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1.  Analysis of the enzymatic cleavage (beta elimination) of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli by the K5-specific coliphage: reexamination. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1996;178(15):4747-4750.
The capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli is the receptor of the capsule-specific coliphage K5, which harbors an enzyme that degrades the capsular K5 polysaccharide to a number of oligosaccharides. Analysis of the degradation products using gel permeation chromatography, the periodate-thiobarbituric acid and bicinchoninic acid reactions, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the major reaction products are hexa-, octa-, and decasaccharides with 4,5-unsaturated glucuronic acid (delta4,5GlcA) at their nonreducing end. Thus, the bacteriophage enzyme is a K5 polysaccharide lyase and not, as we had reported previously, an endo-N-acetylglucosaminidase.
PMCID: PMC178252  PMID: 8755913
2.  A novel cell surface polysaccharide in Pseudomonas putida WCS358, which shares characteristics with Escherichia coli K antigens, is not involved in root colonization. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1996;178(7):1955-1961.
Previously we have shown that flagella and the O-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide play a role in colonization of the potato root by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas strains WCS374 and WCS358. In this paper, we describe a novel cell surface-exposed structure in Pseudomonas putida WCS358 examined with a specific monoclonal antibody. This cell surface structure appeared to be a polysaccharide, which was accessible to the monoclonal antibody at the outer cell surface. Further study revealed that it does not contain 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, heptose, or lipid A, indicating that it is not a second type of lipopolysaccharide. Instead, the polysaccharide shared some characteristics with K antigen described for Escherichia coli. From a series of 49 different soil bacteria tested, only one other potato plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas strain reacted positively with the monoclonal antibody. Mutant cells lacking the novel antigen were efficiently isolated by an enrichment method involving magnetic antibodies. Mutant strains defective in the novel antigen contained normal lipopolysaccharide. One of these mutants was affected in neither its ability to adhere to sterile potato root pieces nor its ability to colonize potato roots. We conclude that the bacterial cell surface of P. putida WCS358 contains at least two different polysaccharide structures. These are the O-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, which is relevant for potato root colonization, and the novel polysaccharide, which is not involved in adhesion to or colonization of the potato root.
PMCID: PMC177891  PMID: 8606170
3.  Expression and characterization of UDPGlc dehydrogenase (KfiD), which is encoded in the type-specific region 2 of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule genes. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(15):4562-4565.
Region 2 of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster contains four genes (kfiA through -D) which encode proteins involved in the synthesis of the K5 polysaccharide. A DNA fragment containing kfiD was amplified by PCR and cloned into the gene fusion vector pGEX-2T to generate a GST-KfiD fusion protein. The fusion protein was isolated from the cytoplasms of IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced recombinant bacteria by affinity chromatography and cleaved with thrombin. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the cleavage product KfiD' corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence of KfiD with an N-terminal glycyl-seryl extension from the cleavage site of the fusion protein. Anti-KfiD antibodies obtained with KfiD' were used to isolate the intact KfiD protein from the cytoplasms of E. coli organisms overexpressing the kfiD gene. The fusion protein, its cleavage product (KfiD'), and overexpressed KfiD converted UDPGlc to UDPGlcA. The KfiD protein could thus be characterized as a UDPglucose dehydrogenase.
PMCID: PMC177216  PMID: 7635844
4.  Expression of the O9 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli: sequencing of the E. coli O9 rfb gene cluster, characterization of mannosyl transferases, and evidence for an ATP-binding cassette transport system. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(8):2178-2187.
