Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable.
We hypothesized that nucleophosmin (NPM), a nucleolar phosphoprotein, is critical for Bax-mediated cell death. To test this hypothesis, Bax activation was induced by metabolic stress. During stress, nucleolar NPM translocated into the cytosol, NPM-Bax complexes formed, and both NPM and Bax accumulated in mitochondria. Expression of a cytosol-restricted NPM mutant (NPM-ΔNLS), but not a nucleus-restricted NPM mutant, increased NPM-Bax complex formation, mitochondrial NPM and Bax accumulation, mitochondrial membrane injury, caspase 3 activation, and ischemia-induced cell death. Coexpression of NPM-ΔNLS with constitutively active Bax mutants caused nearly universal cell death in the absence of metabolic stress, whereas expression of active Bax or NPM-ΔNLS alone did not. A Bax peptide that disrupts NPM-Bax interaction significantly reduced cell death caused by exposure to metabolic inhibitors in vitro and preserved kidney function after ischemia in vivo. Thus, NPM-Bax interaction enhances mitochondrial Bax accumulation, organelle injury, and cell death. NPM-Bax complex formation is a novel target for preventing ischemic tissue injury.
Genetic incorporation of a cyclopropene amino acid, Nε-(1-methylcycloprop-2-enecarboxamido)-lysine (CpK), into sperm whale myoglobin site-specifically in E. coli as well as enhanced green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells was achieved through amber codon suppression employing an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair. Because of its high ring strain, cyclopropene exhibited fast reaction kinetics (up to 58 ± 16 M−1 s−1) in the photoclick reaction and allowed rapid (~ 2 min) bioorthogonal labeling of proteins in mammalian cells.
alkene; cyclopropene; tetrazole; bioorthogonal; proteins
The successful treatment of cancer with dendritic cell (DC) tumor vaccine is highly dependent on the efficacy of antigen presentation and T cell activation. In the present study, a novel vaccine of DCs fused with autologous tumor cells was introduced, which had a marked ability to suppress head and neck carcinoma. DCs generated from the bone marrow of mice were fused with an autologous tumor cell line using polyethylene glycol (PEG). To observe the fused cells, confocal microscopy and FACS analysis were performed. Subsequently, the activation and proliferation of T cells, as well as animal experiments, were examined. The efficiency of DC/tumor fusion was 18.03% and T cells were well-activated by the hybrids. The volumes of tumors on the tumor-bearing mice were controlled, survival time of tumor-bearing mice was prolonged and the level of IFN-γ in serum was significantly increased compared with the control group and lysate-pulsed DC group. The results indicate that the DC/tumor fusion vaccine appears to be more effective than DCs pulsed with tumor lysate for the treatment of head and neck carcinoma, which may be useful in future clinical studies.
head and neck carcinoma; dendritic cell; cell fusion; cancer vaccine
A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs’ concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10−3 pg/µm2 to (20±1.8) ×10−3 pg/µm2 when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×103 p/s/cm2/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy.
Effects of Epimedium extract and its constituent icariin on peripheral nerve repair were investigated in a crush injury rat model. Animals were divided into four groups: sham, control, Epimedium extract, and icariin groups. At postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI), nerve electrophysiology, nerve pinch test, and muscle wet weight. Results showed that at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery rats in the Epimedium group displayed a better recovery of nerve function than that in the icariin and control groups, with better recovery in the icariin group than in the control group. The nerve pinch test showed that nerve regeneration was greater in the Epimedium group and the icariin group as compared to the control group. In addition, the muscle wet weight in the Epimedium group was significantly improved when compared with the icariin group, and the improvement in the icariin group was better than that in the control group at 8 weeks after operation. Our findings suggest that Epimedium extract effectively promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and improves the function of damaged nerves.
The genetic incorporation of one azide-containing and one keto-containing noncanonical amino acids into a protein at one amber and one ochre mutation sites respectively followed by their orthogonal reactions with one hydroxylamine-containing and one cyclooctyne-containing dyes allows highly efficient one-pot site-specific dual labeling of the protein in a catalyst-free fashion.
