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1.  Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli serogroup O78 isolates from human and animal infections. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(5):1197-1202.
We investigated the clonal relationships among 63 Escherichia coli strains of antigen serogroup O78 isolated from infections in humans, cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens. Both septicemic and enterotoxigenic isolates were included in the study. A main group of 55 E. coli strains consisting of 52 septicemic isolates and 3 human enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates were clustered in related clones. The remaining eight strains, four human and four animal isolates, were clonally heterogeneous. The main group of 55 clonally related strains included isolates from human and animal infections. This result indicates that animals are a possible source of serogroup O78 septicemic E. coli infections in humans.
PMCID: PMC263643  PMID: 8051245
2.  The importance of P and type 1 fimbriae for the persistence of Escherichia coli in the human gut. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1992;108(3):415-421.
The faecal Escherichia coli flora was studied in 89 infants. Each infant was followed with a mean of 12 faecal samples (range 5-21) between 0 and 18 months of age. All isolates were assayed for P fimbriae and biochemically phenotyped and the persistence of each strain (phenotype) in the infant's gut was determined. In a subset of strains the occurrence of type 1 fimbriae and adherence to HeLa cells was studied. Thirty-one per cent of isolates belonging to strains colonizing for longer than 6 months expressed P fimbriae compared to 19% of the isolates from strains colonizing 1-6 months or transient strains colonizing less than 1 month. Type 1 fimbriae and adherence to HeLa cells occurred similarly often in all groups of strains. We conclude that P fimbriae, but not type 1 fimbriae or HeLa cell adherence seemed to contribute to the ability of the E. coli strain to colonize the human intestine.
PMCID: PMC2272207  PMID: 1350997
3.  Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains that cause hemorrhagic colitis and infantile diarrhea. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(5):1619-1629.
The genetic relationships among 1,300 isolates of Escherichia coli representing 16 serotypes associated with enteric disease, including O157:H7 strains recovered from patients with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome and O26:H11, O55:H6, O55:H7, O111:H2, and O128:H2 strains, many of which were isolated originally from infants with diarrhea, were estimated from allelic variation among 20 enzyme-encoding genes detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Multiple electrophoretic types were observed among isolates of each serotype, with isolates of the same O serogroup differing on average at 28% of the enzyme loci. Comparisons of the multilocus enzyme profiles revealed that 72% of the isolates belong to 15 major electrophoretic types, each of which corresponds to a bacterial clone with a wide geographic distribution. Genetically, the O157:H7 clone is most closely related to a clone of O55:H7 strains that has long been associated with worldwide outbreaks of infantile diarrhea. We propose that the new pathogen emerged when an O55:H7-like progenitor, already possessing a mechanism for adherence to intestinal cells, acquired secondary virulence factors (Shiga-like cytotoxins and plasmid-encoded adhesins) via horizontal transfer and recombination.
PMCID: PMC280743  PMID: 7682992
4.  Fimbriation, capsulation, and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(3):1187-1192.
Thirty-two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and seven strains of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from urinary tract infections in elderly adults were analyzed for capsular antigens, iron-scavenging systems, and fimbriation. All strains were capsulated. Twenty-seven different K antigens were identified among the strains, with no particular antigen dominating. All strains produced the iron-scavenging system enterochelin as analyzed by bioassay and DNA hybridization. In contrast, the aerobactin iron-sequestering system was not detected in any of the strains. All strains caused hemagglutination of tannin-treated human erythrocytes and reacted with an anti-type 3 fimbriae antiserum as well as in DNA hybridization with a type 3 fimbria-specific probe, indicating that the Klebsiella strains possessed this fimbrial type. Possession of type 1 fimbriae was analyzed by agglutination tests and by hybridization with DNA probes from two distinct Klebsiella type 1 fimbria gene clusters. Phenotypic expression of the type 1 fimbriae was found in 29 of 32 K. pneumoniae strains, whereas 30 strains reacted with either of the two type 1 fimbrial cluster DNA probes. In K. oxytoca, however, only three of seven strains expressed type 1 fimbriae and reacted with the DNA probes. The type 3 fimbriae were found to bind to a fraction of epithelial cells exfoliated in normal human urine, whereas the type 1 fimbriae bound strongly to urinary slime. No inhibitors of type 3 fimbrial binding were detected in human urine.
