Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01 was isolated from nukadoko, which is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used in Japan for pickling vegetables. Here, we report the first draft of an annotated genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of L. namurensis.
Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group.
Adlercreutzia equolifaciens DSM 19450T was isolated from human feces and is able to metabolize daidzeins (soybean isoflavonoids) to equol. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
Rickettsia japonica is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that causes tick-borne Japanese spotted fever, which has spread throughout East Asia. We determined the complete genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica type strain YH (VR-1363), which consists of 1,283,087 base pairs (bp) and 971 protein-coding genes. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica with other rickettsiae in the public databases showed that 2 regions (4,323 and 216 bp) were conserved in a very narrow range of Rickettsia species, and the shorter one was inserted in, and disrupted, a preexisting open reading frame (ORF). While it is unknown how the DNA sequences were acquired in R. japonica genomes, it may be a useful signature for the diagnosis of Rickettsia species. Instead of the species-specific inserted DNA sequences, rickettsial genomes contain Rickettsia-specific palindromic elements (RPEs), which are also capable of locating in preexisting ORFs. Precise alignments of protein and DNA sequences involving RPEs showed that when a gene contains an inserted DNA sequence, each rickettsial ortholog carried an inserted DNA sequence at the same locus. The sequence, ATGAC, was shown to be highly frequent and thus characteristic in certain RPEs (RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7). This finding implies that RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7 were derived from a common inserted DNA sequence.
We isolated a thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanothermobacter sp. strain CaT2, which is able to aggregate and utilize formate. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this organism.
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in normal mammalian development, retrotransposon silencing, and cellular reprogramming. Although methylation mainly occurs on the cytosine in a CG site, non-CG methylation is prevalent in pluripotent stem cells, brain, and oocytes. We previously identified non-CG methylation in several CG-rich regions in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes (GVOs), but the overall distribution of non-CG methylation and the enzymes responsible for this modification are unknown. Using amplification-free whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, which can be used with minute amounts of DNA, we constructed the base-resolution methylome maps of GVOs, non-growing oocytes (NGOs), and mutant GVOs lacking the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, or Dnmt3L. We found that nearly two-thirds of all methylcytosines occur in a non-CG context in GVOs. The distribution of non-CG methylation closely resembled that of CG methylation throughout the genome and showed clear enrichment in gene bodies. Compared to NGOs, GVOs were over four times more methylated at non-CG sites, indicating that non-CG methylation accumulates during oocyte growth. Lack of Dnmt3a or Dnmt3L resulted in a global reduction in both CG and non-CG methylation, showing that non-CG methylation depends on the Dnmt3a-Dnmt3L complex. Dnmt3b was dispensable. Of note, lack of Dnmt1 resulted in a slight decrease in CG methylation, suggesting that this maintenance enzyme plays a role in non-dividing oocytes. Dnmt1 may act on CG sites that remain hemimethylated in the de novo methylation process. Our results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms and significance of non-CG methylation in mammalian oocytes.
Methylation of cytosine bases in DNA is an epigenetic modification crucial for normal development, retrotransposon silencing, and cellular reprogramming. In mammals, the vast majority of 5-methylcytosine occurs at CG dinucleotides, and thus most studies to date have focused on this dinucleotide. However, recent studies have shown that 5-methylcytosine is abundant at non-CG (CA, CT, and CC) sites in certain tissues and certain cell types in human and mouse. We previously identified non-CG methylation in CG-rich sequences, including the imprint control regions in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes, but its global distribution and the enzymes responsible are unknown. Using advanced high-throughput sequencing technology applicable to minute amounts of DNA, we obtained high-resolution methylation maps of newborn non-growing oocytes, adult germinal vesicle oocytes, and mutant germinal vesicle oocytes lacking any of the four DNA methyltransferase family proteins. Our results revealed that non-CG methylation accumulates genome-wide in close proximity to highly methylated CG sites during the oocyte growth stage. We also found that the de novo DNA methyltransferase proteins Dnmt3a and Dnmt3L are responsible for non-CG methylation in oocytes. Unexpectedly, we found that the maintenance methyltransferase Dnmt1 has a role in de novo CG methylation. Our study provides a basis for understanding the mechanisms and significance of non-CG methylation in mammalian oocytes.
We determined the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus brevis KB290, a probiotic lactic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fermented vegetable. The genome contained a 2,395,134-bp chromosome that housed 2,391 protein-coding genes and nine plasmids that together accounted for 191 protein-coding genes. KB290 contained no virulence factor genes, and several genes related to presumptive cell wall-associated polysaccharide biosynthesis and the stress response were present in L. brevis KB290 but not in the closely related L. brevis ATCC 367. Plasmid-curing experiments revealed that the presence of plasmid pKB290-1 was essential for the strain's gastrointestinal tract tolerance and tendency to aggregate. Using next-generation deep sequencing of current and 18-year-old stock strains to detect low frequency variants, we evaluated genome stability. Deep sequencing of four periodic KB290 culture stocks with more than 1,000-fold coverage revealed 3 mutation sites and 37 minority variation sites, indicating long-term stability and providing a useful method for assessing the stability of industrial bacteria at the nucleotide level.
We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Bacillus cereus NC7401, a representative of the strain group that causes emetic-type food poisoning. The emetic toxin, cereulide, is produced by a nonribosomal protein synthesis (NRPS) system that is encoded by a gene cluster on a large resident plasmid, pNCcld.
Lactococcus garvieae is a major pathogen for fish. Two complete (ATCC 49156 and Lg2) and three draft (UNIUD074, 8831, and 21881) genome sequences of L. garvieae have recently been released. We here present the results of a comparative genomic analysis of these fish and human isolates of L. garvieae. The pangenome comprised 1,542 core and 1,378 dispensable genes. The sequenced L. garvieae strains shared most of the possible virulence genes, but the capsule gene cluster was found only in fish-pathogenic strain Lg2. The absence of the capsule gene cluster in other nonpathogenic strains isolated from mastitis and vegetable was also confirmed by PCR. The fish and human isolates of L. garvieae contained the specific two and four adhesin genes, respectively, indicating that these adhesion proteins may be involved in the host specificity differences of L. garvieae. The discoveries revealed by the pangenomic analysis may provide significant insights into the biology of L. garvieae.
Arcobacter butzleri strain ED-1 is an exoelectrogenic epsilonproteobacterium isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. Arcobacter sp. strain L dominates the liquid phase of the same fuel cell. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequences of these organisms.
Lactococcus garvieae causes fatal haemorrhagic septicaemia in fish such as yellowtail. The comparative analysis of genomes of a virulent strain Lg2 and a non-virulent strain ATCC 49156 of L. garvieae revealed that the two strains shared a high degree of sequence identity, but Lg2 had a 16.5-kb capsule gene cluster that is absent in ATCC 49156. The capsule gene cluster was composed of 15 genes, of which eight genes are highly conserved with those in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster often found in Lactococcus lactis strains. Sequence analysis of the capsule gene cluster in the less virulent strain L. garvieae Lg2-S, Lg2-derived strain, showed that two conserved genes were disrupted by a single base pair deletion, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the capsule is crucial for virulence of Lg2. The capsule gene cluster of Lg2 may be a genomic island from several features such as the presence of insertion sequences flanked on both ends, different GC content from the chromosomal average, integration into the locus syntenic to other lactococcal genome sequences, and distribution in human gut microbiomes. The analysis also predicted other potential virulence factors such as haemolysin. The present study provides new insights into understanding of the virulence mechanisms of L. garvieae in fish.