Förster resonance energy transfer; dual labeling; noncanonical amino acid; amber suppression; ochre suppression
Using an evolved pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNAPyl pair, a Se-alkylselenocysteine was genetically incorporated into histone H3 with a high protein expression yield. Quantitative oxidative elimination of Se-alkylselenocysteine followed by Michael addition reactions with various thiol nucleophiles generated biologically active mimics of H3 with posttranslational modifications including lysine methylation, lysine acetylation, and serine phosphorylation.
Radix Hedysari is an herbal preparation frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine. It can promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, but its effect on the amplification ratio (the ratio of distal to proximal fibers) during peripheral nerve regeneration has not yet been examined. In this study, we explored the effect of Hedysari extract on the amplification ratio in the peripheral nerve. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups at random: normal group (without surgery), model group (given sleeve nerve bridging surgery, but without adjuvant treatment) and treatment group (given sleeve nerve bridging surgery and then given Hedysari extract as adjuvant treatment). Twelve weeks after surgery, general observations, electrophysiological examination, histological analysis, morphometric measurements, and amplification ratio calculations were made. The results showed that nerve conduction velocity, the fiber and axon diameter, the g-ratio, the number of regenerating nerve fibers and the amplification ratio were better in the treatment group than in the model group, suggesting that Hedysari extract can effectively promote the growth of lateral buds in the proximal nerve stump and substantially improve the amplification effect during peripheral nerve regeneration.
Motivation: Protein contact map describes the pairwise spatial and functional relationship of residues in a protein and contains key information for protein 3D structure prediction. Although studied extensively, it remains challenging to predict contact map using only sequence information. Most existing methods predict the contact map matrix element-by-element, ignoring correlation among contacts and physical feasibility of the whole-contact map. A couple of recent methods predict contact map by using mutual information, taking into consideration contact correlation and enforcing a sparsity restraint, but these methods demand for a very large number of sequence homologs for the protein under consideration and the resultant contact map may be still physically infeasible.
Results: This article presents a novel method PhyCMAP for contact map prediction, integrating both evolutionary and physical restraints by machine learning and integer linear programming. The evolutionary restraints are much more informative than mutual information, and the physical restraints specify more concrete relationship among contacts than the sparsity restraint. As such, our method greatly reduces the solution space of the contact map matrix and, thus, significantly improves prediction accuracy. Experimental results confirm that PhyCMAP outperforms currently popular methods no matter how many sequence homologs are available for the protein under consideration.
Pedobacter arcticus sp. nov. was originally isolated from tundra soil collected from Ny-Ålesund, in the Arctic region of Norway. It is a Gram-negative bacterium which shows bleb-shaped appendages on the cell surface. Here, we report the draft annotated genome sequence of Pedobacter arcticus sp. nov., which belongs to the genus Pedobacter.
With the rapid development of nanotechnology, inorganic magnetic nanoparticles, especially iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs), have emerged as great vehicles for biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to rationally design IO-based gene delivery nanovectors, surface modification is essential and determines the loading and release of the gene of interest. Here we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery vehicles based on low molecular weight N-alkyl polyethylenimine-stabilized IOs. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in this chapter.
Expression of the transcription factor hypoxiainducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, particularly in relation to tumour angiogenesis. Expression of the HIF-1α subunit is responsive to changes in oxygen levels. Overexpression of HIF-1α has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the expression of HIF-1α in tongue carcinoma was associated with established clinicopathological features. Tumour specimens from 120 patients with histologically-proven, surgically-treated tongue carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining for expression of HIF-1α. The mRNA levels of HIF-1α were measured in 45 fresh, paired samples of tongue carcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal tissues using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). HIF-1α was found to be frequently overexpressed in tumours in a hypoxia-independent manner. The expression of HIF-1α correlated with the five-year survival rate (P<0.01) and disease-free period (P<0.01). Increased expression of HIF-1α correlated significantly with clinical stage (P=0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034). Compared with paired normal tissues, HIF-1α mRNA levels were significantly increased in carcinoma of the tongue. A positive correlation was observed between HIF-1α mRNA levels and pathological differentiation grade. A significant difference in the levels of HIF-1α expression was detected between groups of patients with lymph node metastases and patients with no metastases. These results indicate that overexpression of HIF-1α may be an indicator of poor prognosis in carcinoma of the tongue. The expression of HIF-1α may be associated with lymph node metastasis.
