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The N-Terminal Domain of the Repressor of Staphylococcus aureus Phage Φ11 Possesses an Unusual Dimerization Ability and DNA Binding Affinity
Bacteriophage Φ11 uses Staphylococcus aureus as its host and, like lambdoid phages, harbors three homologous operators in between its two divergently oriented repressor genes. None of the repressors of Φ11, however, showed binding to all three operators, even at high concentrations. To understand why the DNA binding mechanism of Φ11 repressors does not match that of lambdoid phage repressors, we studied the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 lysogenic repressor, as it harbors a putative helix-turn-helix motif. Our data revealed that the secondary and tertiary structures of the N-terminal domain were different from those of the full-length repressor. Nonetheless, the N-terminal domain was able to dimerize and bind to the operators similar to the intact repressor. In addition, the operator base specificity, binding stoichiometry, and binding mechanism of this domain were nearly identical to those of the whole repressor. The binding affinities of the repressor and its N-terminal domain were reduced to a similar extent when the temperature was increased to 42°C. Both proteins also adequately dislodged a RNA polymerase from a Φ11 DNA fragment carrying two operators and a promoter. Unlike the intact repressor, the binding of the N-terminal domain to two adjacent operator sites was not cooperative in nature. Taken together, we suggest that the dimerization and DNA binding abilities of the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 repressor are distinct from those of the DNA binding domains of other phage repressors.
Biochemical characterization of L1 repressor mutants with altered operator DNA binding activity
A mycobacteriophage-specific repressor with the enhanced operator DNA binding activity at 32°C and no activity at 42°C has not been generated yet though it has potential in developing a temperature-controlled expression vector for mycobacterial system. To create such an invaluable repressor, here we have characterized four substitution mutants of mycobacteriophage L1 repressor by various probes. The W69C repressor mutant displayed no operator DNA binding activity, whereas, P131L repressor mutant exhibited very little DNA binding at 32°C. In contrast, both E36K and E39Q repressor mutants showed significantly higher DNA binding activity at 32°C, particularly, under in vivo conditions. Various mutations also had different effects on the structure, stability and the dimerization ability of L1 repressor. While the W69C mutant possessed a distorted tertiary structure, the P131L mutant dimerized poorly in solution at 32°C. Interestingly, both these mutants lost their two-domain structure and aggregated rapidly at 42°C. Of the native and mutant L1 repressor proteins, W69C and E36K mutants appeared to be the least stable at 32°C. Studies together suggest that the mutants, particularly P131L and E39Q mutants, could be used for creating a high affinity temperature-sensitive repressor in the future.
mycobacteriophage L1; repressor; early promoter; operator DNA; mutant repressor and expression vector
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