Reference frames are important for understanding how sensory cues from different modalities are coordinated to guide behavior, and the parietal cortex is critical to these functions. We compare reference frames of vestibular self-motion signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), and dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd). Vestibular heading tuning in VIP is invariant to changes in both eye and head positions, indicating a body (or world)-centered reference frame. Vestibular signals in PIVC have reference frames that are intermediate between head- and body-centered. In contrast, MSTd neurons show reference frames between head- and eye-centered, but not body-centered. Eye and head position gain fields were strongest in MSTd and weakest in PIVC. Our findings reveal distinct spatial reference frames for representing vestibular signals, and pose new challenges for understanding the respective roles of these areas in potentially diverse vestibular functions.
This study was conducted to obtain the basic data of two common odorants—geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (GSM and 2-MIB)—in environmental water. More specifically, the headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was applied to determine the levels of GSM and 2-MIB in water samples, and the samples were collected depending on water sources, conventional treatment processes, and seasons. The significant difference was shown for the 2-MIB levels of source water (P < 0.05), the concentrations of GSM and 2-MIB decreased significantly as treatment process of tap water moved forward (P < 0.0001), and the significant differences for the levels of GSM and 2-MIB were observed among three sampling periods (P < 0.01). The levels of GSM and 2-MIB in all water samples were lower than 10 ng L−1, the odor threshold concentration (OTC), and the conventional treatment process plays a significant role in removing odorants in tap water.
A facile synthesis of a styrylpyridinium salt (SbQ)/montmorillonite (MMT) via cationic exchange interactions between styrylpyridinium species (specifically SbQ) and MMT platelets is reported in this work. The SbQ-MMT solutions were irradiated under ultraviolet (UV) light for a specific time to obtain the cross-linked SbQ-MMT materials. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses revealed the structures and morphologies of MMT and modified MMT. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope analyses indicated that the basal spacing increased from 1.24 to 1.53 nm compared with the pristine MMT, which proved that SbQ had interacted with MMT. Thermal gravimetric analysis curves showed that the amount of SbQ in the MMT interlayers was 35.71 meq/100 g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the intercalation of SbQ species into MMT interlayers, and UV spectroscopy was used to follow up the cross-linking of SbQ-MMT. This novel material has potential applications in drug delivery, and it can also be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers.
Montmorillonite; Intercalation; SbQ
The sparse CT (Computed Tomography), inspired by compressed sensing, means to introduce a prior information of image sparsity into CT reconstruction to reduce the input projections so as to reduce the potential threat of incremental X-ray dose to patients’ health. Recently, many remarkable works were concentrated on the sparse CT reconstruction from sparse (limited-angle or few-view style) projections. In this paper we would like to incorporate more prior information into the sparse CT reconstruction for improvement of performance. It is known decades ago that the given projection directions can provide information about the directions of edges in the restored CT image. ATV (Anisotropic Total Variation), a TV (Total Variation) norm based regularization, could use the prior information of image sparsity and edge direction simultaneously. But ATV can only represent the edge information in few directions and lose much prior information of image edges in other directions.
To sufficiently use the prior information of edge directions, a novel MDATV (Multi-Direction Anisotropic Total Variation) is proposed. In this paper we introduce the 2D-IGS (Two Dimensional Image Gradient Space), and combined the coordinate rotation transform with 2D-IGS to represent edge information in multiple directions. Then by incorporating this multi-direction representation into ATV norm we get the MDATV regularization. To solve the optimization problem based on the MDATV regularization, a novel ART (algebraic reconstruction technique) + MDATV scheme is outlined. And NESTA (NESTerov’s Algorithm) is proposed to replace GD (Gradient Descent) for minimizing the TV-based regularization.
The numerical and real data experiments demonstrate that MDATV based iterative reconstruction improved the quality of restored image. NESTA is more suitable than GD for minimization of TV-based regularization.
MDATV regularization can sufficiently use the prior information of image sparsity and edge information simultaneously. By incorporating more prior information, MDATV based approach could reconstruct the image more exactly.
