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1.  Suppression of herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation from latency by (+-)-9-([(Z)-2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]methyl) guanine (L-653,180) in vitro. 
Latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection was induced in human embryonic lung cells in vitro by using a combination of viral replication inhibitors and elevated temperature. Under reactivating conditions (superinfection by human cytomegalovirus or temperature manipulation), a nonantiviral thymidine kinase inhibitor (L-653,180) was found to suppress or delay reactivation of HSV-1 from latently infected human embryonic lung cells. L-653,180 alone or in combination with interferon was ineffective as a primary or acute viral replication inhibitor and was unable to induce latent HSV-1 infection in cell culture. These data suggest that initial or acute virus replication and replication resulting from reactivation from latency are separate events.
PMCID: PMC171871  PMID: 2171423
2.  Sexually transmitted viruses. 
Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives.
PMCID: PMC2589237  PMID: 2549736
3.  A human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus. 
Journal of Virology  1988;62(1):188-195.
Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 micrograms/ml) for 3 or 24 h, conditions known to result in accumulation of HCMV immediate-early and early mRNA, was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5 degrees C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. However, replication of adenovirus, another DNA virus, was not restricted in these cells under the same conditions. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with [3H]thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection. In addition, superinfection with vesicular stomatitis virus ruled out a role for interferon in restriction of HSV replication in this system.
PMCID: PMC250518  PMID: 2824846
5.  Prolonged herpes simplex virus latency in vitro after treatment of infected cells with acyclovir and human leukocyte interferon. 
We previously demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can be established in a latent form in vitro by the treatment of HSV-infected human cells with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) in combination with human leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha). We now report that the substitution of BVDU with 9-[(2-hydoxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir; ACV) during a combined treatment with IFN-alpha inhibited HSV-1 replication and established in vitro virus latency that could be maintained for a longer period after inhibitor removal and a continued incubation at 37 degrees C. By contrast, the treatment of HSV-1-infected cells with combined IFN-alpha and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine, a congener of ACV, failed to establish in vitro virus latency. Furthermore, none of these inhibitors used alone was sufficient to establish in vitro virus latency. The use of nucleoside analogs differing from BVDU in their modes of action has enabled us to initiate studies designed to extend in vitro virus latency.
PMCID: PMC180447  PMID: 3010847
6.  Synergistic effect of human leukocyte interferon and nonoxynol 9 against herpes simplex virus type 2. 
The nonionic surfactant nonoxynol 9 (NP9), in combination with human alpha interferon, synergistically reduced the titer of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. The degree of synergy was highest at an interferon concentration of 10(3) IU/ml and an NP9 dilution of 1:1,500. We postulate that NP9 inactivates extracellular HSV-2, whereas interferon inhibits HSV-2 replication at the intracellular level.
PMCID: PMC180273  PMID: 3000288
7.  Analysis of the herpes simplex virus genome during in vitro latency in human diploid fibroblasts and rat sensory neurons. 
Journal of Virology  1984;49(1):205-213.
We have previously designed in vitro model systems to characterize the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome during in vitro virus latency. Latency was established by treatment of infected human embryo lung fibroblast (HEL-F) cells or rat fetal neurons with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and human leukocyte interferon and was maintained by increasing the incubation temperature after inhibitor removal. Virus was reactivated by reducing the incubation temperature. We have now examined the HSV-1-specific DNA content of latently infected HEL-F cells and rat fetal neurons treated with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and human leukocyte interferon and increased temperature. The HEL-F cell population contained, on an average, between 0.25 and 0.5 copies of most, if not all, HSV-1 HindIII and XbaI DNA fragments per haploid cell genome equivalent. In contrast, the latently infected neurons contained, on an average, 8 to 10 copies per haploid cell genome equivalent of most HSV-1 BamHI DNA fragments. There was no detectable alteration in size or molarity of the HSV-1 terminal or junction DNA fragments obtained by HindIII, XbaI, or BamHI digestion of the latently infected neuron or HEL-F cell DNA, as compared with digestion of a reconstruction mixture of purified HSV-1 virion and HEL-F cell DNAs. These data suggest that the predominant form of the HSV-1 genome in either latently infected cell population is nonintegrated, linear, and nonconcatameric.
