To map using geospatial modelling techniques the morbidity and mortality caused by heart failure within Warwickshire to characterise and quantify any influence of air pollution on these risks.
Data from all of the 105 current Warwickshire County wards were collected on hospital admissions and deaths due to heart failure.
In multivariate analyses, the presence of higher mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) in a ward (3.35:1.89, 4.99), benzene (Ben) (31.9:8.36, 55.85) and index of multiple deprivation (IMD; 0.02: 0.01, 0.03), were consistently associated with a higher risk of heart failure morbidity. Particulate matter (Pm; −12.93: −20.41, −6.54) was negatively associated with the risk of heart failure morbidity. No association was found between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and heart failure morbidity. The risk of heart failure mortality was higher in wards with a higher NOx (4.30: 1.68, 7.37) and wards with more inhabitants 50+ years old (1.60: 0.47, 2.92). Pm was negatively associated (−14.69: −23.46, −6.50) with heart failure mortality. SO2, Ben and IMD scores were not associated with heart failure mortality. There was a prominent variation in heart failure morbidity and mortality risk across wards, the highest risk being in the regions around Nuneaton and Bedworth.
This study showed distinct spatial patterns in heart failure morbidity and mortality, suggesting the potential role of environmental factors beyond individual-level risk factors. Air pollution levels should therefore be taken into account when considering the wider determinants of public health and the impact that changes in air pollution might have on the health of a population.
EPIDEMIOLOGY; SOCIAL MEDICINE
To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate clinical effectiveness of belimumab for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antinuclear and/or anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibodies.
We searched eight electronic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of belimumab against placebo or best supportive care. Quality assessment and random effects meta-analysis were undertaken.
A meta-analysis of RCTs.
2133 SLE patients.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
SLE Responder Index (SRI) at week 52.
Three double-blind placebo-controlled RCTs (L02, BLISS-52 BLISS-76) investigated 2133 SLE patients. BLISS-52 and BLISS-76 trials recruited patients with antinuclear and/or anti-dsDNA autoantibodies and demonstrated belimumab effectiveness for the SRI at week 52. Ethnicity and geographical location of participants varied considerably between BLISS trials. Although tests for statistical heterogeneity were negative, BLISS-52 results were systematically more favourable for all measured outcomes. Meta-analysis of pooled 52-week SRI BLISS results showed benefit for belimumab (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.09). By week 76, the primary SRI outcome in BLISS-76 was not statistically significant (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.919 to 1.855).
Clinical Pharmacology; Epidemiology; Preventive Medicine; Public Health
To analyse trends in diarrhoea prevalence by maternal education, access to clean water and improved sanitation, household wealth index; to identify the sources of variation and assess contribution of changes in socioeconomic characteristics in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Consecutive cross-sectional surveys.
The databases contain information on 9748 children from the 2001 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey and 7987 children from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Whether the child had diarrhoea 14 days preceding the survey.
The overall prevalence of diarrhoea decreased by 26 percent (from 22.1% in 2001 to 16.4% in 2007). Findings from the three complementary statistical methods are consistent and confirm a significant decrease in diarrhoea regardless of socioeconomic characteristics. Changes in behaviour and/or in public health policy seem to be the likely main source of the change. There were no significant changes in diarrhoea prevalence associated with variation of the population structure. It is worth mentioning that the decrease in diarrhoea prevalence is in contrast to the generalised poor living conditions of the population. Therefore, it is difficult to ascertain whether the decline in diarrhoea prevalence was due to real improvement in public-health policy or to data quality issues.
The decline of diarrhoea prevalence in our study need to be further investigated by conducting district-based or provincial-based studies to validate findings from household surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey taking into account the current context of the country: ongoing conflict, poor socioeconomic and poor health infrastructure. However, improvement in living conditions such as access to clean water and improved sanitation will contribute to accelerate the reduction of diarrhoea prevalence as well as reduction of child mortality.
To estimate and quantify childhood mortality, its spatial correlates and the impact of potential correlates using recent census data from three sub-Saharan African countries (Rwanda, Senegal and Uganda), where evidence is lacking.