Sparse CT; Iterative reconstruction; Anisotropic total variation; Coordinate rotation transform; Edges in multiple directions
In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI) track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients' abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC) algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT) algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC's results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°.
ultrasonic endoscope; orientation; position; hybrid sensing; disturbances
Reference frames are important for understanding sensory processing in the cortex. Previous work showed that vestibular heading signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) are represented in body-centered coordinates. In contrast, vestibular heading tuning in the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) is approximately head centered. We considered the hypothesis that visual heading signals (from optic flow) in VIP might also be transformed into a body-centered representation, unlike visual heading tuning in MSTd, which is approximately eye centered. We distinguished among eye-centered, head-centered, and body-centered spatial reference frames by systematically varying both eye and head positions while rhesus monkeys viewed optic flow stimuli depicting various headings. We found that heading tuning of VIP neurons based on optic flow generally shifted with eye position, indicating an eye-centered spatial reference frame. This is similar to the representation of visual heading signals in MSTd, but contrasts sharply with the body-centered representation of vestibular heading signals in VIP. These findings demonstrate a clear dissociation between the spatial reference frames of visual and vestibular signals in VIP, and emphasize that frames of reference for neurons in parietal cortex can depend on the type of sensory stimulation.
To address the question, compared to having hip replacement with latent revision, does Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) before primary hip replacement occupy a preferable treatment strategy for middle aged (aged 35–54 years) hip dysplasia patients? We assessed the mid-term functional outcome and survivorship of PAO in those patients.
Forty-one hips in 36 patients at middle age at the time of surgery (mean age, 39.5 years; range, 35–47 years) were retrospectively identified out of a total PAO cohort of 315 patients. Eleven of the 41 PAO hips also underwent osteochondroplasty at the femoral head-neck junction. Radiographic parameters of lateral centre edge angle, anterior centre edge angle and hip joint medialisation were investigated using the Harris Hip Score (HHS).
The average follow-up was 5.1 years (range, two to ten years). Radiographic parameters postoperatively improved into the normal range, whereas no progression was found from preoperative Tonnis osteoarthritis score. Forty hips survived at the last follow-up, with HHS Score improved from 63.7 to 88.4. Compared to the sole PAO group, both postoperative alpha angle and range of joint motion improved in the PAO combined with osteochondroplasty group. However, no difference in HHS score was found.
Good survivorship and improved joint function were identified in middle-aged Chinese patients following PAO with or without osteochondroplasty. We prudently suggest PAO as an alternative strategy for treating DDH in those patients.
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were employed to study the electrocatalysis of the catechol biosensor. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the biosensor was 41 µA·mM−1, the detection limit was 0.63 µM, the linear range was 1–1310 µM and the response time was within 2 seconds, which excelled most other laccase-based biosensor reported. Furthermore, the biosensor showed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability and tolerance to interferences. This novel biosensor also demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples.
biosensor; carbon nanofibers; catechol; electrospinning; laccase
chemical vapor deposition; multisegmented nanowires; nanojunctions; organic semiconductors
This paper describes the fabrication of plasmonic focusing, free-standing rod–sheath heteronanostructures based on electrochemical templated synthesis and selective chemical etching. These heteronanostructures take advantage of plasmon interference together with field enhancements due to sharp junction structures to function as stand-alone SERS substrates containing Raman hot spots at the interface of the rod and sheath segments. This result is investigated with empirical and theoretical (discrete dipole approximation, DDA) methods, and we show how plasmon interference can be tuned by varying the sheath and rod lengths.
heteronanostructure; electrochemical deposition; SERS; plasmonics
biosensors; on-wire lithography; nanostructures; surface-enhanced Raman scattering; telomerase
Rapid environmental degradation in China makes understanding how perceived exposure to environmental harm influences environmental attitudes and participation in pro-environmental behaviors among the Chinese people crucial. We used a nation-wide survey dataset in urban China to test two hypotheses: experiencing environmental harm directly affects environmental behavior; environmental attitudes mediate the relationship between experiencing environmental harm and environmental behavior. We found respondents who experienced environmental harm had more pro-environmental attitudes. Experiencing environmental harm positively influenced pro-environmental behavior both directly and indirectly through the mediation of pro-environmental attitudes. Among the pro-environmental behaviors, environmental litigation was most strongly related with exposure to environmental harm. Our results suggest that more participation in pro-environmental behaviors may be expected as rapid economic development increases public exposure to environmental harm in urban China.