PMCID: PMC255443  PMID: 6317890
8.  Hepatic infection by thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus after partial hepatectomy. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;42(1):402-408.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of mouse liver after partial hepatectomy was studied. Partial hepatectomy resulted in the rapid onset of cellular DNA synthesis and the appearance of many mitotic figures (peak, 3 days after surgery). Similar changes were not seen in control animals. After partial hepatectomy, the mice were infected with thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) and -negative (TK-) HSV to investigate virus titers in liver tissue during liver cell replication. In control unoperated mice, liver titers of TK+ HSV (2 X 10(3) PFU/g) were greater than those of mice inoculated with TK HSV (4 X 10(1) to 5 X 10(2) PFU/g). After partial hepatectomy, TK+ and TK- HSV titers increased, and peak TK+ and TK- HSV titers were similar (6 X 10(5) to 8 X 10(5) PFU/g). Hepatic infection was further investigated by infectious center (IC) assays. The numbers of ICs for TK+ HSV increased 50-fold after partial hepatectomy, whereas the increase was less for TK- HSV. From the results of these studies, we hypothesize that the increase in hepatic TK+ HSV after hepatectomy may have been largely due to the increase in ICs, whereas the increase in hepatic TK- HSV was due, in part, to the increase in ICs, but may also have been due to the enhanced synthesis of TK- HSV in replicating liver cells.
PMCID: PMC264571  PMID: 6311750
9.  Synergistic antiviral activity of acyclovir and interferon on human cytomegalovirus. 
The efficacy of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) combined with 9-(2'-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acyclovir; ACV), (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine, or 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine on the inhibition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in human embryonic lung cells was analyzed by plaque reduction assays. IFN-alpha combined with 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine or 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine produced an additive antiviral activity with respect to HCMV plaque formation. IFN-alpha combined with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine also exhibited additive antiviral activity. However, IFN-alpha combined with ACV at concentrations higher than 10 microM consistently yielded synergistic activity in HCMV plaque reduction assays. Kinetic analyses of HCMV replication demonstrated that approximately a 1,000-fold reduction can be attained through the synergistic interaction between ACV (200 microM) and IFN-alpha (42 IU/ml). These data suggest that combined ACV and IFN-alpha treatment may be useful against HCMV infection.
PMCID: PMC185320  PMID: 6314891
10.  Simian virus 40 promoters direct expression of the tetracycline gene in plasmid pACYC184. 
Journal of Virology  1983;45(1):478-481.
Insertion of HindIII DNA fragments into the HindIII site of plasmid pACYC184 destroys the promoter of the plasmid tetracycline resistance gene and causes Escherichia coli cells harboring recombinant plasmids to be tetracycline sensitive and chloramphenicol resistant. The HindIII-C DNA fragment of simian virus 40 contains the two virus promoters and the virus origin of replication. We report the isolation of recombinant plasmids that contained the simian virus 40 HindIII-C DNA fragment at the HindIII site but were capable of conferring tetracycline resistance to E. coli cells. The viral promoter sequences contained in the HindIII-C fragment presumably replaced the inactivated tetracycline resistance gene promoter sequences and enabled transcription of the tetracycline resistance gene.
PMCID: PMC256434  PMID: 6296456
11.  Detection by RNA blot hybridization of RNA sequences homologous to the BglII-N fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA. 
Journal of Virology  1982;44(3):1092-1096.
RNA species, extracted at the time of peak synthesis of the alpha, beta, and gamma classes of herpes simplex virus polypeptides from lytically infected Vero cells, were examined for homology to the BglII-N fragment (map units 0.58 to 0.63) of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA. By using northern blot analysis, two major and several minor polyadenylated RNA species showed homology to the BglII-N fragment at times corresponding to the maximum synthesis of the beta (7 h postinfection) and gamma (12 h postinfection) herpes simplex virus polypeptides. No alpha RNA homologous to the BglII-N fragment was detected.
PMCID: PMC256373  PMID: 6294326
12.  Tumorigenicity of herpesvirus-transformed cells correlates with production of plasminogen activator. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1981;1(5):408-417.