Nation-wide census samples from three African countries participating in the 2010 African Census round. All three countries have conducted recent censuses and have information on mortality of children under 5 years.
111 288 children under the age of 5 years in three countries.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Under-five mortality was assessed alongside potential correlates including geographical location (where children live), and environmental, bio-demographic and socioeconomic variables.
Multivariate analysis indicates that in all three countries the overall risk of child death in the first 5 years of life has decreased in recent years (Rwanda: HR=0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.09; Senegal: HR=0.02 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.05); Uganda: HR=0.011 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.018). In Rwanda, lower deaths were associated with living in urban areas (0.79, 0.73, 0.83), children with living mother (HR=0.16, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.17) or living father (HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.39). Higher death was associated with male children (HR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) and Christian children (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.27). Children less than 1 year were associated with higher risk of death compared to older children in the three countries. Also, there were significant spatial variations showing inequalities in children mortality by geographic location. In Uganda, for example, areas of high risk are in the south-west and north-west and Kampala district showed a significantly reduced risk.
We provide clear evidence of considerable geographical variation of under-five mortality which is unexplained by factors considered in the data. The resulting under-five mortality maps can be used as a practical tool for monitoring progress within countries for the Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-five mortality in half by 2015.
Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups.
We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey.
Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25–35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36–49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts.
This study showed a clear geographic distribution of the HIV epidemic, with the highest prevalence in the east-central districts. This study provides age- and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for the targeting of HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. There is need for further research to determine the social, cultural, economic, behavioral, and other distal factors that might explain the high infection rates in some of the high-risk areas in Botswana.
Botswana; HIV prevalence; geographic location; spatial autocorrelation
Major behavioural risk factors are known to adversely affect health outcomes and be strongly associated with mental illness. However, little is known about the association of these risk factors with mental well-being in the general population. We sought to examine behavioural correlates of high and low mental well-being in the Health Survey for England.
Participants were 13 983 adults, aged 16 years and older (56% females), with valid responses for the combined 2010 and 2011 surveys. Mental well-being was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). ORs of low and high mental well-being, compared to the middle-range category, were estimated for body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking habits, and fruit and vegetable intake.
ORs for low mental well-being were increased in obese individuals (up to 1.72, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.36 in BMI 40+ kg/m2). They increased in a linear fashion with increasing smoking (up to 1.98, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.53, >20 cigarettes/day) and with decreasing fruit and vegetable intake (up to 1.53, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.90, <1 portion/day); whereas ORs were reduced for sensible alcohol intake (0.78, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91, ≤4 units/day in men, ≤3 units/day in women). ORs for high mental well-being were not correlated with categories of BMI or alcohol intake. ORs were reduced among ex-smokers (0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92), as well as with lower fruit and vegetable intake (up to 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, 1 to <3 portions/day).
Along with smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption was the health-related behaviour most consistently associated with mental well-being in both sexes. Alcohol intake and obesity were associated with low, but not high mental well-being.
The length of time between two successive live births (birth interval), is associated with child survival in the developing world. Short birth intervals (<24 months) contribute to infant and child mortality risks. Contraceptive use contributes to a reduction in short birth intervals, but evidence is lacking in the DRC. We aimed to investigate the proportion of short birth intervals at the provincial level among young women in the DRC.
Data from the Demographic and Health Survey undertaken in the DRC in 2007 were analyzed. Logistic regression and Bayesian geo-additive models were used to explain provincial inequalities in short birth intervals among women of reproductive age and young women. Posterior odds ratio (OR) and 95% credible region (CR) were estimated via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Posterior spatial effects and the associated posterior probability maps were produced at the provincial-level to highlight provinces with a significant higher risk of short birth interval.