The rfb gene cluster of Escherichia coli O9 directs the synthesis of the O9-specific polysaccharide which has the structure -->2-alpha-Man-(1-->2)-alpha-Man-(1-->2)-alpha-Man-(1-->3)-alpha- Man-(1-->. The E. coli O9 rfb cluster has been sequenced, and six genes, in addition to the previously described rfbK and rfbM, were identified. They correspond to six open reading frames (ORFs) encoding polypeptides of 261, 431, 708, 815, 381, and 274 amino acids. They are all transcribed in the counter direction to those of the his operon. No gene was found between rfb and his. A higher G+C content indicated that E. coli O9 rfb evolved independently of the rfb clusters from other E. coli strains and from Shigella and Salmonella spp. Deletion mutagenesis, in combination with analysis of the in vitro synthesis of the O9 mannan in membranes isolated from the mutants, showed that three genes (termed mtfA, -B, and -C, encoding polypeptides of 815, 381, and 274 amino acids, respectively) directed alpha-mannosyl transferases. MtfC (from ORF274), the first mannosyl transferase, transfers a mannose to the endogenous acceptor. It critically depended on a functional rfe gene (which directs the synthesis of the endogenous acceptor) and initiates the growth of the polysaccharide chain. MtfB (from ORF381) then transfers two mannoses into the 3 position of the previous mannose, and MtfA (from ORF815) transfers three mannoses into the 2 position. Further chain growth needs only the two transferases MtfA and MtfB. Thus, there are fewer transferases needed than the number of sugars in the repeating unit. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the ORF261 and ORF431 proteins indicated that they function as components of an ATP-binding cassette transport system. A possible correlation between the mechanism of polymerization and mode of membrane translocation of the products is discussed.
PMCID: PMC176863  PMID: 7536735
5.  Characterization and localization of the KpsE protein of Escherichia coli K5, which is involved in polysaccharide export. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(5):1137-1143.
In Escherichia coli with group II capsules, the synthesis and cellular expression of capsular polysaccharide are encoded by the kps gene cluster. This gene cluster is composed of three regions. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis, and the flanking regions 1 and 3 direct the translocation of the finished polysaccharide across the cytoplasmic membrane and its surface expression. The kps genes of the K5 polysaccharide, which is a group II capsular polysaccharide, have been cloned and sequenced. Region 1 contains the kpsE, -D, -U, -C, and -S genes. In this communication we describe the KpsE protein, the product of the kpsE gene. A truncated kpsE gene was fused with a truncated beta-galactosidase gene to generate a fusion protein containing the first 375 amino acids of beta-galactosidase and amino acids 67 to 382 of KpsE (KpsE'). This fusion protein was isolated and cleaved with factor Xa, and the purified KpsE' was used to immunize rabbits. Intact KpsE was extracted from the membranes of a KpsE-overexpressing recombinant strain with octyl-beta-glucoside. It was purified by affinity chromatography with immobilized anti-KpsE antibodies. Cytofluorometric analysis using the anti-KpsE antibodies with whole cells and spheroplasts, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting (immunoblotting) of proteins from spheroplasts and membranes before and after treatment with proteinase K, indicated that the KpsE protein is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and has an exposed periplasmic domain. By TnphoA mutagenesis and by constructing beta-lactamase fusions to the KpseE protein, it was possible to determine the topology of the KpsE protein within the cytoplasmic membrane.
PMCID: PMC176716  PMID: 7868584
6.  Coexpression of colanic acid and serotype-specific capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli strains with group II K antigens. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(20):6725-6730.
In Escherichia coli K-12, the rcsA and rcsB gene products are positive regulators in expression of the slime polysaccharide colanic acid. We have previously demonstrated the presence of rcsA sequences in E. coli K1 and K5, strains with group II capsular K antigens, and shown that introduction of multicopy rcsA into these strains results in the expression of colanic acid. We report here the presence of rcsB sequences in E. coli K1 and K5 and demonstrate that RcsB also plays a role in the biosynthesis of colanic acid in strains with group II K antigens. In E. coli K1 and K5 grown at 37 degrees C, multicopy rcsB and the resulting induction of colanic acid synthesis had no significant effect on synthesis of the group II K antigens. K-antigen-specific sugar transferase activities were not significantly different in the presence or absence of multicopy rcsB, and introduction of a cps mutation to eliminate colanic acid biosynthesis in a K1-derivative strain did not influence the activity of the polysialyltransferase enzyme responsible for synthesis of the K1 polymer. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy showed no detectable difference in the size or distribution of the group II K-antigen capsular layer in cells which produced colanic acid. Colanic acid expression therefore does not appear to significantly affect synthesis of the group II K-antigen capsule and, unlike for group I K antigens, expression of group II K antigens is not positively regulated by the rcs system.