hypoxia-inducible factor 1; tongue carcinoma; prognosis
We report the discovery of two long-wavelength (365 nm) photoactivatable diaryltetrazoles through screening a small library of diaryltetrazoles that were designed using a ‘scaffold hopping’ strategy. A naphthalene-derived tetrazole showed excellent reactivity in the photoinduced cycloaddition reaction with methyl methacrylate under 365-nm photoirradiation in PBS buffer. Besides, the brightly fluorescent pyrazoline cycloadducts that were formed further increase the potential utility of these new diaryltetrazoles as “photoclick” reagents and as reporters in biological studies.
bioorthogonal chemistry; photoclick chemistry; dipolar cycloaddition; tetrazoles; fluorophores
Three p160 family members, p/CIP, SRC1, and TIF2, have been identified as transcriptional coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors in vitro. In a previous study, we reported initial characterization of the obesity-resistant phenotypes of p/CIP and SRC-1 double knockout (DKO) mice, which exhibit increased energy expenditure, and suggested that nuclear hormone receptor target genes were involved in these phenotypes. In this study, we demonstrate that p/CIP and SRC1 control insulin signaling in a cell-autonomous manner both in vitro and in vivo. Genetic deletion of p/CIP and SRC-1 increases glucose uptake and enhances insulin sensitivity in both regular chow- and high fat diet-fed DKO mice despite increased food intake. Interestingly, we discover that loss of p/CIP and SRC-1 results in resistance to age-related obesity and glucose intolerance. We show that expression levels of a key insulin signaling component, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), are significantly increased in two cell lines representing fat and muscle lineages with p/CIP and SRC-1 deletions and in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of DKO mice; this may account for increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. This is the first evidence that the p160 coactivators control insulin signaling and glucose metabolism through IRS1. Therefore, our studies indicate that p/CIP and SRC-1 are potential therapeutic targets not only for obesity but also for diabetes.
The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design.
We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group). Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a) classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education), b) school environment support, c) family involvement, and d) fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants.
The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China.
Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819
Hexokinase (HK), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, regulates cell survival either by promoting metabolism and/or inhibiting apoptosis. HKI and HKII, isoforms with mitochondrial targeting sequences, were studied in renal epithelial cells after ATP depletion, an insult that activates GSK3β and Bax, induces mitochondrial membrane injury and causes apoptosis. Stress decreased total ATP content, caused HKII to dissociate from mitochondria, released mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c, activated caspase-3 and reduced cell survival. Compared to control, HKI or II over-expression improved survival after stress without preventing GSK3β or Bax activation, increasing ATP content, or reducing mitochondrial fragmentation. HKI or HKII over-expression increased mitochondria-associated, isoform-specific HK content and decreased mitochondrial membrane injury and apoptosis. In vivo, HKII localized to the murine proximal tubule. Ischemia reduced total HKII content and caused mitochondrial HKII dissociation in proximal but not distal tubules. In HK over-expressing cells, HKII and Bax did not interact before or after stress. However, HK over-expression increased organelle-associated HK during stress and decreased mitochondrial Bax accumulation, outer membrane injury and apoptosis in a manner that appears to be independent of its effect on renal epithelial cell ATP content, suggesting that HK and Bax compete for similar mitochondrial membrane binding sites.
acute kidney injury; apoptosis; proximal tubule; renal ischemia-reperfuison
Compared with the protein 3-class secondary structure (SS) prediction, the 8-class prediction gains less attention and is also much more challenging, especially for proteins with few sequence homologs. This paper presents a new probabilistic method for 8-class SS prediction using conditional neural fields (CNFs), a recently invented probabilistic graphical model. This CNF method not only models the complex relationship between sequence features and SS, but also exploits the interdependency among SS types of adjacent residues. In addition to sequence profiles, our method also makes use of non-evolutionary information for SS prediction. Tested on the CB513 and RS126 data sets, our method achieves Q8 accuracy of 64.9 and 64.7%, respectively, which are much better than the SSpro8 web server (51.0 and 48.0%, respectively). Our method can also be used to predict other structure properties (e.g. solvent accessibility) of a protein or the SS of RNA.