PMCID: PMC257611  PMID: 1347287
5.  Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from children with diarrhea in Argentina. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(9):1893-1898.
A prospective study was performed to evaluate the presence of colonization factor antigens (CFAs) in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from 1,211 children with diarrhea in Argentina. One hundred nine ETEC strains that were isolated from seven different laboratories in various regions of the country were tested for CFAs by using monoclonal antibodies against CFA/I and E. coli surface antigens CS1, CS2, and CS3 of CFA/II and CS4 and CS5 of CFA/IV; a polyclonal antiserum against CS6 was used. The CFAs searched for were found in 52% of the ETEC strains: 23% of the strains carried CFA/I, 17% carried CFA/IV, and 12% carried CFA/II. All of the CFA/I strains produced heat-stable enterotoxin, and several of them were of the prevalent serotypes O153:H45 and O78:H12. Among the 19 strains expressing CFA/IV, 16 expressed CS5 and CS6 and produced the heat-stable enterotoxin and most were of serotype O128:H21; the remaining 3 strains produced CS6 only. No ETEC strains expressing CS4 were found. Most (11 of 13) of the CFA/II-carrying ETEC strains expressed CS1 and CS3, and 10 of them were of the O6:K15:H16 serotype and produced both heat-labile and heat-stable toxins. As many as 24 of the 109 CFA-negative ETEC strains gave mannose-resistant hemagglutination with erythrocytes from different species; 4 strains had high surface hydrophobicity, suggesting the presence of additional, as yet undefined, colonization factors in up to 25% of the ETEC isolates.
PMCID: PMC270231  PMID: 1774313
6.  Electron microscopic study of coexpression of adhesive protein capsules and polysaccharide capsules in Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(8):2710-2714.
Escherichia coli 21535 (O21:K4:H4 with nonfimbrial adhesin NFA-6) and 21511 (O7:K98:H6 with nonfimbrial adhesin NFA-4) were analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy with a K98-specific antiserum and K4- and NFA-4-specific and NFA-6-reactive monoclonal antibodies. The bacteria were analyzed in ultrathin sections after stabilization of the capsules with specific antibodies by embedding in Epon 812 as well as in Lowicryl K4M. With the Lowicryl-embedded samples, the polysaccharide K antigens were labeled by the immunogold technique. It was found that with both strains all bacteria expressed the polysaccharide capsule, while in each case about 20% expressed the protein capsule in addition. Thus, in both invasive E. coli strains, bacteria are present which express composite capsules with the adhesin (recognition protein) at the cell-distal outer region and the K antigen (acidic polysaccharide) at the cell-proximal inner region. These findings are discussed with respect to the participation of the capsular compartments in unspecific host defense.
PMCID: PMC258881  PMID: 1973415
7.  Close association of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin) production with enterohemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(11):2559-2564.
Sixty-four verotoxin-producing (VT+) Escherichia coli strains were analyzed for VT1- and VT2-specific DNA sequences and for production of hemolysin. Strains of human origin were of the following serotypes: O157:H7 or H-, O111:H8 or H-, O26:H11, O114:H4, and rough:H7. Strains of serotypes O157:H7, O113:H21, O116:H21, and rough:H- were from cattle, while those of serotype O139:K12:H1 were from pigs. All 64 isolates carried either VT1 or VT2 or both genes. Sixty of the strains (93.8%) were hemolytic (Hly+). The three O139:K12:H1 strains examined produced alpha-hemolysin, as shown by their reaction with the alpha-hemolysin-specific monoclonal antibody h2A and by DNA hybridization with an alpha-hly gene probe. The remaining 57 Hly+ strains (95%) produced a different type of hemolysin (enterohemolysin), which is genetically and serologically unrelated to alpha-hemolysin. The two types of hemolysin are further distinguished by the appearance of the lysis zone on blood agar and by the time interval for the detection of hemolysis. In contrast to alpha-hemolysin, enterohemolysin can be detected only on blood plates containing washed erythrocytes. The frequent association of enterohemolysin with verotoxin production (89%) makes it useful as an epidemiological marker for rapid and simple detection of potential VT+ E. coli.
