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author:("Ma, mianzhu")
1.  MRFalign: Protein Homology Detection through Alignment of Markov Random Fields 
PLoS Computational Biology  2014;10(3):e1003500.
Sequence-based protein homology detection has been extensively studied and so far the most sensitive method is based upon comparison of protein sequence profiles, which are derived from multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of sequence homologs in a protein family. A sequence profile is usually represented as a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) or an HMM (Hidden Markov Model) and accordingly PSSM-PSSM or HMM-HMM comparison is used for homolog detection. This paper presents a new homology detection method MRFalign, consisting of three key components: 1) a Markov Random Fields (MRF) representation of a protein family; 2) a scoring function measuring similarity of two MRFs; and 3) an efficient ADMM (Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers) algorithm aligning two MRFs. Compared to HMM that can only model very short-range residue correlation, MRFs can model long-range residue interaction pattern and thus, encode information for the global 3D structure of a protein family. Consequently, MRF-MRF comparison for remote homology detection shall be much more sensitive than HMM-HMM or PSSM-PSSM comparison. Experiments confirm that MRFalign outperforms several popular HMM or PSSM-based methods in terms of both alignment accuracy and remote homology detection and that MRFalign works particularly well for mainly beta proteins. For example, tested on the benchmark SCOP40 (8353 proteins) for homology detection, PSSM-PSSM and HMM-HMM succeed on 48% and 52% of proteins, respectively, at superfamily level, and on 15% and 27% of proteins, respectively, at fold level. In contrast, MRFalign succeeds on 57.3% and 42.5% of proteins at superfamily and fold level, respectively. This study implies that long-range residue interaction patterns are very helpful for sequence-based homology detection. The software is available for download at http://raptorx.uchicago.edu/download/. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2–5.
Author Summary
Sequence-based protein homology detection has been extensively studied, but it remains very challenging for remote homologs with divergent sequences. So far the most sensitive methods employ HMM-HMM comparison, which models a protein family using HMM (Hidden Markov Model) and then detects homologs using HMM-HMM alignment. HMM cannot model long-range residue interaction patterns and thus, carries very little information regarding the global 3D structure of a protein family. As such, HMM comparison is not sensitive enough for distantly-related homologs. In this paper, we present an MRF-MRF comparison method for homology detection. In particular, we model a protein family using Markov Random Fields (MRF) and then detect homologs by MRF-MRF alignment. Compared to HMM, MRFs are able to model long-range residue interaction pattern and thus, contains information for the overall 3D structure of a protein family. Consequently, MRF-MRF comparison is much more sensitive than HMM-HMM comparison. To implement MRF-MRF comparison, we have developed a new scoring function to measure the similarity of two MRFs and also an efficient ADMM algorithm to optimize the scoring function. Experiments confirm that MRF-MRF comparison indeed outperforms HMM-HMM comparison in terms of both alignment accuracy and remote homology detection, especially for mainly beta proteins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003500
PMCID: PMC3967925  PMID: 24675572
2.  Protein threading using context-specific alignment potential 
Bioinformatics  2013;29(13):i257-i265.
Motivation: Template-based modeling, including homology modeling and protein threading, is the most reliable method for protein 3D structure prediction. However, alignment errors and template selection are still the main bottleneck for current template-base modeling methods, especially when proteins under consideration are distantly related.
Results: We present a novel context-specific alignment potential for protein threading, including alignment and template selection. Our alignment potential measures the log-odds ratio of one alignment being generated from two related proteins to being generated from two unrelated proteins, by integrating both local and global context-specific information. The local alignment potential quantifies how well one sequence residue can be aligned to one template residue based on context-specific information of the residues. The global alignment potential quantifies how well two sequence residues can be placed into two template positions at a given distance, again based on context-specific information. By accounting for correlation among a variety of protein features and making use of context-specific information, our alignment potential is much more sensitive than the widely used context-independent or profile-based scoring function. Experimental results confirm that our method generates significantly better alignments and threading results than the best profile-based methods on several large benchmarks. Our method works particularly well for distantly related proteins or proteins with sparse sequence profiles because of the effective integration of context-specific, structure and global information.
Availability: http://raptorx.uchicago.edu/download/.
Contact: jinboxu@gmail.com
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt210
PMCID: PMC3694651  PMID: 23812991
3.  Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1448.
Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures.
doi:10.1038/srep01448
PMCID: PMC3596798  PMID: 23486213
4.  A conditional neural fields model for protein threading 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(12):i59-i66.
Motivation: Alignment errors are still the main bottleneck for current template-based protein modeling (TM) methods, including protein threading and homology modeling, especially when the sequence identity between two proteins under consideration is low (<30%).
Results: We present a novel protein threading method, CNFpred, which achieves much more accurate sequence–template alignment by employing a probabilistic graphical model called a Conditional Neural Field (CNF), which aligns one protein sequence to its remote template using a non-linear scoring function. This scoring function accounts for correlation among a variety of protein sequence and structure features, makes use of information in the neighborhood of two residues to be aligned, and is thus much more sensitive than the widely used linear or profile-based scoring function. To train this CNF threading model, we employ a novel quality-sensitive method, instead of the standard maximum-likelihood method, to maximize directly the expected quality of the training set. Experimental results show that CNFpred generates significantly better alignments than the best profile-based and threading methods on several public (but small) benchmarks as well as our own large dataset. CNFpred outperforms others regardless of the lengths or classes of proteins, and works particularly well for proteins with sparse sequence profiles due to the effective utilization of structure information. Our methodology can also be adapted to protein sequence alignment.
Contact: j3xu@ttic.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts213
PMCID: PMC3371845  PMID: 22689779

Results 1-4 (4)