function was 84.6%, compared to 48.8% in the CAC score >0 group, P=0.001. The absence of CAC was highly correlated with normal endothelial function (γ=0.704, P<0.001). On average, endothelial function was significantly better in the CAC score=0 group than in the CAC score >0 group (RHI 2.2±0.6 vs. 1.8±0.5, P=0.002). In a multivariate logistic regression model, only normal endothelial function (odds ratio [OR] 5.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55–16.27, P=0.007) and age (years) (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.96, P=0.002) were independently associated with the absence of CAC.
Normal functional status of the vasculature may be important for the prevention of coronary calcification and may partly account for the low cardiovascular risk of absent CAC. (Circ J 2012; 76: 2705 – 2710)
Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery calcium; Electron-beam computed tomography; Endothelial function
Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors1. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated RTOG GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables.
Patients and Methods
The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. “Radiation dose received” was replaced with “radiation dose assigned.” The new RPA models were compared to the original model by applying to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation.
The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (III, IV, V+VI), as classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables:age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively.
The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used in future RTOG GBM trials.
Glioblastoma; prognostic factors; recursive partitioning analysis; RTOG
The knowledge of normal patellar tracking is essential for understanding of the knee joint function and for diagnosis of patellar instabilities. This paper investigated the patellar tracking and patellofemoral joint contact locations during a stair ascending activity using a validated dual-fluoroscopic imaging system. The results showed that the patellar flexion angle decreased from 41.9° to 7.5° with the knee extension during stair ascending. During first 80% of the activity, the patella shifted medially about 3.9 mm and then slightly shifted laterally during the last 20% of the ascending activity. Anterior translation of 13 mm of the patella was measured at the early 80% of the activity and then slightly moved posteriorly by about 2 mm at the last 20% of the activity. The path of the cartilage contact points was slightly lateral on the cartilage surfaces of patella and femur. On the patellar cartilage surface, the cartilage contact locations were about 2 mm laterally from heel strike to 60% of the stair ascending activity and moved laterally and reached 5.3 mm at full extension. However, the cartilage contact locations were relatively constant on the femoral cartilage surface (~5 mm lateral). The patellar tracking pattern was consistent with the patellofemoral cartilage contact location pattern. These data could provide baseline knowledge for understanding of normal physiology of the patellofemoral joint and can be used as a reference for clinical evaluation of patellofemoral disorder symptoms.
Patellar tracking; Patellofemoral cartilage contact
A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment.
We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores.
Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD −0.51, 95% CI: −7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I2 = 0%).
Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative treatment.
Aminoflavone (AF) acts as a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1 can sensitize breast cancer cells to AF. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of AF and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat for treating mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) as well as the underlying mechanisms of such treatment.
In vitro antiproliferative activity of AFP464 (AF prodrug) in breast cancer cell lines was evaluated by MTS assay. In vitro, the combined effect of AFP464 and vorinostat on cell proliferation was assessed by the Chou-Talalay method. In vivo, antitumor activity of AFP464, given alone and in combination with vorinostat, was studied using TNBC xenograft models. Knockdown of ERα was performed using specific, small-interfering RNA. Western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to study the mechanisms underlying the combined antitumor effect.
Luminal and basal A subtype breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to AFP464, whereas basal B subtype or mesenchymal-like TNBC cells were resistant. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells to AFP464. It also potentiated the antitumor activity of AFP464 in a xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies suggested that vorinostat reactivated ERα expression and restored AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1.
The response of breast cancer cells to AF or AFP464 was associated with their gene expression profile. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC to AF, at least in part, by reactivating ERα expression and restoring the responsiveness of AhR to AF.
A reversed-phased liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of the total and unbound RO4929097, a γ-secretase inhibitor targeting Notch signaling, in human plasma. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters X-Terra™ MS C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol/0.45% formic acid in water (60:40,v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min for 6min. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs) were 5 ng/ml for the total RO4929097 in plasma and 0.5 ng/ml for the unbound drug in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Calibration curves were linear over RO4929097 concentration range of 5–2000 ng/ml in plasma for the total drug and 0.5–200 ng/ml in PBS for the unbound drug. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (< 15%). The method has been successfully employed to characterize the total and unbound plasma pharmacokinetics of RO4929097 after its oral administration in cancer patients.