PMCID: PMC267076  PMID: 2681256
8.  Distribution of the P-associated-pilus (pap) region among Escherichia coli from natural sources: evidence for horizontal gene transfer. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(5):1604-1611.
Variation in chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli was studied with probes specific for the P-associated-pilus (pap) region. The presence of DNA homologous to pap was determined by dot blots. Variation in the number of copies of pap and in the organization of internal and flanking sequences was determined by Southern blot hybridization. The 229 strains studied were also classified by O:K:H serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. There was considerable heterogeneity in the presence of pap and distribution of pap-homologous DNA in these E. coli strains from natural sources. In general, there was less variation in pap among strains of the same specific O:K:H serotype and enzyme electrophoretic type than among random isolates. There were, however, E. coli strains identified as members of the same clone by O:K:H serotyping and enzyme electrophoresis that were pap positive and pap negative or had different Southern blot patterns for the pap probes (pap type). There were also isolates of the same pap type that differed in two of three O:K:H serotype antigens and the majority of enzymes that determined their enzyme electrophoretic type. These latter two observations were interpreted as evidence for the horizontal (infectious) transfer of the pap-homologous sequences among clones of E. coli.
PMCID: PMC313320  PMID: 2565294
9.  Relationship between cytotoxic necrotizing factor production and serotype in hemolytic Escherichia coli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(4):758-761.
We examined the relationship between serotype and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) production in 123 hemolytic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from both stools and extraintestinal infections. Of 76 strains producing both hemolysin (Hly) and CNF, 66 (87%) belonged to one of six serogroups (O2, O4, O6, O22, O75, and O83). In contrast, 47 E. coli strains producing Hly only belonged to 21 different O serogroups, and only 2 of these (O6 and O18ac) were widely represented. Generally, CNF-positive and CNF-negative hemolytic isolates were assigned to different O serogroups, with the exception of O6, often present in both categories of isolates. Serogroups O4 and O18ac were significantly more prevalent among strains from extraintestinal infections than among those from stools. In contrast, the Hly-positive, CNF-negative isolates, belonging to numerous less common serogroups, were hardly ever isolated from extraintestinal infections. Serological typing further confirmed that hemolytic isolates of E. coli may grossly be divided into two main populations on the basis of the ability to produce CNF. Examination of hemolytic E. coli for this property may also be useful in achieving a more detailed characterization of pathogenic clones.
PMCID: PMC267412  PMID: 2656748
10.  Virulence of Escherichia coli in relation to host factors in women with symptomatic urinary tract infection. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(8):1471-1476.
The relationship between bacterial characteristics and the severity of urinary tract infection in adults has not been clarified. In this study, Escherichia coli strains (n = 178) were prospectively collected from women with community-acquired urinary tract infection. The isolates were identified by O:K:H serotype and characterized for adherence, hemolysin production, and serum bactericidal resistance. The patients had acute pyelonephritis with or without complicating factors and acute cystitis. Nine serotypes (O1:K1:H7, O1:K1:H-, O2:K1:H-, O4:K12:H1, O7:K1:H-, O9:K34:H-, O16:K1:H6, O16:K1:H-, and O75:K5:H-) comprised 65% of the strains in uncomplicated pyelonephritis, but were significantly less often encountered in complicated pyelonephritis or cystitis. Adherence was the single property most characteristic of the pyelonephritogenic clones. Adhesins specifically recognizing Gal alpha 1----4Gal beta-containing receptors occurred in 80% of strains in uncomplicated pyelonephritis, in 50% of strains in complicated infections, and in 37% of cystitis strains. Hemolysin production and serum resistance did not correlate with any disease pattern. Advanced age did not seem to reduce the selection of virulent E. coli to cause pyelonephritis. These results demonstrate in women a relationship between E. coli virulence and the severity of urinary tract infection analogous to that previously observed in pediatric populations and also illustrate the balance between host resistance and bacterial virulence in the urinary tract.