Our studies first demonstrated that established hamster cell lines transformed in vitro by herpesviruses activate plasminogen more effectively than normal hamster fibroblasts. This ability is probably due to increased levels of the enzyme plasminogen activator (PA). In the studies described here, the 333-8-9 cell line, originally transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333, was used to derive subclonal lines that maintained stable PA phenotypes over the course of long in vitro passage. We were interested in correlating tumor formation by the subclones with their fibrinolytic capacity. Cells were, therefore, single-cell subcloned twice, and resulting cultures were tested for ability to activate plasminogen in vitro. PA activity was then quantitated by [125I]fibrin lysis assay, and high- and low-activity subclones were isolated; these retained high- or low-activity phenotypes. Syngeneic newborn hamsters were inoculated with these subclones and observed for the appearance of palpable tumors. A strong correlation between enzyme activity and tumor formation was observed in four separate trials; animals receiving high-PA subclones developed tumors more rapidly than those inoculated with the parental cell line. Tumors were also excised from test animals, and the cell lines established from the tumors were tested in vitro at different passages for their ability to activate plasminogen. These tumor cells were then reinoculated into syngeneic animals to confirm the tumorigenicity of cell lines with high fibrinolytic activity. In these experiments, the positive correlation between PA production and tumorigenicity was confirmed.
PMCID: PMC369336  PMID: 6100964
13.  Enhanced capacity of DNA repair in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells. 
Journal of Virology  1981;38(1):164-172.
Plaque formation in Vero cells by UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus was enhanced by infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), UV irradiation, or treatment with methylmethanesulfonate. Preinfection of Vero cells with HCMV enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus more significantly than did treatment with UV or methylmethanesulfonate alone. A similar enhancement by HCMV was observed in human embryonic fibroblasts, but not in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP12BE) cells. It was also found that HCMV infection enhanced hydroxyurea-resistant DNA synthesis induced by UV light or methylmethanesulfonate. Alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis revealed an enhanced rate of synthesis of all size classes of DNA in UV-irradiated HCMV-infected Vero cells. However, HCMV infection did not induce repairable lesions in cellular DNA and did not significantly inhibit host cell DNA synthesis, unlike UV or methylmethanesulfonate. These results indicate that HCMV enhanced DNA repair capacity in the host cells without producing detectable lesions in cellular DNA and without inhibiting DNA synthesis. This repair appeared to be error proof for UV-damaged herpes simplex virus DNA when tested with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-negative mutants.
PMCID: PMC171136  PMID: 6264099
14.  Involvement of an early human cytomegalovirus function in reactivation of quiescent herpes simplex virus type 2. 
Journal of Virology  1981;37(3):1051-1059.
We have previously described an in vitro system in which the function lacking for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication can be induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The mechanism of this reactivation of quiescent HSV-2 by HCMV has been further defined. The HCMV function(s) responsible for HSV-2 stimulation was examined temporally, and the fraction of cells in quiescent cultures producing HSV-2 after superinfection was determined. Using independent biological, genetic and molecular techniques we have made the following observations. (i) As early as 12 h after HCMV superinfection, HSV-2 RNA was expressed in latently infected cells. (ii) At 24 h after HCMV superinfection, a time when newly synthesized HCMV was not yet apparent, infectious HSV-2 was produced by reactivated cultures. (iii) Four HCMV temperature-sensitive mutants, which are DNA-negative at nonpermissive temperature and represent four different complementation groups, induced reactivation of HSV-2 at 39.5 degrees C. (iv) Early after HCMV superinfection, 1.6% of quiescent cells could be induced to transcribe HSV-2 information. (v) Early after HCMV superinfection, 0.3% of cells in the quiescent cultures could be induced to yield infectious HSV-2. The finding that a significant interaction can occur between HCMV and quiescent HSV-2 in an in vitro model is noteworthy in light of the knowledge that both of these herpesviruses often reside simultaneously in the human host.
PMCID: PMC171102  PMID: 6262523
15.  Acute cytomegalovirus infections in leukemic mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1980;29(2):311-315.