PMCID: PMC206787  PMID: 8407850
7.  Expression of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli: biochemical and electron microscopic analyses of mutants with defects in region 1 of the K5 gene cluster. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(18):5984-5992.
The gene cluster of the capsular K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular antigens of Escherichia coli, has been cloned previously, and three regions responsible for polymerization and surface expression have been defined (I.S. Roberts, R. Mountford, R. Hodge, K. B. Jann, and G. J. Boulnois, J. Bacteriol. 170:1305-1330, 1988). Region 1 has now been sequenced, and five open reading frames (kpsEDUCS) have been defined (C. Pazzani, C. Rosenow, G. J. Boulnois, D. Bronner, K. Jann, and I. S. Roberts, J. Bacteriol. 175:5978-5983, 1993). In this study, we characterized region 1 mutants by immunoelectron microscopy, membrane-associated polymerization activity, cytoplasmic CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) synthetase activity, and chemical analysis of their K5 polysaccharides. Certain mutations within region 1 not only effected polysaccharide transport (lack of region 1 gene products) but also impaired the polymerization capacity of the respective membranes, reflected in reduced amounts of polysaccharide but not in its chain length. KDO and phosphatidic acid (phosphatidyl-KDO) substitution was found with extracellular and periplasmic polysaccharide and not with cytoplasmic polysaccharide. This and the fact that the K5 polysaccharide is formed in a kpsU mutant (defective in capsule-specific K-CMP-KDO synthetase) showed that CMP-KDO is engaged not in initiation of polymerization but in translocation of the polysaccharide.
PMCID: PMC206680  PMID: 8397188
8.  Molecular analysis of region 1 of the Escherichia coli K5 antigen gene cluster: a region encoding proteins involved in cell surface expression of capsular polysaccharide. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(18):5978-5983.
The nucleotide sequence of region 1 of the K5 antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli was determined. This region is postulated to encode functions which, at least in part, participate in translocation of polysaccharide across the periplasmic space and onto the cell surface. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed five genes that encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 75.7, 60.5, 44, 43, and 27 kDa. The 27-kDa protein was 70.7% homologous to the CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase enzyme encoded by the E. coli kdsB gene, indicating the presence of a structural gene for a similar enzyme within the region 1 operon. The 43-kDa protein was homologous to both the Ctrb and BexC proteins encoded by the Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae capsule gene clusters, respectively, indicating common stages in the expression of capsules in these gram-negative bacteria. However, no homology was detected between the 75.7, 60.5-, and 44-kDa proteins and any of the proteins so far described for the H. influenzae and N. meningitidis capsule gene clusters.
PMCID: PMC206679  PMID: 8397187
9.  Genetic analysis of the gene cluster encoding nonfimbrial adhesin I from an Escherichia coli uropathogen. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(6):2505-2512.
The chromosomally encoded nonfimbrial adhesion I (NFA-I) from Escherichia coli urinary tract isolate 827 (O83:K1:H4) mediates agglutination of human erythrocytes. Subclones were constructed from an NFA-I-expressing recombinant E. coli K-12 clone, derived from a genomic library of E. coli 827. Minicell analysis and nucleotide sequencing revealed that proteins of 30.5, 9, 80, 15, and 19 kDa encoded on a stretch of approximately 6 kb are involved in the expression of NFA-I. NFA-I exhibits a polymeric structure, which disintegrates with elevated temperature into a 19-kDa monomer but with some relatively stable dimers. By using gold-conjugated monoclonal antibodies directed against NFA-I in electron microscopy, the adhesin could be localized on the outer surface of the recombinant E. coli K-12 bacteria. The nucleotide sequence of the nfaA gene encoding the monomeric structural subunit of the adhesin was determined. An open reading frame of 184 amino acids encoding the NfaA precursor, which is processed to the mature protein, was found; it consisted of 156 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 16,000. Peptide sequencing of the NFA-I subunit protein confirmed that this open reading frame corresponds to the NfaA coding locus. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame termed NfaE, located at the proximal part of the DNA stretch responsible for NFA-I expression, was elaborated. NfaE consists of 247 amino acids, including a presumptive 29-amino-acid signal peptide, leading to a molecular weight of 24,000 for the mature protein. The nfaE sequence shares homology with the 27-kDa CS3 protein, which is involved in the assembly of CS3 fibrillae, and might encode the 30.5-kDa protein, detected in minicells.