Bioinformatics; Conditional neural fields; Eight class; Protein; Secondary structure prediction
OSCC is one of the most common malignancies and numerous clinical agents currently applied in combinative chemotherapy. Here we reported a novel therapeutic strategy, SAHA and DDP-loaded PECE (SAHA-DDP/PECE), can improve the therapeutic effects of intratumorally chemotherapy on OSCC cell xenografts.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the SAHA-DDP/PECE in situ controlled drug delivery system on OSCC cell xenografts.
A biodegradable and thermosensitive hydrogel was successfully developed to load SAHA and DDP. Tumor-beared mice were intratumorally administered with SAHA-DDP/PECE at 50 mg/kg (SAHA) +2 mg/kg (DDP) in 100 ul PECE hydrogel every two weeks, SAHA-DDP at 50 mg/kg(SAHA) +2 mg/kg(DDP) in NS, 2 mg/kg DDP solution, 50 mg/kg SAHA solution, equal volume of PECE hydrogel, or equal volume of NS on the same schedule, respectively. The antineoplastic actions of SAHA and DDP alone and in combination were evaluated using the determination of tumor volume, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and TUNEL analysis.
The hydrogel system was a free-flowing sol at 10°C, become gel at body temperature, and could sustain more than 14 days in situ. SAHA-DDP/PECE was subsequently injected into tumor OSCC tumor-beared mice. The results demonstrated that such a strategy as this allows the carrier system to show a sustained release of SAHA and DDP in vivo, and could improved therapeutic effects compared with a simple additive therapeutic effect of SAHA and DDP on mouse model.
Our research indicated that the novel SAHA-DDP/PECE system based on biodegradable PECE copolymer enhanced the therapeutic effects and could diminished the side effects of SAHA/DDP. The present work might be of great importance to the further exploration of the potential application of SAHA/DDP-hydrogel controlled drug release system in the treatment of OSCC.
The role of mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a key regulator of mitochondrial morphology and function in the renal stress response is unknown. To assess its role, the MFN2 floxed gene was conditionally deleted in the kidney of mice (MFN2 cKO) by Pax2 promoter driven Cre expression (Pax2Cre). MFN2 cKO caused severe mitochondrial fragmentation in renal epithelial cells that are critical for normal kidney tubular function. However, despite a small (20%) decrease in nephron number, newborn cKO pups had organ or tubular function that did not differ from littermate Cre-negative pups. MFN2 deficiency in proximal tubule epithelial cells in primary culture induced mitochondrial fragmentation but did not significantly alter ATP turnover, maximal mitochondrial oxidative reserve capacity, or the low level of oxygen consumption during cyanide exposure. MFN2 deficiency also did not increase apoptosis of tubule epithelial cells under non-stress conditions. In contrast, metabolic stress caused by ATP depletion exacerbated mitochondrial outer membrane injury and increased apoptosis by 80% in MFN2 deficient vs. control cells. Despite similar stress-induced Bax 6A7 epitope exposure in MFN2 deficient and control cells, MFN2 deficiency significantly increased mitochondrial Bax accumulation and was associated with greater release of both apoptosis inducing factor and cytochrome c. In conclusion, MFN2 deficiency in the kidney causes mitochondrial fragmentation but does not affect kidney or tubular function during development or under non-stress conditions. However, MFN2 deficiency exacerbates renal epithelial cell injury by promoting Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane injury and apoptosis.