A lytic phage, designated as ϕTMA, was isolated from a Japanese hot spring using Thermus thermophilus HB27 as an indicator strain. Electron microscopic examination showed that ϕTMA had an icosahedral head and a contractile tail. The circular double-stranded DNA sequence of ϕTMA was 151,483 bp in length, and its organization was essentially same as that of ϕYS40 except that the ϕTMA genome contained genes for a pair of transposase and resolvase, and a gene for a serine to asparagine substituted ortholog of the protein involved in the initiation of the ϕYS40 genomic DNA synthesis. The different host specificities of ϕTMA and ϕYS40 could be explained by the sequence differences in the C-terminal regions of their distal tail fiber proteins. The ΔpilA knockout strains of T. thermophilus showed simultaneous loss of sensitivity to their cognate phages, pilus structure, twitching motility and competence for natural transformation, thus suggesting that the phage infection required the intact host pili. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the ϕTMA and ϕYS40 genomes revealed that the length of their DNA exceeded 200 kb, indicating that the terminal redundancy is more than 30% of the closed circular form. Proteomic analysis of the ϕTMA virion using a combination of N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometric analysis of peptide fragments suggested that the maturation of several proteins involved in the phage assembly process was mediated by a trypsin-like protease. The gene order of the phage structural proteins was also discussed.
Thermus thermophilus; myovirus; genomics; antagonistic coevolution; proteomics
Escherichia coli SE15 (O150:H5) is a human commensal bacterium recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B2, which includes the majority of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium and is frequently isolated from human gastrointestinal mucosa of healthy individuals. L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103, isolated from a healthy human intestinal flora, is one of the most widely used and well-documented probiotics. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain SE11 (O152:H28) recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B1. SE11 harbored a 4.8 Mb chromosome encoding 4679 protein-coding genes and six plasmids encoding 323 protein-coding genes. None of the SE11 genes had sequence similarity to known genes encoding phage- and plasmid-borne virulence factors found in pathogenic E. coli strains. The comparative genome analysis with the laboratory strain K-12 MG1655 identified 62 poorly conserved genes between these two non-pathogenic strains and 1186 genes absent in MG1655. These genes in SE11 were mostly encoded in large insertion regions on the chromosome or in the plasmids, and were notably abundant in genes of fimbriae and autotransporters, which are cell surface appendages that largely contribute to the adherence ability of bacteria to host cells and bacterial conjugation. These data suggest that SE11 may have evolved to acquire and accumulate the functions advantageous for stable colonization of intestinal cells, and that the adhesion-associated functions are important for the commensality of E. coli in human gut habitat.
Escherichia coli; commensal; human gut; genome sequencing
The gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major causative agent of chronic periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis strains have been classified into virulent and less-virulent strains by mouse subcutaneous soft tissue abscess model analysis. Here, we present the whole genome sequence of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, which is classified as a less-virulent strain. We identified 2090 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 4 RNA operons, and 53 tRNA genes in the ATCC 33277 genome. By genomic comparison with the virulent strain W83, we identified 461 ATCC 33277-specific and 415 W83-specific CDSs. Extensive genomic rearrangements were observed between the two strains: 175 regions in which genomic rearrangements have occurred were identified. Thirty-five of those genomic rearrangements were inversion or translocation and 140 were simple insertion, deletion, or replacement. Both strains contained large numbers of mobile elements, such as insertion sequences, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), and conjugative transposons, which are frequently associated with genomic rearrangements. These findings indicate that the mobile genetic elements have been deeply involved in the extensive genome rearrangement of P. gingivalis and the occurrence of many of the strain-specific CDSs. We also describe here a very unique feature of MITE400, which we renamed MITEPgRS (MITE of P. gingivalis with Repeating Sequences).