PMCID: PMC280876  PMID: 8099066
10.  Cloning and characterization of the S fimbrial adhesin II complex of an Escherichia coli O18:K1 meningitis isolate. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(2):544-550.
S fimbrial adhesins (Sfa), which are able to recognize sialic acid-containing receptors on eukaryotic cells, are produced by Escherichia coli strains causing urinary tract infections or newborn meningitis. We recently described the cloning and molecular characterization of a determinant, termed sfaI, from the chromosome of an E. coli urinary tract infection strain. Here we present data concerning a S fimbria-specific gene cluster, designated sfaII, of an E. coli newborn meningitis strain. Like the SfaI complex, SfaII consists of the major subunit protein SfaA (16 kDa) and the minor subunit proteins SfaG (17 kDa), SfaS (15 kDa), and SfaH (29 kDa). The genes encoding the subunit proteins of SfaII were identified and sequenced. Their protein sequences were calculated from the DNA sequences and compared with those of the SfaI complex subunits. Although the sequences of the two major SfaA subunits differed markedly, the sequences of the minor subunits showed only a few amino acid exchanges (SfaG, SfaH) or were completely identical (SfaS). The introduction of a site-specific mutation into the gene sfaSII and subsequent analysis of an SfaS-negative clone indicated that sfaSII codes for the sialic acid-specific adhesin of the meninigitis isolate. These data were confirmed by the isolation and characterization of the SfaSII protein and the determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence. The identity between the sialic acid-specific adhesins of SfaI and SfaII revealed that differences between the two Sfa complexes with respect to their capacities to agglutinate erythrocytes must result from sequence alterations of subunit proteins other than SfaS.
PMCID: PMC302762  PMID: 8093693
11.  Structures of the O1B and O1C lipopolysaccharide antigens of Escherichia coli. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(24):7963-7970.
The O-specific moieties of the O1B antigen (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli O1B:K1 and the O1C antigen from E. coli O1C:K- both consist of L-rhamnose, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine in a molar ratio of 2:1:1:1. By using fragmentation procedures, methylation analysis, and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the structures of these polysaccharides were found to be [formula: see text] In the O1B polysaccharide X is 2, and in the O1C polysaccharide X is 3. With the recently published structure of the O1A polysaccharides (B. Jann, A. S. Shashkov, D. S. Gupta, S. M. Panasenko, and K. Jann, Carbohydr. Polym. 18:51-57 1992), three related O1 antigens are now known. Their common (O1-specific) epitope is suggested to be the side-chain N-acetyl-D-mannosamine residue.
PMCID: PMC207532  PMID: 1281148
12.  Analysis of colonization factor antigen I, an adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O78:H11: fimbrial morphology and location of the receptor-binding site. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(11):3876-3882.
Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was dissociated into one type of subunit (15 kDa). The dissociation was achieved either by heating CFA/I in sodium dodecyl sulfate at 100 degrees C or by heating it for 20 min in water. Heating in water to 100 degrees C yielded only in the 15-kDa subunit, but heating to 85 degree C yielded small amounts of oligomers in addition. The monomeric subunits obtained after heating in water are stable, as demonstrated by gel permeation chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without heating prior to the electrophoretic run. These subunits inhibited CFA/I-induced hemagglutination, indicating that they had maintained their receptor-binding properties. When the hybridoma technique was used, two types of monoclonal anti-CFA/I antibodies were obtained. Antibodies obtained by immunization with the purified subunits were more reactive with subunits than with fimbriae, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These antibodies strongly inhibited CFA/I-induced hemagglutination. When examined by immunoelectron microscopy, these antibodies seemed to label the fimbrial tips. A similar labeling pattern was obtained with gold particles modified with the receptor ganglioside GM2. Antibodies obtained by immunization with fimbriae reacted in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays equally well with fimbriae and subunits. They inhibited CFA/I-induced hemagglutination only slightly. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that these antibodies labeled the fimbriae densely and regularly over their entire lengths. In a coagglutination experiment with Staphylococcus aureus and monoclonal antibodies, the subunits retained their receptor-binding properties. From these results, we conclude that CFA/I fimbriae consist entirely of one type of adhesive subunit, of which only the one at the tip is accessible to the receptor.
PMCID: PMC258971  PMID: 1682253
13.  Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular polysaccharides: polymerization in vitro and characterization of the product. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(13):4088-4094.
Biosynthesis of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli, which has the structure 4)-beta GlcA-1,4-alpha GlcNAc-(1, was studied with membrane preparations from an E. coli K5 wild-type strain and from a recombinant K-12 strain expressing the K5 capsule. Polymerization occurs at the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane without the participation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides. The serological K5 specificity of the in vitro product was determined with a K5-specific monoclonal antibody in an antigen-binding assay. The K5 polysaccharide, as obtained from the membranes after an in vitro incubation, has 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid as the reducing sugar, which indicates that the polysaccharide grows by chain elongation at the nonreducing end.
PMCID: PMC208057  PMID: 1829455
14.  Electron microscopic study of coexpression of adhesive protein capsules and polysaccharide capsules in Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(8):2710-2714.
Escherichia coli 21535 (O21:K4:H4 with nonfimbrial adhesin NFA-6) and 21511 (O7:K98:H6 with nonfimbrial adhesin NFA-4) were analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy with a K98-specific antiserum and K4- and NFA-4-specific and NFA-6-reactive monoclonal antibodies. The bacteria were analyzed in ultrathin sections after stabilization of the capsules with specific antibodies by embedding in Epon 812 as well as in Lowicryl K4M. With the Lowicryl-embedded samples, the polysaccharide K antigens were labeled by the immunogold technique. It was found that with both strains all bacteria expressed the polysaccharide capsule, while in each case about 20% expressed the protein capsule in addition. Thus, in both invasive E. coli strains, bacteria are present which express composite capsules with the adhesin (recognition protein) at the cell-distal outer region and the K antigen (acidic polysaccharide) at the cell-proximal inner region. These findings are discussed with respect to the participation of the capsular compartments in unspecific host defense.
PMCID: PMC258881  PMID: 1973415
15.  Functional analysis of the sialic acid-binding adhesin SfaS of pathogenic Escherichia coli by site-specific mutagenesis. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(7):2133-2138.
The gene coding for the sialic acid-specific adhesin SfaS produced by the S fimbrial adhesin (sfa) determinant of Escherichia coli has been modified by oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. Lysine 116, arginine 118, and lysine 122 were replaced by threonine, serine, and threonine, respectively. The mutagenized gene clusters were able to produce S fimbrial adhesin complexes consisting of the S-specific subunit proteins including the adhesin SfaS. The mutant clones were further characterized by hemagglutination and by enzyme-linked immunoassay tests with antifimbria- and anti-adhesin-specific monoclonal antibodies, one of which is able to block S-specific binding (Moch et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3462-3466, 1987). The lysine-122 mutant clone was indistinguishable from the wild-type clone in these assays. Replacement of lysine 116 and arginine 118, however, abolished hemagglutination and resulted in clones which showed a weak (lysine 116) or a negative (arginine 118) reaction with the antiadhesin-specific antibody A1. We therefore suggest that lysine 116 and arginine 118 have an influence on binding of SfaS to the sialic acid residue of the receptor molecule. Substitution of arginine 118 by serine also had a negative effect on the amount of SfaS adhesin proteins isolated from the S fimbrial adhesin complex.