The overall proportion of short birth intervals among all women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and young women (15–24 years) were 30.2% and 38.7% respectively. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive regression analyses, among the whole sample of women, living in rural areas [OR = 1.07, 95% CR: (0.97, 1.17)], exclusive breastfeeding [1.08 (1.00, 1.17)] and women with primary education [1.06 (1.00, 1.16)], were consistently associated with a higher risk of short birth intervals. For the young women, none of the factors considered were associated with the risk of short birth interval except a marginal effect from the lack of education. There was a spatial variation in the proportion of women reporting short birth intervals and among all women of reproductive age across provinces, with Nord-Kivu [1.12 (1.02, 1.24)], Sud Kivu [1.17 (1.05, 1.29)] and Kasai Occidental [1.18 (1.06, 1.32)] reporting a higher risk of short birth intervals. For young women, the higher risk provinces were Nord-Kivu [1.22 (1.00, 1.54)] and Sud Kivu [1.34 (1.14, 1.63)].
This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the proportion of short birth intervals among Congolese women, as well as the potential role of demographic and geographic location factors driving the ongoing higher youth fertility, higher childhood and maternal mortality in the DRC.
Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors.
The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors.
The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)].
This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.
The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict.
Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors.
The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu.
This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.
U5M; Conflict; Millennium development goals; Geographic patterns; DRC
Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics.
We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis.
The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P < 0.001). Higher numbers of citations were associated with the following characteristics: first author from the United States (36.5 citations), an ICD-10 chapter heading of Neoplasms (31.8 citations), type of intervention classified as Investigation, Diagnostics or Screening (34.7 citations) and having an international collaboration (32.1 citations). The JIF alone explained more than half of the variation in citations (R2 = 0.59) in univariate analysis. Adjusting for both JIF and type of intervention increased the R2 value to 0.81. Fourteen percent of reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations.
The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the systematic reviews. However, the distribution of citations was markedly skewed. Some reviews in journals with low JIFs were well-cited and others in higher JIF journals received relatively few citations; hence the JIF did not accurately represent the number of citations to individual systematic reviews.
Bibliometrics; Citations; Impact factor; Systematic reviews
To evaluate spatial effects of variation and social determinants of salt intake in Britain.
2105 white male and female participants, aged 19–64 years, from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000–2001.
Participants’ sodium intake measured both with a 7-day dietary record and a 24-h urine collection. By accounting for important linear and non-linear risk factors and spatial effects, the geographical difference and spatial patterns of both dietary sodium intake and 24-h urinary sodium were investigated using Bayesian geo-additive models via Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations.
A significant north–south pattern of sodium intake was found from posterior probability maps after controlling for important sociodemographic factors. Participants living in Scotland had a significantly higher dietary sodium intake and 24-h urinary sodium levels. Significantly higher sodium intake was also found in people with the lowest educational attainment (dietary sodium: coeff. 0.157 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.319), urinary sodium: 0.149 (0.024, 0.281)) and in manual occupations (urinary sodium: 0.083 (0.004, 0.160)). These coefficients indicate approximately a 5%, 9% and 4% difference in average sodium intake between socioeconomic groups.
People living in Scotland had higher salt intake than those in England and Wales. Measures of low socioeconomic position were associated with higher levels of sodium intake, after allowing for geographic location.
Epidemiology; Social inequalities; Lifestyle; Nutrition & dietetics; Prevention; Public health
Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs) such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses).
This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15). Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention). Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility) mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years) and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews) will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation.
Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings from this trial will lead to a sustainable improvement in healthcare and workforce development and training.
Measures of quality of life (QoL) have been found to be predictors of mortality and morbidity; however, there is still limited understanding of the multifaceted nature of these measures and of potential correlates. Using two large populations from the UK and US, we aimed to evaluate and compare measured levels of QoL and the key factors correlated with these levels. Participants were 6,472 white subjects (1,829 women) from the Whitehall II Study (mean age 55.8 years) and 3,684 white subjects (1,903 women) from the Western New York Health Study (mean age 58.7 years). QoL was assessed in both using the physical and mental health component summaries of the short form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Analysis of covariance was used to compare gender-specific mean scores for the two populations across several potential correlates (including socio-demographic, lifestyle and co-morbidity factors). Levels of reported physical QoL tended to be higher in the UK population (51.2 vs. 48.6) while mental QoL was higher in the US group (53.1 vs. 51.1). Age, sleep duration and depressive symptoms were the main factors correlated with both physical and mental QoL in both samples. Increasing age was associated with poorer physical health but higher mental health scores in both populations (P < 0.001). Sleep duration below 6 or above 8 h was associated with lower levels of QoL. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with poorer mental health scores (P < 0.001) while higher BMI, lower physical activity levels and presence of cardiovascular disease were associated with poorer physical health in both samples and gender (P < 0.05). There were consistent findings for correlates of QoL in this cross-cultural comparison of two populations from the UK and US. Strongest associations were between lifestyle and co-morbidity factors and the physical health component of the SF-36 rather than the mental health component. This is a novel finding which warrants further consideration.
