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Coupling Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with Lactoferrin as a Promising Strategy to Fine Regulate Bone Homeostasis
Lactoferrin (LF) is an interesting glycoprotein in the field of bone biology for its regulatory effect on cells involved in bone remodeling, that results compromised in several pathological conditions, as osteoporosis. In a previous study we observed that the coupling of LF and biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA), a material well-known for its bioactivity and osteoconductive properties, leads to a combined effect in the induction of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. On the basis of this evidence, the present study is an extension of our previous work aiming to investigate the synergistic effect of the coupling of HA and LF on bone homeostasis. Biomimetic HA nanocrystals were synthesized and functionalized with LF (HA-LF) and then pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and monocyte/macrophage cells lines (RAW 264.7), using as osteoclastogenesis in vitro model, were cultured separately or in co-culture in presence of HA-LF. The results clearly revealed that HA and LF act in synergism in the regulation of the bone homeostasis, working as anabolic factor for osteoblasts differentiation and bone matrix deposition, and as inhibitor of the osteoclast formation and activity.
Electrospun Nanostructured Fibers of Collagen-Biomimetic Apatite on Titanium Alloy
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Titanium and its alloys are currently the mainly used materials to manufacture orthopaedic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Although these materials are bioinert, the improvement of biological properties (e.g., bone implant contact) can be obtained by the application of a material that mimics the bone extracellular matrix. To this aim, this work describes a new method to produce nanostructured collagen-apatite composites on titanium alloy substrate, by combining electrospinning and biomimetic mineralization. The characterization results showed that the obtained mineralized scaffolds have morphological, structural, and chemical compositional features similar to natural bone extracellular matrix. Finally, the topographic distribution of the chemical composition in the mineralized matrix evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy demonstrated that the apatite nanocrystals cover the collagen fibers assembled by the electrospinning.
Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.
hydroxyapatite; nanocrystals; biomimetism; biomaterials; drug delivery; remineralization
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