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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1)
Genome Announcements (1)
Hagens, Steven (3)
Bläsi, Udo (1)
Habel, André (1)
Klumpp, Jochen (1)
Loessner, Martin J (1)
Loessner, Martin J. (1)
Marti, Roger (1)
Vollenweider, Philip (1)
de Wouters, Tomas (1)
von Ahsen, Uwe (1)
von Gabain, Alexander (1)
Year of Publication
Genome Sequence of Salmonella bongori Strain N268-08, a Rare Clinical Isolate
Loessner, Martin J.
Salmonella bongori is a close relative of the highly virulent members of S. enterica subspecies enterica, encompassing more than 2,500 serovars, most of which cause human salmonellosis, one of the leading food-borne illnesses. S. bongori is only very rarely implicated in infections. We here present the sequence of a clinical isolate from Switzerland, S. bongori strain N268-08.
Reporter bacteriophage A511::celB transduces a hyperthermostable glycosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus for rapid and simple detection of viable Listeria cells
de Wouters, Tomas
Loessner, Martin J
Reporter bacteriophages for detection of pathogenic bacteria offer fast and sensitive screening for live bacterial targets. We present a novel strategy employing a gene encoding a hyperthermophilic enzyme, permitting the use of various substrates and assay formats. The celB gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus specifying an extremely thermostable β-glycosidase was inserted into the genome of the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 by homologous recombination. It is expressed at the end of the infectious cycle, under control of the strong major capsid gene promoter Pcps. Infection of Listeria with A511::celB results in strong gene expression and synthesis of a fully functional β-glycosidase. The reporter phage was tested for detection of viable Listeria cells with different chromogenic, fluorescent or chemiluminescent substrates. The best signal-to-noise ratio and sufficiently high sensitivity was obtained using the inexpensive substrate 4-Methylumbelliferyl-α-D-Glucopyranoside (MUG). The reporter phage assay is simple to perform and can be completed in about 6 h. Phage infection, as well as the subsequent temperature shift, enzymatic substrate conversion and signal recordings are independent from each other and may be performed separately. The detection limit for viable Listeria monocytogenes in an assay format adapted to 96-well microplates was 7.2 × 102 cells per well, corresponding to 6 × 103 cfu per ml in suspension. Application of the A511::celB protocol to Listeria in spiked chocolate milk and salmon demonstrate the usefulness of the reporter phage for rapid detection of low numbers of the bacteria (10 cfu/g or less) in contaminated foods.
Listeria monocytogenes; reporter bacteriophage; Pyrococcus furiosus; glycosidase; celB; rapid methods; food safety
Therapy of Experimental Pseudomonas Infections with a Nonreplicating Genetically Modified Phage
von Ahsen, Uwe
von Gabain, Alexander
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bacteriophage therapy of bacterial infections has received renewed attention owing to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. A side effect of many antibiotics as well as of phage therapy with lytic phage is the release of cell wall components, e.g., endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, which mediate the general pathological aspects of septicemia. Here we explored an alternative strategy by using genetically engineered nonreplicating, nonlytic phage to combat an experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An export protein gene of the P. aeruginosa filamentous phage Pf3 was replaced with a restriction endonuclease gene. This rendered the Pf3 variant (Pf3R) nonreplicative and concomitantly prevented the release of the therapeutic agent from the target cell. The Pf3R phage efficiently killed a wild-type host in vitro, while endotoxin release was kept to a minimum. Treatment of P. aeruginosa infections of mice with Pf3R or with a replicating lytic phage resulted in comparable survival rates upon challenge with a minimal lethal dose of 3. However, the survival rate after phage therapy with Pf3R was significantly higher than that with the lytic phage upon challenge with a minimal lethal dose of 5. This higher survival rate correlated with a reduced inflammatory response elicited by Pf3R treatment relative to that with the lytic phage. Therefore, this study suggests that the increased survival rate of Pf3R-treated mice could result from reduced endotoxin release. Thus, the use of a nonreplicating modified phage for the delivery of genes encoding proteins toxic to bacterial pathogens may open up a new avenue in antimicrobial therapy.
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