RO4929097; γ-secretase inhibitor; high performance liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; LC-MS/MS; pharmacokinetics
A reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ABT-888 and its major metabolite (M8) in human plasma. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction by the addition of 0.25 ml of plasma with 10μl of 1M NaOH and 1.0 ml ethyl acetate containing 50 ng/ml of the internal standard zileuton. The analytes were separated on a Waters XBridge C18 column using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol/water containing 0.45% formic acid at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The analytes were monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated over the ABT-888 and M8 concentration ranges of 1-2000 ng/ml in human plasma. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 1 ng/ml for both ABT-888 and M8 in human plasma. The accuracy and within- and between-day precisions were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (<15%). This method was successfully employed to characterize the plasma concentration-time profile of ABT-888 after its oral administration in cancer patients.
ABT-888; PARP inhibitor; High performance liquid chromatography; Mass Spectrometry; LC-MS/MS; Pharmacokinetics
This study was performed to determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT), the recommended phase II dose and the pharmacokinetic profile for SR271425, given over 1 h every 3 weeks. The initial starting dose of SR271425 was 17 mg/m2. Patient selection was based on common phase I criteria as well as additional cardiac criteria. Thirty-eight patients were accrued to 16 dose levels from 17 to 1,320 mg/m2. Patient characteristics included 24 males and 14 females ages 35–78 with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 (ten patients), 1 (27) and 2 (1). Tumor types were typical for a phase I study. The maximum administered dose was 1,320 mg/m2 with two DLTs, both QTc grade 3 prolongation. No drug related hematological toxicity was noted. Grade 1 toxicities included rash, flushing, pruritus, weight loss, diarrhea, hypertension and fatigue. Grade 2 toxicities included yellow discoloration of the skin, nausea and vomiting. QTc prolongation and hyperbilirubinemia were the only grade 3 toxicities noted. No confirmed tumor response was observed; however, two patients had prolonged stable disease. Both Cend and area under the plasma concentration– time curve increased in a dose related manner. Plasma drug concentrations declined in a biphasic manner with a mean terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of 7.1 h (±1.3). There was no change in clearance or volume of distribution over the dose range studied. Due to cardiac toxicity occurring with both the parent compound, SR233377, as well as this analog, this series of agents was abandoned from further clinical development.
Thioxanthone; SR271425; QTc prolongation
Malignant neuroblastomas contain stem-like cells. These tumors also overexpress the Forkhead box transcription factor FoxM1. In this study, we investigated the roles of FoxM1 in the tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma. We showed that depletion of FoxM1 inhibits anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in mouse xenografts. Moreover, knockdown of FoxM1 induces differentiation in neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that FoxM1 plays a role in the maintenance of the undifferentiated progenitor population. We showed that inhibition of FoxM1 in malignant neuroblastoma cells leads to the downregulation of the pluripotency genes sex determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) and Bmi1. We provided evidence that FoxM1 directly activates expression of Sox2 in neuroblastoma cells. By using a conditional deletion system and neurosphere cultures, we showed that FoxM1 is important for expression of Sox2 and Bmi1 in the mouse neural stem/progenitor cells and is critical for its self-renewal. Together, our observations suggested that FoxM1 plays an important role in the tumorigenicity of the aggressive neuroblastoma cells through maintenance of the undifferentiated state.
A reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determination of aminoflavone (AF) in human plasma. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction by the addition of 0.25 mL of plasma with 1.0 mL ethyl acetate containing 50 ng/mL of the internal standard zileuton. The analytes were separated on a Waters X-Terra™ MS C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol/water containing 0.45% formic acid (70:30, v/v) and isocratic flow at 0.2 mL/min for 6 minutes. The analytes were monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated over the AF concentration range of 5–2000 ng/mL in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL for AF in human plasma. The accuracy and within- and between-day precisions were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (<15%). This method was successfully applied to characterize AF plasma concentration-time profile in the cancer patients in a phase I trial.
Aminoflavone; High performance liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry; LC-MS/MS; Pharmacokinetics
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of newly synthesized Curcumin analogs on COX-2 protein by molecular docking studies and by assessments of the effect of one such analog (CDF) on nuclear factor NF-κB and PGE2. In addition, we have determined the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CDF in mice compared to Curcumin.
Molecular docking on COX-2 protein was assessed by standard computer modeling studies. PGE2 assay in conditioned media was done utilizing high sensitivity immunoassay kit following manufacturer’s instructions, while NF-κB was done by routine EMSA. Serum pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies were carried out using the validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods.