Successful treatment of cancer with dendritic cell tumor vaccine is highly dependent on how effectively the vaccine migrates into lymph nodes and activates T cells. In this study, a simple method was developed to trace migration of dendritic cells to lymph nodes.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared to label dendritic cells generated from bone marrow of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice, to explore the fluorescence intensity of EGFP influenced by the SPIO, and to make images of labeled dendritic cells with the help of magnetic resonance imaging in vitro. The SPIO-EGFP-labeled dendritic cells were injected into the footpads of five mice. After 48 hours, magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, confocal imaging, and Prussian blue staining were used to confirm migration of the SPIO-EGFP-labeled dendritic cells into draining lymph nodes.
The synthetic SPIO nanoparticles had a spherical shape and desirable superparamagnetism, and confocal imaging and Prussian blue staining showed perfect labeling efficiency as well. Furthermore, the dendritic cells dual-labeled by SPIO and EGFP could migrate into lymph nodes after footpad injection, and could be detected by both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging simultaneously, which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Prussian blue staining. The percentage of dendritic cells migrated to the draining lymph nodes was about 4%.
Synthetic SPIO nanoparticles are strong contrast agents with good biocompatibility, and EGFP transgenic dendritic cells can be labeled efficiently by SPIO, which are suitable for further study of the migratory behavior and biodistribution of dendritic cells in vivo.
magnetic resonance imaging; optical imaging; dendritic cell; superparamagnetic iron oxide; cell tracking
Genistein, one of the major isoflavones, has received great attention as a phytoestrogen and potential cancer chemoprevention agent. However, the dissolution and bioavailability of genistein from solid oral preparations is low due to its poor water solubility.
In order to improve the oral bioavailability of genistein, genistein nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation technique using Eudragit® E100 as carriers and an optimized formulation of mass ratio (genistein:Eudragit E100, 1:10). The mean particle size of genistein nanoparticles was approximately 120 nm when diluted 100 times with distilled water. The drug-loaded nanoparticles were spherical on observation by transmission electric microscopy.
Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the genistein nanoparticles were approximately 50.61% and 5.02%, respectively. Release of drug from the genistein nanoparticles was two times greater than that from the conventional capsules. After administration of genistein suspension or genistein nanoparticles at a single dose of 100 mg/kg to fasted rats, the relative bioavailability of genistein from the nanoparticles compared with the reference suspension was 241.8%.
These results suggested that a nanoparticle system is a potentially promising formulation for the efficient delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs by oral administration.
bioavailability; dissolution; genistein; nanoparticles; nanoprecipitation technique
The neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been proposed to be a regulator of the development of morphine analgesic tolerance and thereby could be a target to reduce the induction of this phenomenon under clinical conditions. However, the mechanisms of CGRP regulation are unclear. We investigated here the possible role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in CGRP regulation following chronic morphine treatment.
A 7-day treatment with morphine (15 μg/day) led to an increase in CGRP contents in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and this effect was prevented by the inhibition of the ERK, p38 or CaMKII pathway. The phosphorylation/activation of ERK, p38 and CaMKII was enhanced in the SCDH following chronic morphine while in DRG only the phosphorylation of CaMKII was increased. Moreover, our chronic morphine treatment up-regulated neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) levels in the SCDH, an effect blocked by the inhibition of the ERK, p38 or CaMKII pathway. The blockade of nNOS activity also suppressed chronic morphine-induced CGRP increases in the DRG and SCDH. Double immunofluorescence studies revealed that nNOS and CaMKII are co-localized in the SCDH and that CaMKII is activated in CGRP-expressing DRG neurons.
The activation of spinal ERK, p38 and CaMKII, alongside nNOS, is involved in chronic morphine-induced CGRP up-regulation in both the DRG and SCDH. Moreover, the stimulation of CaMKII in the DRG likely directly regulates the expression of CGRP associated with morphine analgesic tolerance.
CGRP; ERK; p38; CaMKII; morphine
We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.
(170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.4580) Optical diagnostics for medicine; (180.4315) Nonlinear microscopy; (300.6230) Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy