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1.  Conserved Microsatellites in Ants Enable Population Genetic and Colony Pedigree Studies across a Wide Range of Species 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107334.
Broadly applicable polymorphic genetic markers are essential tools for population genetics, and different types of markers have been developed for this purpose. Microsatellites have been employed as particularly polymorphic markers for over 20 years. However, PCR primers for microsatellite loci are often not useful outside the species for which they were designed. This implies that a new set of loci has to be identified and primers developed for every new study species. To overcome this constraint, we identified 45 conserved microsatellite loci based on the eight currently available ant genomes and designed primers for PCR amplification. Among these loci, we chose 24 for in-depth study in six species covering six different ant subfamilies. On average, 11.16 of these 24 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in any given species. The average number of alleles for these polymorphic loci within single populations of the different species was 4.59. This set of genetic markers will thus be useful for population genetic and colony pedigree studies across a wide range of ant species, supplementing the markers available for previously studied species and greatly facilitating the study of the many ant species lacking genetic markers. Our study shows that it is possible to develop microsatellite loci that are both conserved over a broad range of taxa, yet polymorphic within species. This should encourage researchers to develop similar tools for other large taxonomic groups.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107334
PMCID: PMC4170976  PMID: 25244681
2.  Incidence of Papilledema and Obesity in Children Diagnosed With Idiopathic “Benign” Intracranial Hypertension: Case Series and Review 
Journal of child neurology  2010;25(11):1389-1392.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is an important cause of headaches in the pediatric population and can lead to permanent blindness if not diagnosed in a timely manner. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence of papilledema and obesity in children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients followed at The University of Texas Houston Pediatric Neurology Clinic. Papilledema was absent in 13 (48%) patients. The majority of our patients were nonobese (70%). Our results are contrary to the current medical practice of associating papilledema and obesity with idiopathic intracranial hypertension in childhood and highlight the importance of revised diagnostic criteria in this population needed to detect and manage this condition.
doi:10.1177/0883073810364853
PMCID: PMC3099426  PMID: 20357237
idiopathic intracranial hypertension; pseudotumor cerebri; papilledema; obesity
3.  Electroencephalogram discharges in atypical cognitive development 
Journal of child neurology  2010;25(5):556-566.
In order to investigate the significance of electroencephalogram discharges and their treatment we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 22 children with atypical cognitive development that did not respond to standard educational therapy and demonstrated discharges on electroencephalogram. Most children demonstrated no obvious symptoms of seizures and developmental regression and/or fluctuations were uncommon. The majority of children demonstrated a language and attention disorder and autism symptomatology and had multifocal discharges on electroencephalograms. Of the 20 patients treated with antiepileptic medications, 70% demonstrated definite improvement within one clinic visit. This study suggests that children with electroencephalogram discharges and developmental cognitive disorders demonstrate a unique pattern of symptomatology and discharges on electroencephalography. This study suggests that children with developmental cognitive disorders that do not respond to standard therapy may benefit from screening with an electroencephalogram and a trial of antiepileptic mediation if discharges are detected.
doi:10.1177/0883073809344743
PMCID: PMC2896832  PMID: 20299700
speech delay; attention deficit; pervasive developmental disorder; electroencephalography; magnetoencephalography; electroencephalogram discharges
4.  Rapamycin Reduces Seizure Frequency in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 
Journal of child neurology  2009;24(4):477.
The authors present a 10-year-old girl with tuberous sclerosis complex who has been receiving rapamycin for 10 months for seizure control. She was started at 0.05 mg/kg/d and titrated to an effective dose of 0.15 mg/kg/d. There was a dramatic reduction in seizure frequency with rapamycin therapy. Further studies are needed to objectively investigate the benefits of rapamycin in tuberous sclerosis complex and to clarify its mechanism of seizure control.
doi:10.1177/0883073808324535
PMCID: PMC3072696  PMID: 19151365
tuberous sclerosis; rapamycin; seizures
5.  Regression of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma With Rapamycin in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 
Journal of child neurology  2008;23(10):1238-1239.
The authors present a 21-year-old woman who has been receiving rapamycin for 5 months for bilateral subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. The patient was started at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. Levels were maintained between 11 and 13 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 2½ months after initiating rapamycin demonstrated a decrease in size of both astrocytomas (11 to 7.5 mm on the right and 8 to 5 mm on the left). Further studies are needed with prolonged observation to confirm these findings, determine the length of necessary treatment, and evaluate recurrence risk after discontinuation of rapamycin.
doi:10.1177/0883073808321764
PMCID: PMC3072698  PMID: 18952591
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma; tuberous sclerosis complex; rapamycin; astrocytoma
6.  Juvenile Onset Central Nervous System Folate Deficiency and Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Journal of child neurology  2007;23(1):106-107.
Isolated cerebral folate deficiency was detected in a 13-year-old girl with cognitive and motor difficulties and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Her serum contains autoantibodies that block membrane-bound folate receptors that are on the choroid plexus and diminish the uptake of folate into the spinal fluid. Whereas her serum folate exceeded 21 ng/mL, her spinal fluid contained 3.2 ng/mL of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as a consequence of the autoantibodies diminishing the uptake of this folate.
doi:10.1177/0883073807307986
PMCID: PMC3072705  PMID: 18056694
folate; rheumatoid; autoantibody
7.  Little effect of the tan locus on pigmentation in female hybrids between Drosophila santomea and D. melanogaster 
Cell  2009;139(6):1180-1188.
Previous work on Drosophila santomea suggested that its absence of abdominal pigmentation, compared to the other darkly-pigmented species, is based on mutations in the cis-regulatory region of tan inactivating the expression of that gene in the abdomen of D. santomea males and females. Our discovery that D. santomea males can produce viable hybrids when mated to D. melanogaster females enables us to use the armamentarium of genetic tools in the latter species to study the genetic basis of this interspecific difference in pigmentation. Hybridization tests using D. melanogaster deficiencies that include tan show no evidence that this locus is involved in the lighter pigmentation of D. santomea females; rather, the pigmentation difference appears to involve at least four other loci in the region. Earlier results implicating tan may have been based on a type of transgenic analysis that can give misleading results about the genes involved in an evolutionary change.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.033
PMCID: PMC2798109  PMID: 20005810
genetics of adaptation; cis-regulation
8.  Antineoplastic Activity of New Transition Metal Complexes of 6-Methylpyridine-2-carbaldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [VO2(mpETSC)] and [Pt(mpETSC)Cl] 
New complexes of dioxovanadium(V), zinc(II), ruthenium(II), palladium(II), and platinum(II) with 6-methylpyridine-2-carbaldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone (HmpETSC) have been synthesized. The composition of these complexes is discussed on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, Raman, NMR (1H, 13C, and 31P), and electronic spectral data. The X-ray crystal structures of [VO2(mpETSC)] and [Pt(mpETSC)Cl] are also reported. The HmpETSC and its [Zn(HmpETSC)Cl2] and [Pd(mpETSC)Cl] complexes exhibit antineoplastic activity against colon cancer human cell lines (HCT 116).
doi:10.1155/2010/149149
PMCID: PMC2909729  PMID: 20671978
9.  Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of Organotin(IV) Derivatives with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic Acids 
Organotin(IV) complexes with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic acids (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) of formulae [R2Sn(HL)2] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = Me- (1), n-Bu- (2)); [R3Sn(HL)] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (3), Ph- (4) or H2L = p-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (5), Ph- (6)) were synthesized by reacting a methanolic solution of di- and triorganotin(IV) compounds with an aqueous solution of the ligand (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) containing equimolar amounts of potassium hydroxide. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, Far-IR, TGA-DTA, FT-Raman, Mössbauer spectroscopy, 1H, 119Sn-NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1 and 2 have also been determined. Finally, the influence of these complexes 1–6 upon the catalytic peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically studied and the results showed that triorganotin(IV) complex 6 has the lowest IC50 value. Also complexes 1–6 were studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, and the results showed that the complexes have high activity against these cell lines with triphenyltin((IV) complex 4 to be the most active one.
doi:10.1155/2009/542979
PMCID: PMC2669538  PMID: 19390627
10.  Pressure-Tuning Raman Spectra of Diiodine Thioamide Compounds: Models for Antithyroid Drug Activity 
The pressure-tuning Raman spectra of five solid, diiodine heterocyclic thioamide compounds (mbztS)I2 (mbztS = N-methyl-2-mercaptobenzothiazole) (1); [(mbztS)2I]+[I7]− (2); (pySH)I2 (pySH = 2-mercaptopyridine) (3); [(pySH)(pyS]+[I3]− (4); (thpm)(I2)2 or possibly [(thpm)I2]+[I3]− (thpm = 2-mercapto-3,4,5,6-tertahydropyrimidine (5) have been measured for pressures up to ∼ 50 kbar using a diamond-anvil cell. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 undergo pressure-induced phase transitions at ∼ 35, ∼ 25, and ∼ 32 kbar, respectively. Following the phase transition in 1, the pressure dependences of the vibrational modes, which were originally located at 84, 111, and 161 cm−1 and are associated with the S⋯I–I linkage, are 2.08, 1.78, and 0.57 cm−1/kbar, respectively. These pressure dependences are typical of low-energy vibrations. The pressure-tuning FT-Raman results for the pairs of compounds 1 , 2, 3, and 4 are remarkably similar to each other suggesting that the compounds are most probably perturbed diiodide compounds rather than ionic ones. The Raman data for 5 show that it is best formulated as (thpm)(I2)2 rather than [(thpm)2I]+[I3]−.
doi:10.1155/BCA/2006/68542
PMCID: PMC1794079  PMID: 17497015

Results 1-10 (10)