The molecular docking showed that fluorocurcumin analogs do not introduce any major steric changes compared to the parent Curcumin molecule, which was consistent with down-regulation of NF-κB and reduced PGE2 levels in cells treated with CDF. Pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that CDF had better retention and bioavailability and that the concentration of CDF in the pancreas tissue was 10-fold higher compared to Curcumin.
Our observations clearly suggest that the bioavailability of CDF is much superior compared to Curcumin, suggesting that CDF would be clinically useful.
COX-2; curcumin; fluorocurcumin; pharmacokinetics
A liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for simultaneously determination of 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil (FAU) and its active metabolite 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl 5-methyluracil (FMAU) in human plasma. FAU and FMAU were extracted from plasma samples using solid-phase extraction with Waters Sep-Pak® Vac C18 cartridge. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and water with 0.45% formic acid (v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The analytes were monitored by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer under positive ionization mode. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 10 and 2 ng/ml for FAU and FMAU in plasma, respectively. Calibration curves were linear over FAU and FMAU plasma concentration range of 10–2000 and 2 – 1000 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (< 15%). The method has been successfully employed to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of FAU and FMAU in cancer patients receiving 1-h intravenous infusion of FAU 50 mg/m2.
FAU; FMAU; high performance liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; LC-MS/MS; pharmacokinetics
The lateral transmembrane protein-protein interaction has been regarded as “undruggable” despite its importance in many biological processes. The homo-trimerization of transmembrane domain 5 (TMD-5) of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is critical for the constitutive oncogenic activation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Herein, we report a small molecule agent, NSC 259242 (compound 1), to be a TMD-5 self-association disruptor. Both the positively charged acetimidamide functional groups and the stilbene backbone of compound 1 are essential for its inhibitory activity. Furthermore, cell-based assays revealed that compound 1 inhibits full-length LMP-1 signaling in EBV infected B cells. These studies demonstrated a new strategy for identifying small molecule disruptors for investigating transmembrane protein-protein interactions.
Epstein–Barr virus; latent membrane protein 1; transmembrane domain; protein-protein interaction; cell-based screen; small molecule inhibitor
The association of functional polymorphisms in the promoter of the apoptosis gene FAS with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility has been a controversial subject. We conducted a case-control study to investigate this association in a Chinese population and performed a meta-analysis in different populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2234767 (−1377G>A) and rs1800682 (−670A>G) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in 552 Chinese SLE patients and 718 healthy controls. In our case-control study, we observed allelic association between the promoter SNP rs2234767 [P=0.033, odds ratio (OR)=0.836, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.709–0.986] and SLE but not the SNP rs1800682. Haplotype analysis revealed that one haplotype of GA was significantly associated with the disease (P=0.039, OR=1.184, 95% CI, 1.009–1.391). In the meta-analysis available studies, including our data, were combined using the STATA software package v.7.0. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between FAS polymorphisms and SLE (rs2234767 A vs. G allele; P=0.004, OR=0.819, 95% CI, 0.715–0.938, rs1800682 G vs. A allele: P=0.034, OR=0.791, 95% CI, 0.637–0.983). In conclusion, FAS gene polymorphisms may contribute to SLE susceptibility in the Chinese population, and the meta-analysis shows that FAS polymorphisms may be associated with SLE susceptibility in different populations.
systemic lupus erythematosus; FAS; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; meta-analysis
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a heterogeneous class of RNAs that are generally defined as non-protein-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, and protein transport and trafficking. Moreover, lncRNAs are dysregulated in a number of complex human diseases, including coronary artery diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and various cancers, which indicates their important roles in these diseases. Here, we reviewed the current understanding of lncRNAs, including their definition and subclassification, regulatory functions, and potential roles in different types of complex human diseases.
non-coding RNA; long non-coding RNA; complex human disease
The S. cerevisiae Rpd3 large (Rpd3L) and small (Rpd3S) histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes are prototypes for understanding transcriptional repression in eukaryotes . The current view is that they function by deacetylating chromatin, thereby limiting accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to the underlying DNA. However, one study showed that an Rpd3 catalytic mutant retains substantial repression capability when targeted to a promoter as a LexA fusion protein . We investigated the HDAC-independent properties of the Rpd3 complexes biochemically and discovered a chaperone function, which promotes histone deposition onto DNA in vitro, and a novel activity, which prevents nucleosome eviction but not remodeling mediated by the ATP-dependent RSC complex. These HDAC-independent activities inhibit Pol II transcription on a nucleosomal template in vitro. Importantly, the functions of the endogenous Rpd3 complexes can be recapitulated with recombinant Rpd3 core complex comprising Sin3, Rpd3 and Ume1, but not with the individual subunits. To test the hypothesis that Rpd3 contributes to chromatin stabilization in vivo, we measured histone H3 density genomewide and found it was reduced at promoters in an Rpd3 deletion mutant but partially restored in a catalytic mutant. Importantly, the effects on H3 density are most apparent on RSC-enriched genes . Our data suggest that the Rpd3 core complex could contribute to repression via a novel nucleosome stabilization function.