China; Environmental attitudes; Environmental harm; New environmental paradigm; Pro-environmental behavior
The pressing issue of earthy and musty odor compounds in natural waters, which can affect the organoleptic properties of drinking water, makes it a public health concern. A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of five odorants in environmental water was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), including geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), as well as dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), β-cyclocitral, and β-ionone. Based on the simple modification of original magnetic stirrer purchased from CORNING (USA), the five target compounds can be separated within 23 min, and the calibration curves show good linearity with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 (levels = 5). The limits of detection (LOD) are all below 1.3 ng L−1, and the relative standard deviation (%RSD) is between 4.4% and 9.9% (n = 7) and recoveries of the analytes from water samples are between 86.2% and 112.3%. In addition, the storage time experiment indicated that the concentrations did not change significantly for GSM and 2-MIB if they were stored in canonical environment. In conclusion, the method in this study could be applied for monitoring these five odorants in natural waters.
Optimizing operational parameters of the digital microscope system is an important technique to acquire high quality cytogenetic images and facilitate the process of karyotyping so that the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis can be improved.
This study investigated the impact of the condenser on cytogenetic image quality and system working performance using a prototype digital microscope image scanning system.
Both theoretical analysis and experimental validations through objectively evaluating a resolution test chart and subjectively observing large numbers of specimen were conducted.
The results show that the optimal image quality and large depth of field (DOF) are simultaneously obtained when the numerical aperture of condenser is set as 60%~70% of the corresponding objective. Under this condition, more analyzable chromosomes and diagnostic information are obtained. As a result, the system shows higher working stability and less restriction for the implementation of algorithms such as autofocusing especially when the system is designed to achieve high throughput continuous image scanning.
Although the above quantitative results were obtained using a specific prototype system under the experimental conditions reported in this paper, the presented evaluation methodologies can provide valuable guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging using the high throughput continuous scanning microscopes in clinical practice.
Optimizing operational parameters; microscope condenser; image sharpness; resolution; depth of field (DOF); cytogenetic imaging
Auto focusing is an important operation in high throughput imaging scanning. Although many autofocus methods have been developed and tested for a variety of imaging modalities, few investigations have been performed on the selection of an optimal auto-focusing method that is suitable for the pathological metaphase chromosome analysis under a high resolution scanning microscopic system.
The purpose of this study is to investigate and identify an optimal auto-focusing method for the pathological metaphase chromosome analysis.
In this study, five auto-focusing methods were applied and tested using metaphase chromosome images acquired from bone marrow and blood specimens. These methods were assessed by measuring a number of indices including execution time, accuracy, number of false maxima, and full width at half maximum (FWHM).
For the specific condition investigated in this study, the results showed that the Brenner gradient and threshold pixel counting methods were the optimal methods for acquiring high quality metaphase chromosome images from the bone marrow and blood specimens, respectively.
Selecting an optimal auto-focusing method depends on the specific clinical tasks. This study also provides useful information for the design and implementation of the high throughput microscopic image scanning systems in the future digital pathology.
metaphase chromosome; autofocus technique
De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of β-glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.
de novo root organogenesis; B5 medium; leaf age; sucrose; adventitious root; plant regeneration
Abdominal distension is common in critical illness. There is a growing recognition that intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may complicate nonsurgical critical illness as well as after abdominal surgery. However, the pathophysiological basis of the injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier and its influence on the onset of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remain unclear. We measured intestinal microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) during periods of raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and examined how this influenced intestinal permeability, systemic endotoxin release, and histopathological changes.
