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1.  Cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice—the past, present, and future 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(9):445-457.
Considerable progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy in recent years. This has been made possible in large part by the identification of new immune-based cellular targets and the development of novel approaches aimed at stimulating the immune system. The role played by the immunosuppressive microenvironment in the development of tumors has been established. The success of checkpoint-inhibiting antibodies and cancer vaccines has marked the beginning of a new era in cancer treatment. This review highlights the clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology and various immunotherapeutic approaches that have either already entered mainstream oncologic practice or are currently in the process of being evaluated in clinical trials. Furthermore, the current barriers to the development of effective immunotherapies and the potential strategies of overcoming them are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC4190434  PMID: 25189717
Cancer immunotherapy; immunoediting; checkpoint inhibitors; cancer vaccines; adoptive cell transfer
2.  Safety and Immunogenicity of a Live Oral Recombinant Cholera Vaccine VA1.4: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial in Healthy Adults in a Cholera Endemic Area in Kolkata, India 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e99381.
A live oral cholera vaccine VA 1.4 developed from a non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain using ctxB gene insertion was further developed into a clinical product following cGMP and was evaluated in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group two arm trial with allocation ratio of 1∶1 for safety and immunogenicity in men and women aged 18–60 years from Kolkata, India.
A lyophilized dose of 1.9×109 CFU (n = 44) or a placebo (n = 43) reconstituted with a diluent was administered within 5 minutes of drinking 100 ml of a buffer solution made of sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid and a second dose on day 14.
The vaccine did not elicit any diarrhea related adverse events. Other adverse events were rare, mild and similar in two groups. One subject in the vaccine group excreted the vaccine strain on the second day after first dose. The proportion of participants who seroconverted (i.e. had 4-folds or higher rise in reciprocal titre) in the vaccine group were 65.9% (95% CI: 50.1%–79.5%) at both 7 days (i.e. after 1st dose) and 21 days (i.e. after 2nd dose). None of the placebo recipients seroconverted. Anti-cholera toxin antibody was detected in very few recipients of the vaccine.
This study demonstrates that VA 1.4 at a single dose of 1.9×109 is safe and immunogenic in adults from a cholera endemic region. No additional benefit after two doses was seen.
Trial Registration
Clinical Trials Registry-India, National Institute of Medical Statistics (Indian Council of Medical Research) CTRI/2012/04/002582
PMCID: PMC4077646  PMID: 24983989
3.  A decade after International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial: Coiling as a first choice treatment in the management of intracranial aneurysms - Technical feasibility and early management outcomes 
Asian Journal of Neurosurgery  2014;9(3):137-143.
The technique of coiling has evolved in the last decade with evolution in both equipment and material. The preferable treatment of intracranial aneurysms at our center is endovascular coiling. We discuss the technical and management outcomes of consecutive patients treated with this approach and compare our results with a decade old International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial.
Materials and Methods:
Between January 2006 and November 2011, a total of 324 aneurysms in 304 consecutive patients were treated. Endovascular treatment was done in 308 aneurysms (95.0%) in 288 patients while 16 patients (5%) underwent surgical clipping. Of the 308 aneurysms treated endovascularly, 269 (87.3%) were ruptured, and 39 (12.7%) were unruptured aneurysms.
The endovascular coiling was feasible in all (99.6%) but 1 case. The immediate postoperative occlusion status was complete occlusion in 240 aneurysms (77.9%), neck remnant in 57 aneurysms (18.5%), and aneurysm remnant in 11 aneurysms (3.6%). Technical issues – with or without clinical effect–were encountered in 20 patients (6.9%). They included 18 thromboembolic events (6.2%) and intraprocedural aneurysmal rupture in 2 cases (0.7%). In “good grade” patients, H and H grade 1-3, a good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS] 0-2) was in 87.6% patients while the bad outcome (mRS 3-5) was in 10.2% patients and mortality of 2.2%. In “bad grade” patients, H and H grade 3-5, a good outcome was in 29.2%, and bad outcome was in 41.7% patients with mortality was 29.1%. In the unruptured aneurysm group, the good outcome was seen in 97.7% and bad outcome in 2.3% with no mortality.
In the current era, the favorable results of coiling demonstrated in previous studies may be applicable to the larger proportion of patients. In our series of consecutively treated patients using latest advances, such as three-dimensional imaging and the interventional material, endovascular management as first choice was feasible in 95% of patients with good technical and management outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4323897
Aneurysm; coiling; management; subarachnoid hemorrhage
4.  Restoring Esthetics after Anterior Tooth Loss for a Five-Year-Old Child: Natural Tooth Pontic Fiber Reinforced Prosthesis 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2013;2013:215816.
The loss of anterior teeth can be hurtful to the patient both psychologically and socially. As the children are becoming more aware these days, they have also become conscious about their looks. Early loss of deciduous anterior teeth has a psychological effect on many children. In such young patients, paper replacement of the teeth can minimize these concerns. Many approaches have been described for this temporary replacement. This article describes the technique to use extracted natural teeth as pontics bonded to adjacent teeth with fiber reinforced resin. A fiber reinforced temporary replacement of missing teeth provides adequate strength and esthetic requirements in such cases.
PMCID: PMC3800674  PMID: 24187631
5.  Nanotribology at high temperatures 
Recent molecular dynamics simulation results have increased conceptual understanding of the grazing and the ploughing friction at elevated temperatures, particularly near the substrate’s melting point. In this commentary we address a major constraint concerning its experimental verification.
PMCID: PMC3458605  PMID: 23019555
CBN; diamond; high temperature
6.  Evaluation of stressors and coping strategies for stress in Indian anaesthesiologists 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;55(2):193-198.
Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries. Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained. Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%). Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%), medicolegal concerns (24%), interference with home life (22%), clinical problems (20%) and communication problems (9%). Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.
PMCID: PMC3106399  PMID: 21713218
Anaesthesiologists; strategies to cope; stress; stressors

Results 1-6 (6)