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1.  Nanolesions induced by heavy ions in human tissues: Experimental and theoretical studies 
Summary
The biological effects of energetic heavy ions are attracting increasing interest for their applications in cancer therapy and protection against space radiation. The cascade of events leading to cell death or late effects starts from stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale and the corresponding lesions in biological molecules, primarily DNA. We have developed experimental techniques to visualize DNA nanolesions induced by heavy ions. Nanolesions appear in cells as “streaks” which can be visualized by using different DNA repair markers. We have studied the kinetics of repair of these “streaks” also with respect to the chromatin conformation. Initial steps in the modeling of the energy deposition patterns at the micrometer and nanometer scale were made with MCHIT and TRAX models, respectively.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.64
PMCID: PMC3458601  PMID: 23019551
DNA repair; heavy ions; microdosimetry; Monte Carlo simulations; nanolesions; radiation-induced nanostructures
2.  Prediction of volume response under open-chest conditions during coronary artery bypass surgery 
Critical Care  2007;11(6):R121.
Introduction
Adequate fluid loading is the first step of hemodynamic optimization in cardiac patients undergoing surgery. Neither a clinical approach alone nor conventional parameters like central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) are thought to be sufficient for recognizing fluid deficiency or overload. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of CVP, PCWP, global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), pulse pressure variation (PPV), and stroke volume variation (SVV) for predicting changes in the cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI) after sternotomy.
Methods
In 40 patients, CVP, PCWP, GEDVI, PPV, SVV, and the CI were measured at two points of time. One measurement was performed after inducing anesthesia and one after sternotomy.
Results
A significant increase in heart rate, CI, and GEDVI was observed during the study period. CVP, SVV, and PPV decreased significantly. There were no significant correlations between CVP and PCWP and changes in CI. In contrast, GEDVI, SVV, and PPV significantly correlated with CI changes. Only relative changes of GEDVI, SVV, and PPV predicted changes in SVI.
Conclusion
During cardiac surgery and especially after sternotomy, CVP and PCWP are not suitable for monitoring fluid status. Direct volume measurement like GEDVI and dynamic volume responsive measurements like SVV and PPV may be more suitable for monitoring the volume status of patients, particularly under open-chest conditions.
doi:10.1186/cc6181
PMCID: PMC2246213  PMID: 18034888
3.  The impact of an hematocrit of 20% during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for elective low risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery on oxygen delivery and clinical outcome – a randomized controlled study [ISRCTN35655335] 
Critical Care  2006;10(2):R58.
Introduction
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces hemodilutional anemia, which frequently requires the transfusion of blood products. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxygen delivery and consumption and clinical outcome in low risk patients who were allocated to an hematocrit (Hct) of 20% versus 25% during normothermic CPB for elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Methods
This study was a prospective, randomized and controlled trial. Patients were subjected to normothermic CPB (35 to 36°C) and were observed until discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Outcome measures were calculated whole body oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption and clinical outcome. A nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measurements and small sample sizes was performed.
Results
In a total of 54 patients (25% Hct, n = 28; 20% Hct, n = 26), calculated oxygen delivery (p = 0.11), oxygen consumption (p = 0.06) and blood lactate (p = 0.60) were not significantly different between groups. Clinical outcomes were not different between groups.
Conclusion
These data indicate that an Hct of 20% during normothermic CPB maintained calculated whole body oxygen delivery above a critical level after elective CABG surgery in low risk patients. The question of whether a transfusion trigger in excess of 20% Hct during normothermic CPB is still supported requires a larger prospective and randomized trial.
doi:10.1186/cc4891
PMCID: PMC1550910  PMID: 16606474

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