To test different grades of IAH to the injury of intestinal mucosa, 96 New Zealand white rabbits aged 5 to 6 months were exposed to increased IAP under nitrogen pneumoperitoneum of 15 mmHg or 25 mmHg for 2, 4 or 6 hours. MBF was measured using a laser Doppler probe placed against the jejunal mucosa through a small laparotomy. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran was administered by gavage. Intestinal injury and permeability were measured using assays for serum FITC-dextran and endotoxin, respectively, after each increase in IAP. Structural injury to the intestinal mucosa at different levels of IAH was confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy.
MBF reduced from baseline by 40% when IAP was 15 mmHg for 2 hours. This doubled to 81% when IAP was 25 mmHg for 6 hours. Each indicator of intestinal injury increased significantly, proportionately with IAP elevation and exposure time. Baseline serum FITC-dextran was 9.30 (± SD 6.00) μg/ml, rising to 46.89 (±13.43) μg/ml after 15 mmHg IAP for 4 hours (P <0.01), and 284.59 (± 45.18) μg/ml after 25 mmHg IAP for 6 hours (P <0.01). Endotoxin levels showed the same pattern. After prolonged exposure to increased IAP, microscopy showed erosion and necrosis of jejunal villi, mitochondria swelling and discontinuous intracellular tight junctions.
Intra-abdominal hypertension can significantly reduce MBF in the intestinal mucosa, increase intestinal permeability, result in endotoxemia, and lead to irreversible damage to the mitochondria and necrosis of the gut mucosa. The dysfunction of the intestinal mucosal barrier may be one of the important initial factors responsible for the onset of ACS and MODS.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) tend to infiltrate into tumors and form a major component of the tumor microenvironment. These tumor-resident MSCs are known to affect tumor growth, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that MSCs isolated from spontaneous lymphomas in mouse (L-MSCs) strikingly enhanced tumor growth in comparison to bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). L-MSCs contributed to greater recruitment of CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytes, F4/80+ macrophages, and CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils to the tumor. Depletion of monocytes/macrophages, but not neutrophils, completely abolished tumor promotion of L-MSCs. Furthermore, L-MSCs expressed high levels of CCR2 ligands, and monocyte/macrophage accumulation and L-MSC-mediated tumor promotion were largely abolished in CCR2−/− mice. Intriguingly, TNFα-pretreated BM-MSCs mimicked L-MSCs in their chemokine production profile and ability to promote tumorigenesis of lymphoma, melanoma, and breast carcinoma. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that, in an inflammatory environment, tumor-resident MSCs promote tumor growth by recruiting monocytes/macrophages.
Tumor growth; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; chemokines; monocytes/macrophages; myeloid derived suppressor cells; immune modulation
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been implicated in lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the results are controversial. We performed meta-analysis to investigate the effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC.
Materials and Methods
The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Wanfang and Chinese Biomedicine were searched for eligible studies. Nineteen studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and lung cancer risk and three articles on C677T polymorphism and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, were identified.
The results indicated that the allelic contrast, homozygous contrast and recessive model of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were associated significantly with increased lung cancer risk. In the subgroup analysis, the C677T polymorphism was significantly correlated with an increased risk of NSCLC, with the exception of the recessive model. The dominant model and the variant T allele showed a significant association with lung cancer susceptibility of ever smokers. Male TT homozygote carriers had a higher susceptibility, but the allelic contrast and homozygote model had a protective effect in females. No relationship was observed for SCLC in any comparison model. In addition, MTHFR 677TT homozygote carriers had a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC in the recessive model.
The MTHFR C677T polymorphism might be a genetic marker for lung cancer risk or response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. However, our results require further verification.
