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1.  Update on the classification of hemangioma 
Despite the fact that a biological classification of congenital vascular tumors and malformations was first published in 1982 by Mulliken and Glowacki, significant confusion still prevails due to the indiscriminate and interchangeable use of the terms hemangioma and vascular malformation. Hemangiomas are true neoplasms of endothelial cells and should be differentiated from vascular malformations which are localized defects of vascular morphogenesis. On an analysis of various scientific articles and latest edition of medical text books an inappropriate use of various terms for vascular lesions was found, contributing further towards the confusion. The widely accepted International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification differentiates lesions with proliferative endothelium from lesions with structural anomalies and has been very helpful in standardizing the terminologies. In addition to overcoming obstacles in communication when describing a vascular lesion, it is important that we adhere to the correct terminology, as the therapeutic guidelines, management and follow-up of these lesions differ.
doi:10.4103/0973-029X.141321
PMCID: PMC4211219  PMID: 25364160
Classification; congenital hemangioma; hemangioma; infantile hemangioma; international society for the study of vascular anomalies; vascular malformation
2.  Imaging ultra thin layers with helium ion microscopy: Utilizing the channeling contrast mechanism 
Summary
Background: Helium ion microscopy is a new high-performance alternative to classical scanning electron microscopy. It provides superior resolution and high surface sensitivity by using secondary electrons.
Results: We report on a new contrast mechanism that extends the high surface sensitivity that is usually achieved in secondary electron images, to backscattered helium images. We demonstrate how thin organic and inorganic layers as well as self-assembled monolayers can be visualized on heavier element substrates by changes in the backscatter yield. Thin layers of light elements on heavy substrates should have a negligible direct influence on backscatter yields. However, using simple geometric calculations of the opaque crystal fraction, the contrast that is observed in the images can be interpreted in terms of changes in the channeling probability.
Conclusion: The suppression of ion channeling into crystalline matter by adsorbed thin films provides a new contrast mechanism for HIM. This dechanneling contrast is particularly well suited for the visualization of ultrathin layers of light elements on heavier substrates. Our results also highlight the importance of proper vacuum conditions for channeling-based experimental methods.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.58
PMCID: PMC3458595  PMID: 23019545
channeling; contrast mechanism; helium ion microscopy; ion scattering; thin layers
3.  Gnathic osteosarcomas: Review of literature and report of two cases in maxilla 
Primary neoplasms of the skeleton are rare, accounting for 0.2% of overall human tumor burden. Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for 15–35% of all primary bone tumors, while gnathic osteosarcomas (GOS) represent 4–8% of all osteosarcomas. GOS shows a predilection for men, a peak incidence of 33 years, and affects the mandible more than the maxilla. We review the scientific literature for a better understanding of the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features of GOS, along with its etiology, staging, treatment protocol, prognosis, and survival. Evidence from molecular research suggests that it is a differentiation disease that disrupts osteoblasts differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. The classical radiographic finding of a “sunburst” appearance is appreciated only in 50% of GOS. The universally accepted staging system is not commonly used due to the rarity with which they metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. A number of distinct histopathological subtypes have been described, of which osteoblastic GOS are most common. The treatment protocol is multimodal consisting of preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy, and has a 60-70% five-year survival rate. We present two case reports of osteosarcoma involving the maxillary that were initially misdiagnosed as peripheral giant cell granuloma and osteoma of the maxilla, respectively. These case reports demonstrate the diverse clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features that can be encountered in GOS.
doi:10.4103/0973-029X.84476
PMCID: PMC3329700  PMID: 22529570
Bone tumor; gnathic; jaw; maxilla; metastasis; osteogenic sarcoma; osteosarcoma; prognosis; recurrence; staging; treatment

Results 1-3 (3)