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1.  The morphology of silver nanoparticles prepared by enzyme-induced reduction 
Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an enzyme-induced growth process on solid substrates. In order to customize the enzymatically grown nanoparticles (EGNP) for analytical applications in biomolecular research, a detailed study was carried out concerning the time evolution of the formation of the silver nanoparticles, their morphology, and their chemical composition. Therefore, silver-nanoparticle films of different densities were investigated by using scanning as well as transmission electron microscopy to examine their structure. Cross sections of silver nanoparticles, prepared for analysis by transmission electron microscopy were additionally studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to probe their chemical composition. The surface coverage of substrates with silver nanoparticles and the maximum particle height were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Variations in the silver-nanoparticle films depending on the conditions during synthesis were observed. After an initial growth state the silver nanoparticles exhibit the so-called desert-rose or nanoflower-like structure. This complex nanoparticle structure is in clear contrast to the auto-catalytically grown spherical particles, which maintain their overall geometrical appearance while increasing their diameter. It is shown, that the desert-rose-like silver nanoparticles consist of single-crystalline plates of pure silver. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) activity of the EGNP structures is promising due to the exceptionally rough surface structure of the silver nanoparticles. SERS measurements of the vitamin riboflavin incubated on the silver nanoparticles are shown as an exemplary application for quantitative analysis.
PMCID: PMC3388365  PMID: 23016145
EGNP; enzymatically grown silver nanoparticles; enzyme-induced deposition; nanoflower; SERS
2.  Towards multiple readout application of plasmonic arrays 
In order to combine the advantages of fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on the same chip platform, a nanostructured gold surface with a unique design, allowing both the sensitive detection of fluorescence light together with the specific Raman fingerprint of the fluorescent molecules, was established. This task requires the fabrication of plasmonic arrays that permit the binding of molecules of interest at different distances from the metallic surface. The most efficient SERS enhancement is achieved for molecules directly adsorbed on the metallic surface due to the strong field enhancement, but where, however, the fluorescence is quenched most efficiently. Furthermore, the fluorescence can be enhanced efficiently by careful adjustment of the optical behavior of the plasmonic arrays. In this article, the simultaneous application of SERS and fluorescence, through the use of various gold nanostructured arrays, is demonstrated by the realization of a DNA detection scheme. The results shown open the way to more flexible use of plasmonic arrays in bioanalytics.
PMCID: PMC3190620  PMID: 22003456
fluorescence; multiple readout; plasmonic array; surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF); surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)
3.  Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):511.
We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.
PMCID: PMC3212050  PMID: 21867525
nanowires; zinc oxide; functionalization; fluorescence microscopy; sensor technology
4.  DNA probes on chip surfaces studied by scanning force microscopy using specific binding of colloidal gold 
Nucleic Acids Research  2000;28(20):e91.
Single-stranded DNA was covalently bound on chip surfaces using two different silanization procedures. The resulting surfaces were characterized by fluorescence and scanning force microscopy using sequence-complementary DNA molecules with labels. Colloidal gold (30 nm) was used as the topographic label. Scanning force microscopy revealed the individual labels on the surface and their distribution. Steps of silane layers or DNA-modified surfaces prepared using an elastomeric mask provided internal controls for comparison of modified with unmodified surfaces.
PMCID: PMC110807  PMID: 11024193

Results 1-4 (4)