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Behavioral Ecology (1)
Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases (1)
Journal of medical entomology (1)
Diabate, Abdoulaye (3)
Lehmann, Tovi (2)
Abdoulaye, Adamou (1)
Besansky, Nora J. (1)
Bouyer, Jérémy (1)
Dao, Adama (1)
Diallo, Moussa (1)
Gimonneau, Geoffrey (1)
Manoukis, Nicholas C. (1)
Morand, Serge (1)
Ribeiro, José M.C. (1)
Simard, Frédéric (1)
Yaro, Alpha S. (1)
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A behavioral mechanism underlying ecological divergence in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Besansky, Nora J.
Disruptive selection mediated by predation on aquatic immature stages has been proposed as a major force driving ecological divergence and fostering speciation between the M and S molecular forms of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. In the dry savannahs of West Africa where both molecular forms co-occur, the S form thrives in temporary pools filled with rainwater, whereas the M form preferentially breeds in permanent freshwater habitats where predator pressure is higher. Here, we explored the proximal mechanisms by which predation may contribute to habitat segregation between molecular forms using progeny of female mosquitoes captured in Burkina Faso. We show that the S form suffers higher predation rates than the M form when simultaneously exposed to the widespread predator, Anisops jaczewskii in an experimental arena. Furthermore, behavioral plasticity induced by exposure to the predator was observed in the M form, but not in the S form, and may partially explain its habitat use and ecological divergence from the S form. We discuss the role of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in allowing successful colonization of a new ecological niche by the M form and highlight further research areas that need to be addressed for a better understanding of the ultimate mechanisms underlying ecological speciation in this pest of major medical importance.
adaptation; Anopheles gambiae; behavior; habitat divergence; mosquito; notonectidae; phenotypic plasticity, predation; speciation
Structure and Dynamics of Male Swarms of Anopheles gambiae
Manoukis, Nicholas C.
Yaro, Alpha S.
Ribeiro, José M.C.
Journal of medical entomology
Mosquito swarms are poorly understood mating aggregations. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles, they are known to depend on environmental conditions, such as the presence of a marker on the ground, and they may be highly relevant to reproductive isolation. We present quantitative measurements of individual An. gambiae positions within swarms from Donéguébougou, Mali, estimated by stereoscopic video image analysis. Results indicate that swarms in this species are approximately spherical, with an unexpectedly high density of individuals close to the swarm centroid. This high density may be the result of individual males maximizing their probability of encountering a female or a product of mosquito orientation through cues within the swarm. Our analysis also suggests a difference in swarm organization between putative incipient species of An. gambiae with increasing numbers of males. This may be related to a difference in marker use between these groups, supporting the hypothesis that swarming behavior is a mechanism of mate recognition and ultimately reproductive isolation.
Anopheles gambiae; swarm; mate recognition; three-dimensional localization; stereoscopic image analysis
The molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: A phenotypic perspective
Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is undergoing speciation, being split into the M and S molecular forms. Speciation is the main process promoting biological diversity, thus, new vector species might complicate disease transmission. Genetic differentiation between the molecular forms has been extensively studied, but phenotypic differences between them, the evolutionary forces that generated divergence, and the mechanisms that maintain their genetic isolation have only recently been addressed. Here, we review recent studies suggesting that selection mediated by larval predation and competition promoted divergence between temporary and permanent freshwater habitats. These differences explain the sharp discontinuity in distribution of the molecular forms between rice fields and surrounding savanna, but they can also explain the concurrent cline between humid and arid environments due to the dependence on permanent habitats in the latter. Although less pronounced, differences in adult body size, reproductive output, and longevity also suggest that the molecular forms have adapted to distinct niches. Reproductive isolation between the molecular forms is achieved by spatial swarm segregation, although within-swarm mate recognition appears to play a role in certain locations. The implications of these results to disease transmission and control are discussed and many of the gaps in our understanding are highlighted.
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