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1.  Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor) – new design principles for biomimetic materials 
Summary
Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals) of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor). This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm) with a high aspect ratio (2.1) and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm) on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.2.27
PMCID: PMC3148064  PMID: 21977435
anti-adhesive; petal effect; petal structures; polymer replication; superhydrophobic
2.  Biomimetic materials 
doi:10.3762/bjnano.2.16
PMCID: PMC3148063  PMID: 21977424
3.  Apoptosis Resistance in Endometriosis 
BioImpacts : BI  2011;1(2):129-134.
Introduction
In a cytological analysis of endometriotic lesions neither granulocytes nor cytotoxic T-cells appear in an appreciable number. Based on this observation we aimed to know, whether programmed cell death plays an essential role in the destruction of dystopic endometrium. Disturbances of the physiological mechanisms of apoptosis, a persistence of endometrial tissue could explain the disease. Another aspect of this consideration is the proliferation competence of the dystopic mucous membrane.
Methods
Endometriotic lesions of 15 patients were examined through a combined measurement of apoptosis activity with the TUNEL technique (terminal deoxyribosyltransferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) and the proliferation activity (with the help of the Ki-67-Antigens using the monoclonal antibody Ki-S5).
Results
Twelve out of 15 women studied showed a positive apoptotic activity of 3-47% with a proliferation activity of 2-25% of epithelial cells. Therefore we concluded that the persistence of dystopic endometrium requires proliferative epithelial cells from middle to lower endometrial layers.
Conclusion
A dystopia misalignment of the epithelia of the upper layers of the functionalism can be rapidly eliminated by apoptotic procedures.
doi:10.5681/bi.2011.017
PMCID: PMC3648952  PMID: 23678417
Apoptosis; Endometriosis; TUNEL Assay
4.  Cell-specific protein phenotypes for the autoimmune locus IL2RA using a genotype-selectable human bioresource 
Nature genetics  2009;41(9):1011-1015.
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified over 300 regions associated with more than 70 common diseases1. However, identifying causal genes within an associated region remains a major challenge1,2. One approach to resolving causal genes is through the dissection of gene-phenotype correlations. Here we use polychromatic flow cytometry to show that differences in surface expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (IL-2RA, or CD25) protein are restricted to particular immune cell types and correlate with several haplotypes in the IL2RA region that have previously been associated to the autoimmune diseases type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis2-4. We confirm our strongest gene-phenotype correlation at the RNA level by allele-specific expression (ASE). We also define key parameters for the design and implementation of post-GWA gene-phenotype investigations, and demonstrate the usefulness of a large bioresource of genotype-selectable normal donors from whom fresh, primary cells can be analyzed.
doi:10.1038/ng.434
PMCID: PMC2749506  PMID: 19701192
5.  A HaemAtlas: characterizing gene expression in differentiated human blood cells 
Blood  2009;113(19):e1-e9.
Hematopoiesis is a carefully controlled process that is regulated by complex networks of transcription factors that are, in part, controlled by signals resulting from ligand binding to cell-surface receptors. To further understand hematopoiesis, we have compared gene expression profiles of human erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, B cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, and monocytes using whole genome microarrays. A bioinformatics analysis of these data was performed focusing on transcription factors, immunoglobulin superfamily members, and lineage-specific transcripts. We observed that the numbers of lineage-specific genes varies by 2 orders of magnitude, ranging from 5 for cytotoxic T cells to 878 for granulocytes. In addition, we have identified novel coexpression patterns for key transcription factors involved in hematopoiesis (eg, GATA3-GFI1 and GATA2-KLF1). This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of gene expression in hematopoietic cells to date and has identified genes that play key roles in lineage commitment and cell function. The data, which are freely accessible, will be invaluable for future studies on hematopoiesis and the role of specific genes and will also aid the understanding of the recent genome-wide association studies.
doi:10.1182/blood-2008-06-162958
PMCID: PMC2680378  PMID: 19228925

Results 1-5 (5)