Mice infected with 2 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) 3 days after receiving 300 to 400 spleen focus-forming units of Friend leukemia virus developed a more severe MCMV infection than did normal animals. Increased severity was demonstrated by the increased amounts of MCMV recoverable from the salivary glands of leukemic mice 1 to 5 weeks postinfection. In addition, the difference in the number of virus isolations from the kidneys, spleens, livers, and lungs of animals (74 to 120) coinfected with MCMV and Friend leukemia virus compared with animals (49 of 120) infected with MCMV alone was significant (P less than 0.01). Both the 50% lethal dose and 50% infectious dose of MCMV in leukemic mice were lower than in normal animals. MCMV and Friend leukemia virus appear to interact by suppressing the ability of infected spleen cells to respond to mitogen-induced stimulation. The observations of increased severity of MCMV infections in leukemic mice closely parallel the situation observed in human leukemia patients who are at an increased risk of disease due to human cytomegalovirus infections. This mouse model may be useful in assessing the effect of antiviral (cytomegalovirus) therapy.
PMCID: PMC551118  PMID: 6260649
16.  Biochemical transformation by temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1. 
Journal of Virology  1980;34(3):704-710.
Biochemical transformation assays of herpes simplex virus type 1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants distinguished three groups of mutants with regard to their thymidine kinase (TK) transforming ability: those incapable of transferring the TK gene at either the permissive or restrictive temperatures (group I); those resembling the wild-type virus, and therefore able to transform at both the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures (group II); and those that failed to transform or exhibited very low transformation frequencies at the permissive temperature but were able to transform at the nonpermissive temperature (group III). Two mutants in group II exhibited greatly enhanced transformation efficiency at the permissive temperature. The ts lesions in the majority of the mutants tested map between 0.30 and 0.60 units on the viral genome. Mutants with TK-positive (TK+), but DNA-negative, phenotypes at the nonpermissive temperature produced no TK+ transformants at the permissive temperature and only unstable transformants at the nonpermissive temperature. This suggests that a function which is required for viral DNA synthesis is also required to obtain stable expression or to transfer the TK+ gene or both when transfer is mediated by the entire viral genome.
PMCID: PMC288759  PMID: 6247507
17.  Identification of the herpes simplex virus DNA sequences present in six herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transformed mouse cell lines. 
Journal of Virology  1980;33(1):272-285.
We have used a novel filter hybridization approach to detect and map the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences which are present in four HSV thymidine kinase (HSVtk+)-transformed cell lines which were derived by exposure of thymidine kinase negative (tk-) mouse cells to UV light-irradiated HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In addition, we have mapped the HSV-1 DNA sequences which are present in two HSV-1tk+-transformed cell lines produced by transfection of tk- mouse cells with sheared HSV-1 DNA. The results of these studies can be summarized as follows. (i) The only HSV DNA sequences which were common to all HSVtk+-transformed cells were those located between map coordinates 0.28 and 0.32. Thus, this region contains all of the viral DNA sequences which are necessary for the expression of HSV-mediated tk transformation. (ii) Many of the cell lines also contained variable amounts of non-tk gene viral DNA sequences located between map coordinates 0.11 to 0.57 and 0.82 to 1.00, suggesting that incorporation of the viral DNA sequences located between these map coordinates is a relatively random event. (iii) The viral DNA sequences located between map coordinates 0 to 0.11 and 0.57 to 0.82 were uniformly absent from all of the HSVtk+ cell lines tested, suggesting that there is a strong negative selective pressure against incorporation of these viral DNA sequences.
PMCID: PMC288544  PMID: 6245232
18.  Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2-induced biochemical transformation by interferon. 
Journal of Virology  1980;33(1):543-546.
The effect of interferon on the biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase-deficient cells by UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 has been studied. Transformation was much less sensitive to the action of interferon than virus multiplication. However, the continuous presence of a high dose of interferon (2,000 U) inhibited transformation almost completely. Although we could not differentiate between the effect of interferon on fixation and expression of the virus thymidine kinase gene, data suggest that the inhibitory effect of interferon on transformation might be partially due to the suppression of virus thymidine kinase expression.
PMCID: PMC288570  PMID: 6154151
19.  Analysis of the DNAs from seven varicella-zoster virus isolates. 
Journal of Virology  1979;32(3):812-821.