PMCID: PMC266644  PMID: 3049654
12.  Monoclonal antibodies against the nonhemagglutinating fimbrial antigen 1C (pseudotype 1) of Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1986;51(1):54-59.
Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were produced with fimbrial preparations from Escherichia coli 20025 (04:K12:H-) with fimbrial (F) antigens 1C, 13, one related to 12, and one preliminarily termed y and from E. coli 2980 (018ac:K5:H-) with F antigens 1C and 8. Two clones of subclonal hybrid cells were studied which produced monoclonal antibodies (mc-20025-F2b, immunoglobulin G2b [IgG2b]; mc-2980-F2, IgG1) that were reactive with E. coli 20025, 2980, and a number of additional strains which exhibited the F1C antigen. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis indicated that the antibodies had F1C specificity, and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 125I-labeled antibodies showed that they recognized different epitopes on the fimbrial subunit. Neither of the antibodies agglutinated F1C-fimbriated E. coli but bound to the bacteria. There was no binding to E. coli without F1C fimbriae.
PMCID: PMC261065  PMID: 2416691
13.  Escherichia coli in extra-intestinal infections. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1985;95(3):551-575.
PMCID: PMC2129573  PMID: 2419401
14.  Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a population of infants with diarrhea in Chile. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1985;22(4):576-581.
The incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was investigated in 95 E. coli strains isolated from 48 infants with diarrhea in Santiago, Chile. By using standard biological assays and DNA-DNA hybridization procedures, ETEC was found in 31.2% of the cases: 14 strains produced heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) only, three strains produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and ST, and two strains produced LT only. DNA probes detected all enterotoxin producers except one ST-producing strain. The ST strains hybridized with one or both of the human ST probes (ST Ib and ST A2). Two of the LT-ST strains hybridized with the ST Ia and ST Ib probes, and the third strain did not hybridize with any of the ST probes. Only the ST group expressed multiple resistance (85.7%) and colonization factor antigen I (CFA I) (92.8%); CFA II was found in two of three LT-ST strains. The O153:H45 serotype was found in 10 of 14 ST strains, and O6:K15:H16 was found in one LT strain and in two LT-ST strains. These findings suggest that ETEC, especially strains that produce ST, may be an important cause of diarrhea among Chilean infants.
PMCID: PMC268470  PMID: 3908470
15.  Genetic diversity in relation to serotype in Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;49(2):407-413.
The extent of chromosomal-gene diversity among 261 isolates of Escherichia coli sharing single O, K, or H antigens and various combinations thereof was estimated by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, which detects allelic variation in structural genes. The results of this study indicate that the genetic diversity among isolates sharing single antigenic determinants can approach or equal that observed among randomly chosen strains; that the magnitude of the diversity varies among antigens; and that the genetic diversity is reduced, but not eliminated, among isolates sharing two antigenic determinants. With one exception, isolates of the same O:K:H serotype were of identical or closely related electrophoretic types (ETs). Isolates of the same ET generally shared the same combination of antigenic determinants, but some ETs included isolates of different serotypes. The implications of these findings for epidemiological research and the clone hypothesis of population structure are discussed, and possible evolutionary mechanisms causing antigenic divergence and convergence are considered.
PMCID: PMC262031  PMID: 2410366
16.  Serotypes, hemolysin production, and receptor recognition of Escherichia coli strains associated with neonatal sepsis and meningitis. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;48(2):486-491.
Sixty-three Escherichia coli strains isolated from neonatal sepsis or meningitis were studied and compared with previous data on fecal or urinary pyelonephritis-associated isolates from children. Characteristics significantly associated with neonatal infection were capsular type K1 (54%), O group 18 (27%), rough-type lipopolysaccharide together with K1 capsule (19%), and S fimbriae (29%). Within the neonatal infection group, the K1 capsule and rough lipopolysaccharide were most common among the youngest infants (0 to 21 days old) and in meningitis. Hemolysin production, P fimbriae, and X adhesions (adhesions not identifiable as type 1, P, or S) were significantly more common in the two materials from infections as compared with the fecal isolates. One large clone of 11 strains (O18:K1:H7, with both type 1 and S fimbriae) and three smaller ones (O7:K1:H1 and O6:K2:H1, both with type 1 and P fimbriae and X adhesions; and R:K1:H33 with no adhesions) were identified among the strains from neonatal infections. Only O6:K2:H1 strains were also common among the strains from pyelonephritis.