A bicyclam-based biodegradable polycation with CXCR4 antagonistic activity was developed with potential for combined drug/gene cancer therapies. The dual-function polycation prevents cancer cell invasion by inhibiting CXCL12 stimulated CXCR4 activation, while at the same time efficiently and safely delivers plasmid DNA into cancer cells.
CXCR4; Polycations; Transfection; DNA; Polyplexes
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease, is increased worldwide in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Our previous studies have showed that the extract of I. hainanensis (EIH) can prevent NAFLD in rat fed with high-fat diet. In this work, we aimed to find biomarkers of NAFLD and investigate the therapeutic effects of EIH. NAFLD model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by high-fat diet. The NAFLD rats were administered EIH orally (250 mg/kg) for two weeks. After the experimental period, samples of 24 h urine were collected and analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF). Orthogonal partial least squares analysis (OPLSs) models were built to find biomarkers of NAFLD and investigate the therapeutic effects of EIH. 22 metabolites, which are distributed in several metabolic pathways, were identified as potential biomarkers of NAFLD. Taking these biomarkers as screening indexes, EIH could reverse the pathological process of NAFLD through regulating the disturbed pathway of metabolism. The metabolomic results not only supply a systematic view of the development and progression of NAFLD but also provide a theoretical basis for the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor of metabolism that is an attractive therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay (SPA), we identified a new small-molecule AMPK activator, ZLN024, which allosterically stimulated active AMPK heterotrimers and the inactive α1 subunit truncations α1 (1–394) and α1 (1–335) but not α1 (1–312). AMPK activation by ZLN024 requires the pre-phosphorylation of Thr-172 by at least one upstream kinase and protects AMPK Thr-172 against dephosphorylation by PP2Cα. ZLN024 activated AMPK in L6 myotubes and stimulated glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation without increasing the ADP/ATP ratio. ZLN024 also activated AMPK in primary hepatocytes, decreased fatty acid synthesis and glucose output. Treatment of db/db mice with 15 mg/kg/day ZLN024 improved glucose tolerance; liver tissue weight, triacylglycerol and the total cholesterol content were decreased. The hepatic transcriptional level of G6Pase, FAS and mtGPAT were reduced. The transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the mitochondrial biogenesis of muscle tissue were elevated. The ACC phosphorylation was increased in muscle and liver. This study provides a novel allosteric AMPK activator for functional study in vitro and in vivo and demonstrates that AMPK allosteric activators could be a promising therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.
Hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and some risk factors determine therapies and prognosis of breast cancer. The risk factors distributed differently between patients with receptors. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of risk factors between subtypes of breast cancer by the 3 receptors in Chinese native women with a large sample size.
The multi-center study analyzed 4211 patient medical records from 1999 to 2008 in 7 regions of China. Data on patients’ demographic information, risk factors (menopausal status, parity, body mass index) and receptor statuses were extracted. Breast cancer subtypes included ER (+/−), PR (+/−), HER2 (+/−), 4 ER/PR and 4 molecular subtypes. Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests were used to estimate the difference. The unconditional logistic regression model was used for analysis, and presented p-value after Bonferroni correction in the results.
Compared to patients with negative progesterone receptor, the positive patients were younger at diagnosis, and reported less likely in postmenopausal status and lower parity (p<0.05). Comparing with the subtype of ER+/PR+, ER+/PR− subtype were 4-year older at diagnosis (OR = 1.02), more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.91) and more likely to have >1 parity (OR = 1.36) (p<0.05); ER−/PR− subtype were more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.33) and have >1 parity (OR = 1.19) (p<0.05). In contrast to the luminal A subtype, triple negative subtype had a lower BMI (OR = 0.96) and ORs of overweight and obesity reduced by >20% (p<0.05).
In this study, it was found that Chinese female patients did have statistically significant differences of age, menopausal status, parity and body mass index between breast cancer subtypes. Studies are warranted to further investigate the risk factors between subtypes, which was meaningful for prevention and treatment among Chinese females.