PMCID: PMC258787  PMID: 2194961
16.  Further electron microscopic studies on the expression of Escherichia coli group II capsules. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1990;172(6):3469-3472.
The de novo expression of Escherichia coli K1, K5, and K12 capsules was analyzed with immunoelectron microscopy in temperature upshift experiments, with upshift from 18 degrees C (capsule restrictive) to 37 degrees C (capsule permissive). Newly produced capsular polysaccharides appeared at the cell surface atop membrane adhesion sites (Bayer's junctions). After plasmolysis of the bacteria at an early expression stage, the capsular polysaccharides were labeled at discrete sites in the periplasm by the immunogold technique. After temperature upshift in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or chloramphenicol, the polysaccharides were labeled in the cytoplasm.
PMCID: PMC209159  PMID: 2188961
17.  Expression of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular antigen: immunoelectron microscopic and biochemical studies with recombinant E. coli. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1990;172(2):1085-1091.
The capsular K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular antigens of Escherichia coli, has been cloned previously, and three gene regions responsible for polymerization and surface expression have been defined (I. S. Roberts, R. Mountford, R. Hodge, K. B. Jann, and G. J. Boulnois, J. Bacteriol. 170:1305-1310, 1988). In this report, we describe the immunoelectron microscopic analysis of recombinant bacteria expressing the K5 antigen and of mutants defective in either region 1 or region 3 gene functions, as well as the biochemical analysis of the K5 capsular polysaccharide. Whereas the K5 clone expressed the K5 polysaccharide as a well-developed capsule in about 25% of its population, no capsule was observed in whole mount preparations and ultrathin sections of the expression mutants. Immunogold labeling of sections from the region 3 mutant revealed the capsular K5 polysaccharide in the cytoplasm. With the region 1 mutant, the capsular polysaccharide appeared associated with the cell membrane, and, unlike the region 3 mutant polysaccharide, the capsular polysaccharide could be detected in the periplasm after plasmolysis of the bacteria. Polysaccharides were isolated from the homogenized mutants with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The polysaccharide from the region 1 mutant had the same size as that isolated from the capsule of the original K5 clone, and both polysaccharides were substituted with phosphatidic acid. The polysaccharide from the region 3 mutant was smaller and was not substituted with phosphatidic acid. These results prompt us to postulate that gene region 3 products are involved in the translocation of the capsular polysaccharide across the cytoplasmic membrane and that region 1 directs the transport of the lipid-substituted capsular polysaccharide through the periplasm and across the outer membrane.
PMCID: PMC208540  PMID: 2404935
18.  Activity of CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase in Escherichia coli strains expressing the capsular K5 polysaccharide implication for K5 polysaccharide biosynthesis. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(6):3074-3079.
The activity of the cytoplasmic CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase (CMP-KDO synthetase), which is low in Escherichia coli rough strains such as E. coli K-12 and in uncapsulated strains such as E. coli O111, was significantly elevated in encapsulated E. coli O10:K5 and O18:K5. This enzyme activity was even higher in an E. coli clone expressing the K5 capsule. This and the following findings suggest a correlation between elevated CMP-KDO synthetase activity and the biosynthesis of the capsular K5 polysaccharide. (i) Expression of the K5 polysaccharide and elevated CMP-KDO synthetase activity were observed with bacteria grown at 37 degrees C but not with cells grown at 20 degrees C or below. (ii) The recovery kinetics of capsule expression of intact bacteria, in vitro K5 polysaccharide-synthesizing activity of bacteria, and CMP-KDO synthetase activity of bacteria after temperature upshift from 18 to 37 degrees C were the same. (iii) Chemicals which inhibit capsule (polysaccharide) expression also inhibited the elevation of CMP-KDO synthetase activity. The chromosomal location of the gene responsible for the elevation of this enzyme activity was narrowed down to the distal segment of the transport region of the K5 expression genes.
