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1.  Distribution and characterization of mosquitocidal toxin genes in some strains of Bacillus sphaericus. 
The binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus strains forms a crystal in sporulating cells, while the mosquitocidal toxin is located in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells. The distribution of binary toxin (btx) and mosquitocidal toxin (mtx) genes in 53 strains of B. sphaericus was determined by hybridization of specific gene probes to chromosomal DNA in Southern blots. btx genes were found in all strains of serotype 5a5b examined and in some strains of serotypes 1a, 3, 6, 25, and 48, while mtx genes were detected in strains of serotypes 1a, 2a2b, 5a5b, 6, 9a9c, 25, and 48. Serotype 26a26b strains lacked both toxin genes, as did some strains of serotypes 2a2b, 3, 6, and 48. Partial DNA sequences of btx genes from five strains, together with published sequences, revealed four types of toxin among mosquitocidal B. sphaericus strains. most of the 42-kDa toxin gene of btx was identical in strains from serotypes 1a, 3, 6, and 48, and the gene is here classified as a type 1 btx gene. A serotype 3 strain isolated in Singapore possessed a unique 42-kDa toxin gene, here designated type 4; while the btx genes from strains of serotypes 5a5b and 25 are referred to as types 2 and 3, respectively.
PMCID: PMC168413  PMID: 9097416
2.  Glucose Transport in Stationary-Phase Cultures of an Asporogenous Strain of Bacillus licheniformis 
The sporulation-deficient industrial organism Bacillus licheniformis HWL10 possesses two distinct glucose transport systems in log-phase cells, a glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a non-PTS mechanism. The strain continues to take up glucose at a significant though reduced rate during prolonged stationary-phase incubation, but only the PTS is active.
PMCID: PMC1388786  PMID: 16535248
3.  Extracellular enzyme synthesis in a sporulation-deficient strain of Bacillus licheniformis. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1995;61(11):3775-3780.
A deletion of the spoIIAC gene of Bacillus licheniformis was prepared in vitro by using the splicing-by-overlap-extension technique. This gene was introduced into B. licheniformis on a temperature-sensitive plasmid, and following integration and excision from the chromosome, a precisely located deletion on the chromosomal gene was prepared. The mutated bacterium was totally asporogenous and formed abortively disporic cells characterized by asymmetric septa at the poles of the cells. Qualitative plate tests revealed that the bacterium synthesized normal levels of DNase, polygalacturonate lyase, protease, RNase, and xylanase, but the hydrolysis zones due to beta-1,3-glucanase and carboxymethyl cellulase activity were smaller in the mutant than in the parent strain. The synthesis of alkaline protease was the same in batch cultures of the mutant and the parent during prolonged incubation for 72 h, but the alpha-amylase yields were reduced by about 30% by the mutation.
PMCID: PMC167678  PMID: 8526485
4.  Distribution of beta-glucanases within the genus Bacillus. 
Representative strains (368) from 36 species in the genus Bacillus were screened for the secretion of beta-glucanases. (1 leads to 6)-beta-glucanases active on pustulan were produced by a minority of the organisms studied (4%), but (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases which hydrolyzed laminarin and pachyman were more widespread and were secreted by 56 and 44% of the strains, respectively.
PMCID: PMC291733  PMID: 7458311
5.  New high-toxicity mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus lacking a 100-kilodalton-toxin gene. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1993;59(10):3470-3473.
Five new high-toxicity mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus were isolated in Singapore. They all belong to phage group 8 and have binary toxin (51.4- plus 41.9-kDa) genes located on the chromosome but lack a 100-kDa-toxin gene. These strains of B. sphaericus constitute a new subgroup, as only two weakly toxic strains in phage group 8 have previously been described and all the known high-toxicity strains have both binary toxin and 100-kDa-toxin genes.
PMCID: PMC182475  PMID: 7902695
6.  Two glucose transport systems in Bacillus licheniformis. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(7):2137-2142.
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 6346 showed active accumulation of glucose which was inhibited by agents which affect the transmembrane proton gradient. Phosphotransferase (PTS) activity, identified as phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, was found in cell extracts but could not be demonstrated in cells permeabilized with toluene when assays were conducted at pH 6.6. The same was true for mannitol and fructose phosphotransferase activities. Cells grown on fructose accumulated glucose at a slower rate than glucose-grown cells, and extracts prepared from them did not contain glucose PTS activity. Examination of the effects of analogs on glucose uptake and phosphorylation showed that 2-deoxyglucose was not a PTS substrate, but did markedly inhibit glucose uptake, with stronger inhibition in cells grown on fructose. Glucose accumulation by whole cells grown on glucose became less sensitive to the uncoupler tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) as the pH was raised from 6.6 to 8.0, while in fructose-grown cells TCS was equally effective across this pH range. PTS activity was exhibited by toluene-treated cells at pH 7.5 and above, although the system itself in extracts was not affected by pH in the range of 5.0 to 8.0. The results are consistent with the presence of two glucose transport systems, one a PTS and the other operating by an alternative mechanisms, and suggest that the PTS in B. licheniformis may be regulated in a pH-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC204328  PMID: 8384621

Results 1-7 (7)