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1.  Acute presentation of vasospastic angina induced by oral capecitabine: a case report 
Introduction
Oral capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil that has been integrated into the management of multiple cancer types because of the convenience of administration and its efficacy compared with 5-fluorouracil. Capecitabine mimics the pharmacokinetics of intravenous 5-fluorouracil. While cardiac events associated with the use of 5-fluorouracil are a well-known side effect, capecitabine-induced cardiotoxicity has only been rarely reported.
Case presentation
We present a case of a 46-year-old woman of Greek ethnicity who presented to our institution with an operated gastric sarcoma who experienced capecitabine-induced vasospastic angina. Primarily a clinical diagnosis of a possible acute coronary syndrome was proposed and the patient was admitted to the hospital for further investigation which was proved between normal limits. After a witnessed episode of angina, her prior history of capecitabine intake and an undertaken further imaging investigation we associated anginal symptoms and signs with vasospastic angina induced by capecitabine 36 hours prior to hospital admission.
Conclusion
Cardiologists should be aware of the potential cardiac hazards of capecitabine, especially in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Due to the increasing usage of capecitabine during the last years, patients should be warned for the possibility of chest pain, particularly during the first few days of capecitabine treatment. Specifically, patients developing acute coronary syndrome should not be retreated with capecitabine. On the other hand, due to its promising antitumoral efficacy, its use should not be discouraged.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-18
PMCID: PMC3923566  PMID: 24428956
Acute coronary syndrome; Capecitabine; Cardiotoxicity; Vasospastic angina
2.  Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation and its Correlation with Conventional Semen Parameters 
Background
The initial step in the diagnostic investigation of male infertility has been traditionally based on the conventional seminal profile. However, there are significant limitations regarding its ability to determine the underlying mechanisms that cause the disorder. Sperm DNA fragmentation has emerged as a potential causative factor of reproductive failure and its assessment has been suggested as a useful adjunct to the laboratory methodology of male infertility evaluation, especially before the application of assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Methods
A review of recent bibliography was carried out in PubMed by the use of relevant keywords, in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the conventional seminal parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation assessment as diagnostic tools in male infertility evaluation.
Results
A comprehensive diagnostic approach of male infertility should be based on a combination of diagnostic attributes, derived from the conventional semen analysis, as well as the investigation of genomic integrity testing.
Conclusion
Due to its strong correlation with several aspects of ART procedures and further consequences for the offspring, sperm DNA fragmentation is a parameter worth integrating in routine clinical practice. However, additional large scale studies focusing on specific subgroups of infertile men who may benefit from an efficient therapeutic management based on the optimization of sperm DNA integrity are needed.
PMCID: PMC3955419
Assisted reproduction; Conventional semen parameters; DNA fragmentation
3.  Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration 
The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.
doi:10.1155/2013/532657
PMCID: PMC3684096  PMID: 23819045
4.  Diabetes mellitus type I associated with dermatomyositis: an extraordinary rare case with a brief literature review 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr10.2008.1158.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is considered to be an autoimmune disease. IDDM is associated with other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a disease of autoimmune aetiology involving skin and skeletal muscles damaged by an inflammatory process dominated by lymphatic infiltration. The association of IDDM with DM is extraordinarily rare. To our best knowledge, to date only two reports—one of them referring to a patient in childhood—have been published worldwide. DM and IDDM affect children and young adults. Herein, a case of DM in association with IDDM in a 28-year-old man is presented.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2008.1158
PMCID: PMC3029914  PMID: 21686441
5.  Bilateral pulmonary nodules in an adult patient with bronchiolitis obliterans-organising pneumonia 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr08.2008.0809.
A 58-year-old male ex-smoker was admitted to hospital because of nodular infiltrates on chest x rays. He was complaining of fatigue, dyspnoea with exertion, low grade fever and weight loss. Physical examination was unremarkable. Bronchoscopy was inconclusive but revealed endobronchial lesions of chronic active inflammation. The diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis bronchiolitis obliterans-organising pneumonia (COP-BOOP) was established by open lung biopsy. Proliferative bronchiolitis with regions of organising pneumonia is the characteristic feature of COP. The radiological picture of bilateral pulmonary nodules is an infrequent manifestation of COP. Lung biopsy, open or with video assistance thoracic surgery, is recommended to confirm the diagnosis.
doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0809
PMCID: PMC3030000  PMID: 21691403
6.  Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with concomitant heterotopic pancreatic cystic neoplasia of the stomach: a case report and review of the literature 
A 60-year-old Caucasian male underwent a total pancreatectomy for a mixed type pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) arising in the main and secondary pancreatic ducts. During surgery, a subserosal polypoid mass was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric antrum and was enucleated. This mass was proven to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue with cystic neoplasia of the IPMN histologic subtype. Through an extensive search of the literature, we found that this is the first case ever reported with simultaneous existence of IPMN changes, in the main and secondary ducts of the orthotopic pancreas and in the heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the gastric wall.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-5-4
PMCID: PMC2823681  PMID: 20205774
7.  Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis presenting with hoarseness and dysphagia: a case report 
Introduction
Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis is an extremely rare condition. It usually presents with hoarseness, pain and/or difficulty in breathing.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis who presented with hoarseness and dysphagia.
Conclusion
A search of PubMed shows that dysphagia in patients with laryngeal amyloidosis has been reported only once, although this symptom is relatively common in other conditions presenting with laryngeal mass. There were no signs of any systemic disease in our patient and diagnosis was established histopathologically. She was treated surgically by microlaryngoscopy under general anesthesia and the mass was excised using a CO2 laser technology method.
doi:10.4076/1752-1947-3-9049
PMCID: PMC2767149  PMID: 19918287
8.  Pulmonary miliary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculous spondylitis; an extraordinary rare association: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7983.
In the last decade a significant rise in the prevalence of tuberculosis as well as in its extrapulmonary manifestations is detected worldwide. The central nervous system, the genitourinary tract, the organs of the abdomen and the skeletal system, are common sites of infection. Misdiagnosis and delay in treatment are common events. Herein, we present a case of a 78-year-old man non-smoker, with miliary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculous spondylitis. The patient presented with anemia and a left shoulder pain, accompanied by rigor and fever 37.5°C-38°C of one month duration. This entity is extremely rare, since only two similar cases have been reported in the English literature according to PubMed search.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-7983
PMCID: PMC2769394  PMID: 19918444
9.  Mucinous breast carcinoma presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple in a man: A case report 
Diagnostic Pathology  2008;3:42.
Introduction
Male breast cancer is rare compared to its female counterpart representing less than 1% of cancer in men. Moreover, mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is an extremely rare histological subtype of malignancy. Paget's disease of the nipple is rarely observed in males.
Case report
Herein, we describe a unique case of an 86 years old man with mucinous breast cancer presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple. According to the immunohistochemical evaluation the neoplastic cells were positive for estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR).
Conclusion
To our best knowledge this is the first case of mucinous male breast cancer presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-3-42
PMCID: PMC2584629  PMID: 18950495
10.  Alterations in Arterial Blood Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites 
In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/ Q) ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%), alcoholic 7 (14.24%), cardiac 2 (4.08%), and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%). Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97), hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%), gastritis 28 (57.14%), hepatoma 5 (10.2%), renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%), HbsAg (+) 24 (48.97%), and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%). Average PaO2 and SaO2 were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO2 and SaO2 was p<0.01). Respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis were acid-base disturbances observed. In conclusion, portopulmonary shunt, intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt and VA/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO2 and SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1838824  PMID: 17396160
liver cirrhosis; ascites; acid base disturbances; hepatopulmonary syndrome
11.  Chondrosarcoma of the spine: A rare case with unusual presentation 
Diagnostic Pathology  2006;1:39.
Chondrosarcoma is the third most common primary malignancy of bone, affecting primarily the pelvic and shoulder girdles and being extremely rare in the spine. Herein, we present a case of a 65-year-old woman with a rare chondrosarcoma of the spine, who presented with clinical symptoms from the lung metastasis. The neoplasm was grade II and exhibited overexpression of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. The latter has been associated with a high propensity for distant metastases.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-1-39
PMCID: PMC1634757  PMID: 17074093
12.  Communication: Synthesis of a Novel Triphenyltin(IV) Derivative of 2- Mercaptonicotinic Acid with Potent Cytotoxicity in vitro  
A novel triphenyltin(IV) derivative of 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (H2mna) of formula {[(C6H5)3Sn]2(mna).[(CH3)2CO]} (1) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and 1H, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structure of complex (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at 173(1) K. Compound (1) contains two triphenyltin moieties linked by a doubly de-protonated 2,mercaptonicotinic acid (H>2mna). It is an example of a pentacoordinated Ph3SnXY system with an axial-equatorial arrangement of the phenyl groups at Sn(1). Compound (1), exhibits potent, in vitro, cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, benzo[a]pyrene) carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1155/S1565363303000189
PMCID: PMC2267064  PMID: 18365056

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