Quality of life; Health status; Sleep; Depressive symptoms; Cross-cultural comparison; Epidemiology; SF-36
Sleep deprivation (≤5h per night) was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in middle-aged American adults but not among older individuals. However, the outcome was based on self-reported diagnosis of incident hypertension and no gender-specific analyses were included. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of sleep duration with prevalent and incident hypertension in a cohort of 10,308 British civil servants aged 35-55 at baseline (Phase 1, 1985-88). Data were gathered from phase 5 (1997-1999) and phase 7 (2003-2004). Sleep duration and other covariates were assessed at phase 5. At both examinations, hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or regular use of antihypertensive medications. In cross-sectional analyses at phase 5 (n=5,766), short duration of sleep (≤5h per night) was associated with higher risk of hypertension compared to the group sleeping 7h, among women (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.13 to 3.58), independent of confounders, with an inverse linear trend across decreasing hours of sleep (p=0.003). No association was detected in men. In prospective analyses (mean follow-up 5 years), the cumulative incidence of hypertension was 20.0% (n=740) among 3,691 normotensive individuals at phase 5. In women, short duration of sleep was associated with higher risk of hypertension in a reduced model (age, employment) [6h per night: 1.56 (1.07 to 2.27), ≤5h per night: 1.94 (1.08 to 3.50) vs 7h]. The associations were attenuated after accounting for cardiovascular risk factors and psychiatric co-morbidities [1.42 (0.94 to 2.16); 1.31 (0.65 to 2.63), respectively]. Sleep deprivation may produce detrimental cardiovascular effects among women.
sleep duration; blood pressure; hypertension; gender differences; confounders; co-morbidities
A cross-sectional relation between short sleep and obesity has not been confirmed prospectively. We examined the relationship between sleep duration and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference using the Whitehall II study, a prospective cohort of 10,308 white-collar British civil servants aged 35–55 in 1985–88. Data were gathered in 1997–9 and 2003–4. Sleep duration and other covariates were assessed. Changes in BMI and waist circumference were assessed between the two phases. The incidence of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was assessed among non-obese participants at baseline. In cross-sectional analyses (n=5,021), there were significant, inverse associations (p<0.001) between duration of sleep and both BMI and waist circumference. Compared to 7h sleep short duration of sleep (≤5h) was associated with higher BMI (β=+0.82 units; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.26) and waist circumference (β=+1.88 cm; 0.64 to 3.12), and with an increased risk of obesity (ORadj 1.65; 1.22 to 2.24). In prospective analyses, short duration of sleep was not associated with significant changes in BMI (β=−0.06; −0.26 to 0.14) or waist circumference (β=+0.44; −0.23 to 1.12), nor with the incidence of obesity (ORadj 1.05; 0.60 to 1.82). There is no temporal relationship between short duration of sleep and future changes in measures of body weight and central adiposity.
sleep duration; relative weight; body fat distribution; obesity; epidemiology
Geographic location represents an ecological measure of HIV status and is a strong predictor of HIV prevalence. Given the complex nature of location effects, there is limited understanding of their impact on policies to reduce HIV prevalence.
Participants were 3,949 and 10,874 respondents from two consecutive Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys from 2001/7 (mean age for men and women: 30.3 and 27.7 years, HIV prevalence 14.3% in 2001/2002; 30.3 and 28.0 years, HIV prevalence of 14.7% in 2007). A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was used to map the change in the spatial distribution of HIV/AIDS prevalence at the provincial level during the six-year period, accounting for important risk factors.