PMCID: PMC210017  PMID: 2542215
19.  Novel change in the carbohydrate portion of Myxococcus xanthus lipopolysaccharide during development. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(4):1835-1840.
We have examined the alterations in lipopolysaccharide during aggregation and early development in Myxococcus xanthus. The lipopolysaccharide was isolated and characterized from cells developing on agar during glycerol induction and vegetative growth. A methylated amino sugar was identified as 6-O-methylgalactosamine by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This novel sugar was enriched in cells developing on agar.
PMCID: PMC209829  PMID: 2495265
20.  Isolation and characterization of the alpha-galactosyl-1,4-beta-galactosyl-specific adhesin (P adhesin) from fimbriated Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(1):76-81.
The alpha-galactosyl-1,4-beta-galactosyl-specific adhesin (P adhesin) was isolated from the fimbria-adhesin complex (FAC) of recombinant Escherichia coli strains expressing the F7(1), F8, or F13 fimbrial antigens. Separation into fimbriae and adhesin was achieved by heating the FAC to 80 degrees C in the presence of Zwittergent 3-16. After removal of the fimbriae by precipitation with lithium chloride, the adhesin was purified by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography in the presence of 4 M urea. The purified adhesins from the three strains had pIs of 4.8 to 5.0 and molecular weights of approximately 35,000. The fimbrillins were smaller, their molecular weights being different with different F antigens. The amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the F7(1)- and F13-derived adhesins were different, that of the F13-derived adhesin being identical to that extrapolated from the DNA sequence of the papG gene (B. Lund, G. Lindberg, B.-I. Marklund, and S. Normark, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5898-5902). An antiadhesive monoclonal antibody which reacted with the three P adhesins was prepared. The FAC and the purified adhesins but not the fimbriae from which the adhesins had been removed agglutinated erythrocytes and galactose-galactose-coated latex beads. The adhesion of erythrocytes to the surface-fixed adhesins could be specifically inhibited with alpha-galactosyl-1,4-beta-galactosyl-1,4-glucosyl. The results indicate that the P adhesin(s) of uropathogenic E. coli represents a group of related proteins with conserved receptor recognition domains. The F13-derived P adhesin is the PapG protein postulated by Normark and his colleagues (Lund et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5898-5902; B. Lund, F. Lindberg, and S. Normark, J. Bacteriol. 170:1887-1894).
PMCID: PMC313043  PMID: 2562836
21.  Gene clusters for S fimbrial adhesin (sfa) and F1C fimbriae (foc) of Escherichia coli: comparative aspects of structure and function. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(9):3983-3990.
Fimbrial adhesins enable bacteria to attach to eucaryotic cells. The genetic determinants for S fimbrial adhesins (sfa) and for F1C ("pseudotype I") fimbriae (foc) were compared. Sfa and F1C represent functionally distinct adhesins in their receptor specificities. Nevertheless, a high degree of homology between both determinants was found on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridizations. Characteristic differences in the restriction maps of the corresponding gene clusters, however, were visible in regions coding for the fimbrial subunits and for the S-specific adhesin. While a plasmid carrying the genetic determinant for F1C fimbriae was able to complement transposon-induced sfa mutants, a plasmid carrying the genetic determinant for a third adhesin type, termed P fimbriae, was unable to do so. Proximal sfa-specific sequences carrying the S fimbrial structural gene were fused to sequences representing the distal part of the foc gene cluster to form a hybrid cluster, and the foc proximal region coding for the structural protein was ligated to sfa distal sequences to form a second hybrid. Both hybrid clones produced intact fimbriae. Anti-F1C monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) only recognized clones which produced F1C fimbriae, and an anti-S adhesin MAb marked clones which expressed the S adhesin. However, one of four other anti-S fimbriae-specific MAbs reacted with both fimbrial structures, S and F1C, indicating a common epitope on both antigens. The results presented here support the view that sfa and foc determinants code for fimbriae that are similar in several aspects, while the P fimbriae are members of a more distantly related group.