Porphyromonas gingivalis; whole genome sequence; genome rearrangement; conjugative transposon; MITE
Lactobacillus reuteri is a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that naturally inhabits the gut of humans and other animals. The probiotic effects of L. reuteri have been proposed to be largely associated with the production of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin during anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. We determined the complete genome sequences of the reuterin-producing L. reuteri JCM 1112T and its closely related species Lactobacillus fermentum IFO 3956. Both are in the same phylogenetic group within the genus Lactobacillus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that L. reuteri JCM 1112T has a unique cluster of 58 genes for the biosynthesis of reuterin and cobalamin (vitamin B12). The 58-gene cluster has a lower GC content and is apparently inserted into the conserved region, suggesting that the cluster represents a genomic island acquired from an anomalous source. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) with 13C3-glycerol demonstrated that L. reuteri JCM 1112T could convert glycerol to reuterin in vivo, substantiating the potential of L. reuteri JCM 1112T to produce reuterin in the intestine. Given that glycerol is shown to be naturally present in feces, the acquired ability to produce reuterin and cobalamin is an adaptive evolutionary response that likely contributes to the probiotic properties of L. reuteri.
Lactobacillus reuteri; Lactobacillus fermentum; reuterin; cobalamin; genome
Finegoldia magna (formerly Peptostreptococcus magnus), a member of the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), is a commensal bacterium colonizing human skin and mucous membranes. Moreover, it is also recognized as an opportunistic pathogen responsible for various infectious diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of F. magna ATCC 29328. The genome consists of a 1 797 577 bp circular chromosome and an 189 163 bp plasmid (pPEP1). The metabolic maps constructed based on the genome information confirmed that most F. magna strains cannot ferment most sugars, except fructose, and have various aminopeptidase activities. Three homologs of albumin-binding protein, a known virulence factor useful for antiphagocytosis, are encoded on the chromosome, and one albumin-binding protein homolog is encoded on the plasmid. A unique feature of the genome is that F. magna encodes many sortase genes, of which substrates may be involved in bacterial pathogenesis, such as antiphagocytosis and adherence to the host cell. The plasmid pPEP1 encodes seven sortase and seven substrate genes, whereas the chromosome encodes four sortase and 19 substrate genes. These plasmid-encoded sortases may play important roles in the pathogenesis of F. magna by enriching the variety of cell wall anchored surface proteins.
whole genome sequence; Gram-positive anaerobic cocci; Peptostreptococcus magnus; albumin-binding protein; sortase
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular eubacterium, changes its form from a vegetative reticulate body into an infectious elementary body during the late stage of its infection cycle. Comprehension of the molecular events in the morphological change is important to understand the switching mechanism between acute and chronic infection, which is deemed to relate to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Herein, we have attempted to screen genes expressed in the late stage with a genome-wide DNA microarray, resulting in nomination of 17 genes as the late-stage genes. Fourteen of the 17 genes and six other genes predicted as late-stage genes were confirmed to be up-regulated in the late stage with a quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. These 20 late-stage genes were classified into two groups by clustering analysis: ‘drastically induced’ and ‘moderately induced’ genes. Out of eight drastically induced genes, four contain σ28 promoter-like sequences and the other four contain an upstream common sequence. It suggests that besides σ28, there are certain up-regulatory mechanisms at the late stage, which may be involved in the chlamydial morphological change and thus pathogenesis.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae; DNA microarray; genome; chlamydia; gene expression
Numerous microbes inhabit the human intestine, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects human physiology. To identify the genomic features common to all human gut microbiomes as well as those variable among them, we performed a large-scale comparative metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from 13 healthy individuals of various ages, including unweaned infants. We found that, while the gut microbiota from unweaned infants were simple and showed a high inter-individual variation in taxonomic and gene composition, those from adults and weaned children were more complex but showed a high functional uniformity regardless of age or sex. In searching for the genes over-represented in gut microbiomes, we identified 237 gene families commonly enriched in adult-type and 136 families in infant-type microbiomes, with a small overlap. An analysis of their predicted functions revealed various strategies employed by each type of microbiota to adapt to its intestinal environment, suggesting that these gene sets encode the core functions of adult and infant-type gut microbiota. By analysing the orphan genes, 647 new gene families were identified to be exclusively present in human intestinal microbiomes. In addition, we discovered a conjugative transposon family explosively amplified in human gut microbiomes, which strongly suggests that the intestine is a ‘hot spot’ for horizontal gene transfer between microbes.
metagenomics; human gut microbiota; gene family; conjugative transposon