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1.  ATM Alters the Otherwise Robust Chromatin Mobility at Sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) in Human Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92640.
Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can lead to the formation of chromosome rearrangements through error prone repair. In mammalian cells the positional stability of chromatin contributes to the maintenance of genome integrity. DSBs exhibit only a small, submicron scale diffusive mobility, but a slight increase in the mobility of chromatin domains by the induction of DSBs might influence repair fidelity and the formation of translocations. The radiation-induced local DNA decondensation in the vicinity of DSBs is one factor potentially enhancing the mobility of DSB-containing chromatin domains. Therefore in this study we focus on the influence of different chromatin modifying proteins, known to be activated by the DNA damage response, on the mobility of DSBs. IRIF (ionizing radiation induced foci) in U2OS cells stably expressing 53BP1-GFP were used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. Low angle charged particle irradiation, known to trigger a pronounced DNA decondensation, was used for the defined induction of linear tracks of IRIF. Our results show that movement of IRIF is independent of the investigated chromatin modifying proteins like ACF1 or PARP1 and PARG. Also depletion of proteins that tether DNA strands like MRE11 and cohesin did not alter IRIF dynamics significantly. Inhibition of ATM, a key component of DNA damage response signaling, resulted in a pronounced confinement of DSB mobility, which might be attributed to a diminished radiation induced decondensation. This confinement following ATM inhibition was confirmed using X-rays, proving that this effect is not restricted to densely ionizing radiation. In conclusion, repair sites of DSBs exhibit a limited mobility on a small spatial scale that is mainly unaffected by depletion of single remodeling or DNA tethering proteins. However, it relies on functional ATM kinase which is considered to influence the chromatin structure after irradiation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092640
PMCID: PMC3961414  PMID: 24651490
2.  Clustered DNA damage induces pan-nuclear H2AX phosphorylation mediated by ATM and DNA–PK 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(12):6109-6118.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered as the most deleterious DNA lesions, and their repair is further complicated by increasing damage complexity. However, the molecular effects of clustered lesions are yet not fully understood. As the locally restricted phosphorylation of H2AX to form γH2AX is a key step in facilitating efficient DSB repair, we investigated this process after localized induction of clustered damage by ionizing radiation. We show that in addition to foci at damaged sites, H2AX is also phosphorylated in undamaged chromatin over the whole-cell nucleus in human and rodent cells, but this is not related to apoptosis. This pan-nuclear γH2AX is mediated by the kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA–PK) that also phosphorylate H2AX at DSBs. The pan-nuclear response is dependent on the amount of DNA damage and is transient even under conditions of impaired DSB repair. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we found that MDC1, but not 53BP1, binds to the nuclear-wide γH2AX. Consequently, the accumulation of MDC1 at DSBs is reduced. Altogether, we show that a transient dose-dependent activation of the kinases occurring on complex DNA lesions leads to their nuclear-wide distribution and H2AX phosphorylation, yet without eliciting a full pan-nuclear DNA damage response.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt304
PMCID: PMC3695524  PMID: 23620287
3.  Organotypic slice cultures of human glioblastoma reveal different susceptibilities to treatments 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;15(6):670-681.
Background
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common lethal brain tumor in human adults, with no major therapeutic breakthroughs in recent decades. Research is based mostly on human tumor cell lines deprived of their organotypic environment or inserted into immune-deficient animals required for graft survival. Here, we describe how glioblastoma specimens obtained from surgical biopsy material can be sectioned and transferred into cultures within minutes.
Methods
Slices were kept in 6-well plates, allowing direct observation, application of temozolomide, and irradiation. At the end of experiments, slice cultures were processed for histological analysis including hematoxylin-eosin staining, detection of proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis/cell death (cleaved caspase 3, propidium iodide), DNA double-strand breaks (γH2AX), and neural subpopulations. First clinical trials employed irradiation with the heavy ion carbon for the treatment of glioblastoma patients, but the biological effects and most effective dose regimens remain to be established. Therefore, we developed an approach to expose glioblastoma slice cultures to 12C and X-rays.
Results
We found preservation of the individual histopathology over at least 16 days. Treatments resulted in activation of caspase 3, inhibition of proliferation, and cell loss. Irradiation induced γH2AX. In line with clinical observations, individual tumors differed significantly in their susceptibility to temozolomide (0.4%–2.5% apoptosis and 1%–15% cell loss).