PMCID: PMC261353  PMID: 2580792
17.  An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;47(1):191-200.
The nature of the adhesive capacity of three hemagglutinating Escherichia coli strains that had earlier been described as nonfimbriated was studied. The strains that were isolated from human disease adhered to human buccal and urinary tract epithelial cells, an adhesion that was not inhibited by D-mannose. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that the three strains produced a common antigen, Z1, developed after growth at 37 degrees C but not 18 degrees C. One of the strains produced an additional antigen, Z2, of almost the same electrophoretic mobility in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A mutant of this strain deficient of its polysaccharide K antigen had maintained the adhesive capacity, indicating that the K antigen was not responsible for adhesion. A further mutant of the acapsular mutant produced a strongly reduced amount of the Z antigens and had lost the ability to adhere. The Z1 (and Z2?) antigens were therefore deemed to be responsible for adhesion. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of cells of the three strains, a heavy Coomassie-blue stained line was seen, indicating the presence of a protein subunit of molecular weight slightly above 14,400. By immunoblotting with absorbed antiserum, it was shown that this protein was the same as that detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Protease from Streptomyces griseus, but not trypsin, digested the protein. Heating to 100 degrees C did not affect it. By immunoelectron microscopy of embedded and sectioned bacteria that had first been treated with specific antisera and ferritin-labeled antirabbit immunoglobulin, the protein adhesin-antibody complex was found to surround the bacteria as a heavy capsule. After negative staining with uranylacetate (pH approximately 4), the capsule appeared as a mesh of very fine filaments. The possible role of this capsule in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed.
PMCID: PMC261496  PMID: 2856913
18.  Identification of Escherichia coli K1 antigen. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1984;20(2):302-304.
We compared the use of bacteriophage sensitivity, seroagglutination with polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits or horses, seroagglutination with murine monoclonal antibody, and the serum agar precipitin technique for the detection of K1 capsular polysaccharide among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from blood stream infections. Some E. coli isolates failed to yield agreement among these tests, indicating that reliable detection of K1 antigen may require the use of multiple tests.
PMCID: PMC271312  PMID: 6436300
19.  In vitro cytotoxic effect of alpha-hemolytic Escherichia coli on human blood granulocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;45(1):255-260.
The cytotoxic effect of Escherichia coli bacteria on human blood granulocytes was measured by recording numbers of nonlysed cells and percentages of viable cells after in vitro incubation with bacteria in the presence of plasma. A total of 179 strains from various sources of infection were tested. Of 117 alpha-hemolytic strains, 59 were cytotoxic. Five nonhemolytic mutant strains, derived from alpha-hemolytic cytotoxic strains, were nontoxic. None of the 62 nonhemolytic strains were toxic. Four spontaneously occurring alpha-hemolytic, nontoxic mutant strains were isolated from cytotoxic ones. Cytotoxicity of bacteria reached a maximum after log-phase growth at 30 to 37 degrees C for 2.5 h, and the toxic capacity was equal after growth in various media, including human urine and plasma. The cytotoxic effect increased with the length of exposure of granulocytes to bacteria and with increasing numbers of bacteria per granulocyte. Cytotoxic strains showed different degrees of toxicity, highly cytotoxic strains lysing about 90% of the granulocytes and killing about one-half of nonlysed cells in 1 h. Bacteria killed by heat, formaldehyde, or UV light were nontoxic. Alpha-hemolytic strains of O groups 2, 4, 6, 25, and 75 originating from various infections in humans were more frequently cytotoxic than alpha-hemolytic strains of other O groups derived from human infections. Culture supernatants containing free alpha-hemolysin were highly cytotoxic to human blood granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes in vitro, whether supernatants originated from cytotoxic or noncytotoxic bacteria. Cytotoxicity to phagocytes, which is mediated by or closely linked genetically to alpha-hemolysin, may be a mechanism by which alpha-hemolytic strains of E. coli strengthen their ability to establish and maintain infections.