The 32P-labeled DNAs from seven different clinical isolates of human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were independently digested with five site-specific restriction endonucleases, EcoRI, HindIII, SmaI, BamHI, and AvaI. The digestion products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 0.5% agarose gels followed by autoradiography of the dried gels. Evaluation of the restriction enzyme cleavage patterns revealed small variations among the VZV DNAs. The VZV DNAs were also compared based on their buoyant densities in CsCl. No significant buoyant density differences were detected among the VZV DNAs.
PMCID: PMC525929  PMID: 229268
20.  Regulation of persistent infection with herpes simplex virus in vitro by hydrocortisone. 
Journal of Virology  1979;31(3):841-844.
About 1% of Raji cells showed sensitivity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection when tested by infectious center assays or immunofluorescence tests, and the percentage did not change during cell passage. The addition of hydrocortisone to Raji cells persistently infected with HSV-2 caused a marked increase in virus production and in the number of HSV-producing cells. In the case of HSV-1, it was shown that the addition of hydrocortisone was required to maintain persistent infection. These observations suggest that control of replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in these cells is regulated by different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC353512  PMID: 229255
21.  Production of plasminogen activator by human and hamster cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. 
Journal of Virology  1979;31(2):415-419.
Plasminogen activator was produced by both human embryo fibroblasts (a permissive system) and hamster embryo fibroblasts (a nonpermissive system) after exposure to human cytomegalovirus. The level of this activator was measured by using plates coated with [125I]fibrin. The production of plasminogen activator was enhanced when the human cells were exposed to human cytomegalovirus previously irradiated with UV light (5,520 to 55,200 ergs/mm2).
PMCID: PMC353464  PMID: 225562
22.  Role of virus variants and cells in maintenance of persistent infection by measles virus. 
Journal of Virology  1979;30(1):64-68.
Hamster embryo fibroblasts persistently infected with a derivative of the Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus spontaneously released virus particles with an average buoyant density considerably lower than that of the parental virus. The released virus contained all of the measles virus structural proteins and interfered with replication of standard virus. All of the virus structural proteins were associated with a membrane-free cytoplasmic extract from the persistently infected cells. Membrane-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Vero cells lytically infected with Schwarz strain measles contained little or no virus envelope structural protein. Maintenance of persistent infection may involve both the presence of virus variants and a defect in the ability of the infected cell to replicate the virus efficiently.
PMCID: PMC353298  PMID: 480462
23.  Identification of a herpesvirus isolated from cytomegalovirus-transformed human cells. 
Journal of Virology  1978;27(3):713-724.
Human cells transformed by cytomegalovirus and transplanted to athymic nude mice yielded a cytopathic virus, Hershey Medical Center virus, following prolonged in vitro passage of the tumor cells. The virus is a double-enveloped herpesvirus, is sensitive to ether, and is inhibited by iododeoxyuridine. No significant antigenic relationship to herpes simplex virus was detected using herpes simplex virus-immune sera in neutralization and immunofluorescence tests, but indirect immunofluorescence tests revealed cytomegalovirus-related antigenicity. Further immunological tests revealed that Hershey Medical Center virus is antigenically indistinguishable from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Thus, it appears that Hershey Medical Center virus is infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, which presumably appeared in the cell culture as a contaminant from fetal calf serum.
PMCID: PMC525859  PMID: 212591
24.  Biochemical transformation of mouse cells by herpes simplex virus type 2: enhancement by means of low-level photodynamic treatment. 
Journal of Virology  1978;26(1):200-202.
The biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase-deficient cells by UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus is enhanced by low-level photodynamic treatment of the infected cells. At the concentration of proflavine used, the virus was not inactivated and both virus and cellular DNA syntheses were only marginally inhibited. The observed enhancement of the transfer of a virus gene to the cell genome suggests a possible cocarcinogenic role for photodynamically active dyes at very low concentrations.
PMCID: PMC354050  PMID: 206727
25.  Temperature-sensitive mutants of human cytomegalovirus. 
Journal of Virology  1977;24(1):416-418.
Eight temperature-sensitive mutants of human cytomegalovirus have been isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine. Three of these mutants have been classified into three separate complementation groups and are capable of synthesizing virus DNA at the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C). Two others appear unable to synthesize virus DNA at the elevated temperature.
PMCID: PMC515945  PMID: 198584

Results 1-25 (47)