PMCID: PMC211399  PMID: 2900831
22.  Induction of inflammation by Escherichia coli on the mucosal level: requirement for adherence and endotoxin. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(5):1309-1313.
Bacterial infection of the mouse urinary tract is followed by the recruitment of leukocytes to the mucosal surface. This study examined the bacterial components involved in the induction of this response. Escherichia coli of serotype O75:K5:H- expressing adhesins specific for the Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta- (Gal, galactose) and mannose-containing receptors were instilled into the urinary bladder of lipopolysaccharide responder (C3H/HcN) and lipopolysaccharide nonresponder (C3H/HeJ) mice. The inflammation was quantitated as the number of leukocytes excreted into the urine at various times after infection. The response was first shown to depend on the Lps genotype of the mouse. The leukocyte excretion that occurred within 24 h after infection of C3H/HeN mice was absent in C3H/HeJ mice. The components triggering the response were present on both live and Formalin-killed bacterial cells, and the response was mimicked by intravesical inoculation of isolated lipid A. Pretreatment of bacteria with soluble receptor oligosaccharides resulted in inhibition of attachment in vitro and of the inflammation in vivo. A direct synergy between adhesins specific for Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta receptors and lipid A was demonstrated. Mixtures of these components induced a leukocyte response higher than the sum of the responses to each component alone. These results suggest that the inflammation induced by gram-negative bacteria in the urinary tract can be triggered at the level of the epithelial cells by endotoxin presented by an attaching bacterial cell and that intact function at the Lps locus of the host is required for this to occur.
PMCID: PMC259816  PMID: 2895744
23.  Common organization of gene clusters for production of different capsular polysaccharides (K antigens) in Escherichia coli. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(3):1305-1310.
Southern blot analysis of cloned K5- and K7-antigen genes, using DNA fragments from cloned K1 genes as radiolabeled probes, demonstrated that each K-antigen gene cluster is organized in a manner similar to that shown for the K1 antigen. That is, a central DNA segment unique for a given antigen type is flanked by DNA sequences that encode common functions for the management of intracellular polymer. This has been confirmed by transposon and deletion mutagenesis of plasmids carrying the K5 and K7 genes. We also describe a series of complementation experiments in which transport or postpolymerizational modification functions for one K antigen are used to complement mutations in the corresponding regions of a different K-antigen gene cluster. Thus, postpolymerizational modification of polysaccharide and transport of mature polysaccharide from the periplasmic space are common mechanisms and are independent of polysaccharide structure.
PMCID: PMC210907  PMID: 2830235
24.  A block of urovirulence genes encoding multiple fimbriae and hemolysin in Escherichia coli O4:K12:H-. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(2):513-517.
Cosmid gene libraries were constructed from a uropathogenic isolate of Escherichia coli O4:K12:H- that secretes alpha-hemolysin and produces the F14, F12-rel, F1C, and F13 fimbrial antigens. A series of overlapping clones was generated, and individual cosmid clones were found to express various combinations of fimbriae and hemolysin, suggesting that the genes for these potential virulence factors are closely linked. By using Southern hybridization analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping, it was demonstrated that the cosmid clones carried a nested set of overlapping, cloned, genomic DNA fragments. A comparison of the phenotypic properties of individual cosmid clones and subclones allowed the order of the gene clusters encoding these factors to be deduced. The cloning also revealed the presence of a fifth fimbria that had P-adhesin specificity.
PMCID: PMC259312  PMID: 2892797
25.  DNA probes for K-antigen (capsule) typing of Escherichia coli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(2):385-387.
DNA restriction fragments derived from the polysaccharide biosynthesis regions of cloned Escherichia coli K1, K5, and K12 capsular antigen genes hybridized only with DNA of strains determined by conventional methods to be of the same K serotype. A probe derived from the common transport region hybridized to all encapsulated E. coli strains.
PMCID: PMC266292  PMID: 3278001

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