Conclusion
Glioblastoma multiforme slice cultures provide a unique tool to explore susceptibility of individual tumors for specific therapies including heavy ions, thus potentially allowing more personalized treatments plus exploration of mechanisms of (and strategies to overcome) tumor resistance.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/not003
PMCID: PMC3661091  PMID: 23576601
glioblastoma multiforme; organotypic slice culture; human test system; heavy ions
4.  Reduced contribution of thermally labile sugar lesions to DNA double strand break formation after exposure to heavy ions 
In cells exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing-radiation (IR), double-strand-breaks (DSBs) form within clustered-damage-sites (CDSs) from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that all DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected by the cellular DNA-damage-response (DDR) apparatus. However, there is evidence that the pool of DSBs detected by physical methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), comprises not only promptly forming DSBs (prDSBs) but also DSBs developing during lysis at high temperatures from thermally-labile sugar-lesions (TLSLs). We recently demonstrated that conversion of TLSLs to DNA breaks and ultimately to DSBs also occurs in cells during the first hour of post-irradiation incubation at physiological temperatures. Thus, TLSL-dependent DSBs (tlDSBs) are not an avoidable technique-related artifact, but a reality the cell always faces. The biological consequences of tlDSBs and the dependence of their formation on LET require in-depth investigation. Heavy-ions (HI) are a promising high-LET radiation modality used in cancer treatment. HI are also encountered in space and generate serious radiation protection problems to prolonged space missions. Here, we study, therefore, the effect of HI on the yields of tlDSBs and prDSBs. We report a reduction in the yield of tlDBSs stronger than that earlier reported for neutrons, and with pronounced cell line dependence. We conclude that with increasing LET the complexity of CDSs increases resulting in a commensurate increase in the yield prDSBs and a decrease in tlDSBs. The consequences of these effects to the relative biological effectiveness are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-77
PMCID: PMC3627621  PMID: 23547740
DNA double strand breaks (DSB); Ionizing radiation (IR); High LET; Heavy ions; Labile lesions; Radiation chemistry
5.  p53-independent early and late apoptosis is mediated by ceramide after exposure of tumor cells to photon or carbon ion irradiation 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:151.
Background
To determine whether ceramide is responsible for the induction of p53-independent early or late apoptosis in response to high- and low-Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) irradiation.
Methods
Four cell lines displaying different radiosensitivities and p53-protein status were irradiated with photons or 33.4 or 184 keV/μm carbon ions. The kinetics of ceramide production was quantified by fluorescent microscopy or High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatogaphy and the sequence of events leading to apoptosis by flow cytometry.
Results
Regardless of the p53-status, both low and high-LET irradiation induced an early ceramide production in radiosensitive cells and late in the radioresistant. This production strongly correlated with the level of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and delayed apoptosis in the radioresistant ones, regardless of radiation quality, tumor type, radiosensitivity, or p53-status. Inhibition of caspase activity or ceramide production showed that, for both types of radiation, ceramide is essential for the initiation of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and late apoptosis following mitotic catastrophe in radioresistant cells.
Conclusions
Ceramide is a determining factor in the onset of early and late apoptosis after low and high-LET irradiation and is the mediator of the p53-independent-apoptotic pathway. We propose that ceramide is the molecular bridge between mitotic catastrophe and the commitment phase of delayed apoptosis in response to irradiation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-151
PMCID: PMC3621616  PMID: 23530619
Ceramide; Carbon ion irradiation; High- and low-LET-irradiation; Early and late apoptosis; p53-independent-apoptosis
7.  Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Early DNA Damage Response Proteins on Complex DNA Lesions 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e57953.
