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1.  Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: a systematic review and ecological analysis 
BMJ Open  2013;3(7):e002836.
Objectives
We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs.
Design
A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models.
Studies reviewed
Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs.
Results
HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (<1%), but STIs are high, particularly syphilis in the East and gonorrhoea. FSWs experience high levels of violence and structural risk factors associated with HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment.
Conclusions
Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better systematically delineate how microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors combine to increase or reduce HIV/STI risk.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002836
PMCID: PMC3731729  PMID: 23883879
2.  HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001465.
Background and objectives
HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live.
Design
A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented.
Studies reviewed
Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID.
Results
HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies.
Conclusions
The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001465
PMCID: PMC3488708  PMID: 23087014
3.  The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task" 
This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1].
doi:10.1186/1477-7517-8-32
PMCID: PMC3275499  PMID: 22208726
Soviet narcology; history; social and mental hygiene; psychiatry; addiction treatment; opiate maintenance therapy; repression of drug users
4.  Characterization of the Emerging HIV Type 1 and HCV Epidemics among Injecting Drug Users in Dushanbe, Tajikistan 
Abstract
This study aimed to determine HIV, HCV, and syphilis prevalence and correlates, and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. A cross-sectional study assessing risk factors for HIV and HCV through an interview administered survey was conducted. A total of 491 active adult IDUs were recruited from May to November 2004 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. HIV-1 antibody status was determined with rapid testing and confirmed with ELISA. HCV antibody testing was conducted using a BIOELISA HCV kit. HIV-1 subtyping was done on a subset with full-length sequencing. Correlates of HIV and HCV infection were assessed using logistic regression. Overall prevalence of HIV was 12.1%, HCV was 61.3%, and syphilis was 15.7%. In a multivariate logistic regression model controlling for gender and ethnicity, daily injection of narcotics [odds ratio (OR) OR 3.22] and Tajik nationality (OR 7.06) were significantly associated with HIV status. Tajik nationality (OR 1.91), history of arrest (OR 2.37), living/working outside Tajikistan in the past 10 years (OR 2.43), and daily injection of narcotics (OR 3.26) were significantly associated with HCV infection whereas being female (OR 0.53) and always using a sterile needle (OR 0.47) were inversely associated with HCV infection. Among 20 HIV-1-positive IDU with specimens available for typing, 10 were subtype A, 9 were CRF02_AG, and one was an A-CRF02_AG recombinant. Epidemics of HIV-1, HCV, and drug use are underway in Dushanbe. The molecular epidemiology is distinctive, with West African variants accounting for roughly 50% of prevalent infections. Targeted prevention programs offering both needle exchange programs and opiate substitution therapies are urgently called for to prevent the further spread of HIV and HCV in Tajikistan.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0206
PMCID: PMC2858926  PMID: 19689193

Results 1-4 (4)