PMCID: PMC263309  PMID: 6376357
20.  P-fimbriated clones among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;43(1):149-155.
A total of 237 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various forms of urinary tract infection or from feces of healthy children were analyzed for O group, possession of K1 capsule, type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, X adhesin, and production of hemolysin. Some of the strains were also analyzed for K and H antigens, outer membrane protein pattern, and plasmid content. P fimbriation, hemolysin production, and certain O groups were found to be significantly correlated with pyelonephritogenicity. Possession of type 1 fimbriae or of K1 capsule or plasmid content did not significantly correlate with virulence. Outer membrane protein patterns in 139 strains of the more common O groups were analyzed. Only one to three patterns, which varied between serotypes, were usually found within any one O group. Distinctive groups (clones) were found when the strains were grouped according to complete serotype, fimbriation, hemolysin production, and outer membrane protein pattern; also, the mean number of plasmids was typical of the strains in a given clone. Seven clones associated with pyelonephritis were found; together they accounted for 57% of the O serotypable strains from the pyelonephritis patients. The seven clones were P fimbriated but differed in their serotypes as follows: O1:K1:H7, O4:K12:H1, O4:K12:H5, O6:K2:H1, O16:K1:H6, or O18ac:K5:H7. All O1:K1:H7 strains observed fell into two clones according to the presence or absence of type 1 fimbriae and hemolysin production. One clone associated with cystitis was also found; this consisted of O6:K13:H1 strains lacking P fimbriae. Not a single representative of these eight clones was found among the fecal strains from the healthy children. They are proposed to represent virulent clones with special ability to cause human urinary tract infection.
PMCID: PMC263402  PMID: 6140222
21.  Cytotoxic effect of an alpha-hemolytic Escherichia coli strain on human blood monocytes and granulocytes in vitro. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;41(1):358-364.
The alpha-hemolytic Escherichia coli strain C134-73 Hly+ was primarily cytocidal to human blood monocytes and granulocytes in vitro in the presence of fresh autologous plasma. Monocytes and granulocytes underwent marked morphological changes during incubation with the bacteria, and the percentages of intact phagocytes decreased progressively with the time of incubation. The cytotoxic effect increased with the number of bacteria per phagocyte and was produced by log-phase microorganisms only. Neither free hemolysin nor free cytotoxic activity to leukocytes could be detected in the incubation medium if the bacteria were removed from the test system. Bacteria-free culture supernatants containing alpha-hemolysin were cytotoxic to monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes being the most sensitive. However, this effect was abolished by fresh autologous plasma. Two nonhemolytic strains, a mutant derivative of C134-73 Hly+ and strain X43, were not cytotoxic. These observations suggest that alpha-hemolysin associated with the bacterial cells may enhance the virulence of E. coli by injuring phagocytes, whereas free alpha-hemolysin may be of minor importance because its cytotoxic effect is neutralized by host plasma.
PMCID: PMC264786  PMID: 6345395
22.  Isolation and characterization of F12 adhesive fimbrial antigen from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;40(1):91-96.
The adhesive fimbrial antigen F12 from a strain of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been isolated and characterized. The antigen was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel chromatography. The protein subunit of the F12 fimbria has a molecular weight of 18,200; the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the subunit shows close resemblance to that of the subunits of other F fimbriae and the type 1 fimbriae. We identified in these proteins a pattern of alternating conserved and variable amino acid residues which could indicate a special structural and functional feature.
PMCID: PMC264821  PMID: 6339412
23.  Colonization factor antigens I and II and type 1 somatic pili in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: relation to enterotoxin type. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;39(2):889-897.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from 36 persons with acute traveler's diarrhea from whom no other pathogens were recovered were tested (after no more than three subcultures) for the presence of colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) and type 1 somatic pili. CFA/I or CFA/II was identified in 7 of 10 strains with heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins (LT+/ST+), but in only 2 of 12 LT-/ST+ (P less than 0.05) and 0 of 14 LT+/ST- (P less than 0.02) strains. CFA pili were not found among 74 non-enterotoxigenic E. coli strains. Type 1 somatic pili were demonstrable in 42% of the 36 ETEC and in 49% of the 74 non-enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. The nine ETEC isolates bearing a CFA were serially subcultured on 10 consecutive days and retested for CFA and toxin. After five subcultures only one strain had lost a CFA, but after 10 passages three strains were negative: two lost CFA/I and one lost CFA/II. The strain that lost CFA/II became negative for both LT and ST as well and was found to lack a 48- and a 60-megadalton plasmid. The two strains that lost CFA/I also became negative for ST, but plasmid analysis revealed no plasmid loss. Disappearance of the CFA/I phenotype without loss of a plasmid can be explained by phase variation, as exhibited by type 1 somatic pili, or by rearrangement of base sequences in the CFA/I plasmid genome. If purified pili vaccines are to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC diarrhea, the search must be intensified to identify the antigens responsible for adhesion to intestinal mucosa in the many ETEC strains that lack CFA/I and CFA/II.
PMCID: PMC348031  PMID: 6131869
24.  Serological, chemical, and structural analyses of the Escherichia coli cross-reactive capsular polysaccharides K13, K20, and K23. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;39(2):623-629.
The Escherichia coli K13, K20, and K23 capsular polysaccharide antigens are serologically related. All of these polysaccharides contain ribose and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate in equimolar quantities. The K13 and K20 polysaccharides are partially O-acetylated. A comparison of these polysaccharides after O-deacetylation, by nuclear magnetic resonance and permethylation analysis, showed that these polysaccharides contained the disaccharide repeat unit leads to)-beta-ribofuranosyl-(1 leads to 7)-beta-2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. They differed in the presence and location of an acetyl moiety. The K13 polysaccharide was O-acetylated at C-4 of the 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. The K20 antigen was O-acetylated at C-5 of the ribose moiety. The K23 polymer was nonacetylated. The cross-reactivity of these antigens was demonstrated by tandem-crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Antibodies to K23 could be completely absorbed from OK K23 serum by K13, K20, and K23 antigenic extracts. The K13 and K20 antibodies could be completely absorbed from their respective antisera only by homologous antigenic extracts. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a protein conjugate of the K13 polysaccharide. Analyses of the reactions of these antibodies with the three polysaccharides suggest that the K13 polysaccharide has at least three antigenic sites, one of which is common to the K13, K20, and K23 polysaccharides.
PMCID: PMC347997  PMID: 6187684
25.  A surface polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O111 contains O-antigen and inhibits agglutination of cells by O-antiserum. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1982;151(3):1210-1221.
The repeating pentasaccharide of O-antigen from Escherichia coli O111 contains galactose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and colitose, the latter representing the major antigenic determinant. Phenol extraction of this strain was previously shown to release two fractions (I and II) containing O-antigen carbohydrate, and both fractions were believed to be lipopolysaccharide. We have now characterized fractions I and II and conclude that only fraction II represents lipopolysaccharide. Fraction II contains phosphate, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, beta-hydroxymyristic acid, and potent endotoxin activity, whereas fraction I was deficient in all of these properties of the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions of lipopolysaccharide. Fractions I and II each represented 50% of the total cellular O-antigen, and both were present on the cell surface. Both fractions were metabolically stable, and no precursor-product relationship existed between them. Fraction II had a number-average molecular weight of 15,800, corresponding to an average of 12 O-antigen repeats per molecule. In contrast, fraction I had a number-average molecular weight of 354,000, corresponding to an average of 404 O-antigen repeats per molecule. Before heat treatment, cells of E. coli O111 are poorly agglutinated by O-serum; although this indicates the presence of a capsule, the corresponding K-antigen was never detected. We conclude that fraction I, when present on the cell surface, inhibits agglutination of unheated cultures of E. coli O111 by O-serum because: (i) a variant strain which lacks fraction I was agglutinated by O-serum without prior heating; (ii) erythrocytes coated with purified fraction I behaved like bacteria containing fraction I in showing inhibition of O-serum agglutination; and (iii) heat treatment released fraction I and rendered bacterial cells agglutinable in O-serum.
PMCID: PMC220398  PMID: 6179923

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