The response of cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is determined by the activation of multiple pathways aimed at repairing the injury and maintaining genomic integrity. Densely ionizing radiation induces complex damage consisting of different types of DNA lesions in close proximity that are difficult to repair and may promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about the dynamic behavior of repair proteins on complex lesions. In this study we use live-cell imaging for the spatio-temporal characterization of early protein interactions at damage sites of increasing complexity. Beamline microscopy was used to image living cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins during and immediately after charged particle irradiation to reveal protein accumulation at damaged sites in real time. Information on the mobility and binding rates of the recruited proteins was obtained from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Recruitment of the DNA damage sensor protein NBS1 accelerates with increasing lesion density and saturates at very high damage levels. FRAP measurements revealed two different binding modalities of NBS1 to damage sites and a direct impact of lesion complexity on the binding. Faster recruitment with increasing lesion complexity was also observed for the mediator MDC1, but mobility was limited at very high damage densities due to nuclear-wide binding. We constructed a minimal computer model of the initial response to DSB based on known protein interactions only. By fitting all measured data using the same set of parameters, we can reproduce the experimentally characterized steps of the DNA damage response over a wide range of damage densities. The model suggests that the influence of increasing lesion density accelerating NBS1 recruitment is only dependent on the different binding modes of NBS1, directly to DSB and to the surrounding chromatin via MDC1. This elucidates an impact of damage clustering on repair without the need of invoking extra processing steps.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057953
PMCID: PMC3582506  PMID: 23469115
8.  Nanolesions induced by heavy ions in human tissues: Experimental and theoretical studies 
Summary
The biological effects of energetic heavy ions are attracting increasing interest for their applications in cancer therapy and protection against space radiation. The cascade of events leading to cell death or late effects starts from stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale and the corresponding lesions in biological molecules, primarily DNA. We have developed experimental techniques to visualize DNA nanolesions induced by heavy ions. Nanolesions appear in cells as “streaks” which can be visualized by using different DNA repair markers. We have studied the kinetics of repair of these “streaks” also with respect to the chromatin conformation. Initial steps in the modeling of the energy deposition patterns at the micrometer and nanometer scale were made with MCHIT and TRAX models, respectively.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.64
PMCID: PMC3458601  PMID: 23019551
DNA repair; heavy ions; microdosimetry; Monte Carlo simulations; nanolesions; radiation-induced nanostructures
9.  DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin elicit fast repair protein recruitment, histone H2AX phosphorylation and relocation to euchromatin 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(15):6489-6499.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can induce chromosomal aberrations and carcinogenesis and their correct repair is crucial for genetic stability. The cellular response to DSBs depends on damage signaling including the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (γH2AX). However, a lack of γH2AX formation in heterochromatin (HC) is generally observed after DNA damage induction. Here, we examine γH2AX and repair protein foci along linear ion tracks traversing heterochromatic regions in human or murine cells and find the DSBs and damage signal streaks bending around highly compacted DNA. Given the linear particle path, such bending indicates a relocation of damage from the initial induction site to the periphery of HC. Real-time imaging of the repair protein GFP-XRCC1 confirms fast recruitment to heterochromatic lesions inside murine chromocenters. Using single-ion microirradiation to induce localized DSBs directly within chromocenters, we demonstrate that H2AX is early phosphorylated within HC, but the damage site is subsequently expelled from the center to the periphery of chromocenters within ∼20 min. While this process can occur in the absence of ATM kinase, the repair of DSBs bordering HC requires the protein. Finally, we describe a local decondensation of HC at the sites of ion hits, potentially allowing for DSB movement via physical forces.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr230
PMCID: PMC3159438  PMID: 21511815
10.  CK2 phosphorylation-dependent interaction between aprataxin and MDC1 in the DNA damage response 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(5):1489-1503.
Aprataxin, defective in the neurodegenerative disorder ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 1, resolves abortive DNA ligation intermediates during DNA repair. Here, we demonstrate that aprataxin localizes at sites of DNA damage induced by high LET radiation and binds to mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint protein 1 (MDC1/NFBD1) through a phosphorylation-dependent interaction. This interaction is mediated via the aprataxin FHA domain and multiple casein kinase 2 di-phosphorylated S-D-T-D motifs in MDC1. X-ray structural and mutagenic analysis of aprataxin FHA domain, combined with modelling of the pSDpTD peptide interaction suggest an unusual FHA binding mechanism mediated by a cluster of basic residues at and around the canonical pT-docking site. Mutation of aprataxin FHA Arg29 prevented its interaction with MDC1 and recruitment to sites of DNA damage. These results indicate that aprataxin is involved not only in single strand break repair but also in the processing of a subset of double strand breaks presumably through its interaction with MDC1.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp1149
PMCID: PMC2836575  PMID: 20008512
11.  Autophosphorylation of DNA-PKCS regulates its dynamics at DNA double-strand breaks 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;177(2):219-229.
The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS) plays an important role during the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). It is recruited to DNA ends in the early stages of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process, which mediates DSB repair. To study DNA-PKCS recruitment in vivo, we used a laser system to introduce DSBs in a specified region of the cell nucleus. We show that DNA-PKCS accumulates at DSB sites in a Ku80-dependent manner, and that neither the kinase activity nor the phosphorylation status of DNA-PKCS influences its initial accumulation. However, impairment of both of these functions results in deficient DSB repair and the maintained presence of DNA-PKCS at unrepaired DSBs. The use of photobleaching techniques allowed us to determine that the kinase activity and phosphorylation status of DNA-PKCS influence the stability of its binding to DNA ends. We suggest a model in which DNA-PKCS phosphorylation/autophosphorylation facilitates NHEJ by destabilizing the interaction of DNA-PKCS with the DNA ends.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200608077
PMCID: PMC2064131  PMID: 17438073

Results 1-11 (11)