MTHFR; C677T; polymorphism; lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy
To study the effect of porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) on the burn wound healing. Seventy healthy Wistar rats were inflicted with 2 cm second degree burn and divided into 2 groups; one group was treated with porcine ADM and the other with Povidone Iodine Cream. Biopsies were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 for histopathological and biochemical analysis to test PCNA, K19, Integrin-β1, PDGF, EGF and FGF. The results revealed relatively better and faster regeneration after treatment of porcine ADM, along with greatly increased synthesis in collagen in the experimental group. PCNA, K19, Integrin-β1 had an increase and then tapered down, and were stronger in the experimental group than in the contrast group during 21 days after burns. PDGF, EGF and FGF levels increased on day 3, peaked on day 5 and then started to decrease, while significantly enhanced expression of relevant growth factors were observed in the experimental group. Porcine ADM stimulate collagen synthesis, stem cells proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of relevant growth factors and ultimately improve the burn wound healing.
Porcine ADM; deep partial thickness burn wounds; PCNA; K19; Integrin-β1; PDGF
Primary lymphoma is a rare neoplasm in the breast accounting for between 0.04% and 0.5% of all malignant mammary tumors. The majority of cases lack typical features of breast malignancy or lymphoma, and likely to be misdiagnosed during daily clinical practice. In this report we describe a case of primary breast lymphoma assessed with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology.
Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI); mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma); breast
heme protein cytochrome c adsorbed to a two-layer
gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol
was analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) heterospectral correlation
analysis that combined surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy
(SEIRAS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stepwise
increasing electric potentials were applied to alter the redox state
of the protein and to induce conformational changes within the protein
backbone. We demonstrate herein that 2D heterospectral correlation
analysis is a particularly suitable and useful technique for the study
of heme-containing proteins as the two spectroscopies address different
portions of the protein. Thus, by correlating SERS and SEIRAS data
in a 2D plot, we can obtain a deeper understanding of the conformational
changes occurring at the redox center and in the supporting protein
backbone during the electron transfer process. The correlation analyses
are complemented by molecular dynamics calculations to explore the
Geosmin and 2-MIB are responsible for the majority of earthy and musty events related to the drinking water. These two odorants have extremely low odor threshold concentrations at ng L−1 level in the water, so a simple and sensitive method for the analysis of such trace levels was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In this study, the orthogonal experiment design L32 (49) was applied to arrange and optimize experimental conditions. The optimum was the following: temperatures of extraction and desorption, 65°C and 260°C, respectively; times of extraction and desorption, 30 min and 5 min, respectively; ionic strength, 25% (w/v); rotate-speed, 600 rpm; solution pH, 5.0. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (S/N = 3)
were 0.04 and 0.13 ng L−1 for geosmin and 2-MIB, respectively. Calculated calibration curves gave high levels of linearity with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 for them. Finally, the proposed method was applied to water samples, which were previously analyzed and confirmed to be free of target analytes. Besides, the proposal method was applied to test environmental water samples. The RSDs were 2.75%~3.80% and 4.35%~7.6% for geosmin and 2-MIB, respectively, and the recoveries were 91%~107% and 91%~104% for geosmin and 2-MIB, respectively.
Objective: To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the iNOS mRNA-iNOS-NO signaling pathway and neurofunction protected in a rat spinal cord injury model. Methods: A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (n=12), SCI group (n=12) and SCI + HBOT group (n=12). SCI + HBOT group In the SCI group and SCI + HBOT groups, SCI was performed on rats. In the SCI + HBOT group, rats with SCI underwent HBO treatment 30 min after SCI for 24 sessions. After HBO therapy, measurement of motor evoked potential (MEP), Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and pathological examination were done. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of iNOS, respectively. Diazo colorimetry was performed to detect the serum NO content. Results: The mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in the spinal cord and the serum NO content were markedly increased in the SCI group as compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, the mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and the serum NO content were dramatically reduced in the SCI + HBOT group as compared to the SCI group (P<0.05). Conclusion: HBO therapy can promote the neuroprotection following SCI, which may be related to the effect of HBO on the iNOS mRNA-iNOS-NO signaling pathway.
Hyperbaric oxygen; spinal cord injury; rat; nitric oxide; inducible nitric oxide synthase