Overall HIV/AIDS prevalence changed little over the 6-year period, but the mapping of residual spatial effects at the provincial level suggested different regional patterns. A pronounced change in odds ratios in Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces in 2001/2 and in Lusaka and Central provinces in 2007 were observed following adjustment for spatial autocorrelation. Western province went from a lower prevalence area in 2001 (13.4%) to a higher prevalence area in 2007 (17.3%). Southern province went from the highest prevalence area in 2001 (17.3%) to a lower prevalence area in 2007 (15.9%).
Findings from two consecutive surveys corroborate the Zambian government’s effort to achieve MDG 6. The novel finding of increased prevalence in Western province warrants further investigation. Spatially-adjusted provincial-level HIV/AIDS prevalence maps are a useful tool for informing policies to achieve MDG 6 in Zambia.
MDG 6; HIV prevalence; geographic location; spatial autocorrelation
Female genital mutilation (FGM) usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection) and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems). Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years.
We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS). The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households) of women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM.
Main outcome measures
i) whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii) whether she had one or more daughters with FGM.
Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267) of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2%) had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5%) said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD) were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis stratified by religion mainly confirmed these findings, however, education is significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of FGM only for Christian women.
Conclusions and Policy implications
Factors associated with FGM are varied and complex. Younger women and those from specific groups and religions are less likely to have had FGM. A higher level of education may be protective for women from certain religions. Policies should capitalize on these findings and religious leaders should be involved in continuing programmes of action.
Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors.
We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.
Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors.
Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location.
Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is higher probably because of the economic decision to sell more than the population consumes. Improving maternal and child nutritional status is a prerequisite for achieving MDG 4, to reduce child mortality rate in the DRC.
The authors examined sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors that could confound or mediate U-shaped associations between sleep duration and health in 6,472 United Kingdom adults from the Whitehall II Study (1997–1999) and 3,027 US adults from the Western New York Health Study (1996–2001). Cross-sectional associations between short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) durations of sleep across several correlates were calculated as multivariable odds ratios. For short sleep duration, there were significant, consistent associations in both samples for unmarried status (United Kingdom: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.94; United States: AOR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.02), body mass index (AORs were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.05)), and Short Form-36 physical (AORs were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.98)) and mental (AORs were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.96) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99)) scores. For long sleep duration, there were fewer significant associations: age among men (AORs were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08)), low physical activity (AORs were 1.75 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.14) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.34)), and Short Form-36 physical score (AORs were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.99)). Being unmarried, being overweight, and having poor general health are associated with short sleep and may contribute to observed disease associations. Long sleep may represent an epiphenomenon of comorbidity.
comorbidity; confounding factors (epidemiology); cross-cultural comparison; life style; sleep
Objective To assess the relation between the level of habitual salt intake and stroke or total cardiovascular disease outcome.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies published 1966-2008.
Data sources Medline (1966-2008), Embase (from 1988), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1982), Psychinfo (from 1985), and the Cochrane Library.
Review methods For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were extracted and pooled with a random effect model, weighting for the inverse of the variance. Heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses were performed. Criteria for inclusion were prospective adult population study, assessment of salt intake as baseline exposure, assessment of either stroke or total cardiovascular disease as outcome, follow-up of at least three years, indication of number of participants exposed and number of events across different salt intake categories.
Results There were 19 independent cohort samples from 13 studies, with 177 025 participants (follow-up 3.5-19 years) and over 11 000 vascular events. Higher salt intake was associated with greater risk of stroke (pooled relative risk 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.43; P=0.007) and cardiovascular disease (1.14, 0.99 to 1.32; P=0.07), with no significant evidence of publication bias. For cardiovascular disease, sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study led to a pooled estimate of 1.17 (1.02 to 1.34; P=0.02). The associations observed were greater the larger the difference in sodium intake and the longer the follow-up.
Conclusions High salt intake is associated with significantly increased risk of stroke and total cardiovascular disease. Because of imprecision in measurement of salt intake, these effect sizes are likely to be underestimated. These results support the role of a substantial population reduction in salt intake for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.