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1.  Ethnicity and the diagnosis gap in liver disease: a population-based study 
The British Journal of General Practice  2014;64(628):e694-e702.
Background
Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Large numbers of liver function tests (LFTs) are performed in primary care, with abnormal liver biochemistry a common finding. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver injury. Metabolic syndrome, common in people from South Asia, is an important risk factor for NAFLD.
Aim
It is hypothesised that a large gap exists between numbers of patients with abnormal LFTs and those with recorded liver diagnoses, and that NAFLD is more common among adults of South Asian ethnic groups.
Design and setting
A cross-sectional study of 690 683 adults in coterminous general practices in a region with high ethnic diversity.
Method
Data were extracted on LFTs, liver disease, and process of care measures from computerised primary care medical records.
Results
LFTs were performed on 218 032 patients, of whom 31 627 had elevated serum transaminases. The prevalence of abnormal LFTs was highest among individuals of Bangladeshi ethnicity. Of the patients with abnormal LFTs, 88.4% did not have a coded liver diagnosis. NAFLD was the most frequently recorded liver disease and was most common among Bangladeshi patients. In a multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for NAFLD included Bangladeshi ethnicity, diabetes, raised BMI, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia.
Conclusion
Abnormal LFTs are common in the population, but are underinvestigated and often remain undiagnosed. Bangladeshi ethnicity is an important independent risk factor for NAFLD.
doi:10.3399/bjgp14X682273
PMCID: PMC4220229  PMID: 25348993
ethnicity; liver; liver disease; NAFLD; population
2.  Patient safety and estimation of renal function in patients prescribed new oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a cross-sectional study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(9):e003343.
Objective
In clinical trials of dabigatran and rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), drug eligibility and dosing were determined using the Cockcroft-Gault equation to estimate creatine clearance as a measure of renal function. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare whether using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the widely available and widely used Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation would alter prescribing or dosing of the renally excreted new oral anticoagulants.
Participants
Of 4712 patients with known AF within a general practitioner-registered population of 930 079 in east London, data were available enabling renal function to be calculated by both Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD methods in 4120 (87.4%).
Results
Of 4120 patients, 2706 were <80 years and 1414 were ≥80 years of age. Among those ≥80 years, 14.9% were ineligible for dabigatran according to Cockcroft-Gault equation but would have been judged eligible applying MDRD method. For those <80 years, 0.8% would have been incorrectly judged eligible for dabigatran and 5.3% would have received too high a dose. For rivaroxaban, 0.3% would have been incorrectly judged eligible for treatment and 13.5% would have received too high a dose.
Conclusions
Were the MDRD-derived eGFR to be used instead of Cockcroft-Gault in prescribing these new agents, many elderly patients with AF would either incorrectly become eligible for them or would receive too high a dose. Safety has not been established using the MDRD equation, a concern since the risk of major bleeding would be increased in patients with unsuspected renal impairment. Given the potentially widespread use of these agents, particularly in primary care, regulatory authorities and drug companies should alert UK doctors of the need to use the Cockcroft-Gault formula to calculate eligibility for and dosing of the new oral anticoagulants in elderly patients with AF and not rely on the MDRD-derived eGFR.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003343
PMCID: PMC3787476  PMID: 24078751
3.  Ethnic differences in primary care management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with serious mental illness 
The British Journal of General Practice  2012;62(601):e582-e588.
Background
Patients with serious mental illness (SMI) have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In contrast to widespread perception, their access to effective chronic disease management is as high as for the general population. However, previous studies have not included analysis by ethnicity.
Aim
To identify differences in CVD and diabetes management, by ethnicity, among people with SMI.
Design and setting
Three inner east London primary care trusts with an ethnically diverse and socially deprived population. Data were obtained from 147 of 151 general practices.
Method
Coded demographic and clinical data were obtained from GP electronic health records using EMIS Web. The sample used was the GP registered population on diabetes or CVD registers (52 620); of these, 1223 also had SMI.
Results
The population prevalence of CVD and diabetes is 7.2%; this rises to 18% among those with SMI. People with SMI and CVD or diabetes were found to be as likely to achieve clinical targets as those without SMI. Blood pressure control was significantly better in people with SMI; however, they were more likely to smoke and have a body mass index above 30 kg/m2. Ethnic differences in care were identified, with south Asian individuals achieving better cholesterol control and black African or Caribbean groups achieving poorer blood pressure control.
Conclusion
Risk factor management for those with SMI shows better control of blood pressure and glycosylated haemoglobin than the general population. However, smoking and obesity rates remain high and should be the target of public health programmes. Ethnic differences in management mirror those in the general population. Ethnic monitoring for vulnerable groups provides evidence to support schemes to reduce health inequalities.
doi:10.3399/bjgp12X653642
PMCID: PMC3404337  PMID: 22867683
cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus; ethnicity; health; inequalities; mental disorders; primary care
4.  A cohort study on the rate of progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease in different ethnic groups 
BMJ Open  2013;3(2):e001855.
Objective
To compare the rate of progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease in different ethnic groups.
Design
Prospective longitudinal observational study.
Participants
All new patients attending a tertiary renal unit in east London with diabetic chronic kidney disease between 2000 and 2007 and followed up till 2009 were included. Patients presenting with acute end-stage kidney failure were excluded.
Main outcome measures
The primary outcome was annual decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in different ethnic groups. Secondary end points were the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure and total mortality during the study period.
Results
329 patients (age 60±11.9 years, 208 men) were studied comprising 149 south Asian, 105 White and 75 Black patients. Mean follow-up was 6.0±2.3, 5.0±2.7 and 5.6±2.4 years for White, Black and south Asian patients, respectively. South Asian patients were younger and had a higher baseline eGFR, but both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in Black patients (p<0.05). Baseline proteinuria was highest for the south Asian group followed by the White and Black groups. Adjusted linear regression analysis showed that an annual decline in eGFR was not significantly different between the three groups. The numbers of patients developing end-stage kidney failure and total mortality were also not significantly different between the three groups. ACE or angiotensin receptor blockers use, and glycated haemoglobin were similar at baseline and throughout the study period.
Conclusions
We conclude that ethnicity is not an independent factor in the rate of progression renal failure in patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001855
PMCID: PMC3586174  PMID: 23449744
5.  Effect of ethnicity on the prevalence, severity, and management of COPD in general practice 
Background
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of mortality and hospital use. Little is known in the UK about the variation in COPD prevalence, severity, and management depending on ethnicity.
Aim
To examine differences by ethnicity in COPD prevalence, severity, and management.
Design & setting
Cross-sectional study using routinely collected computerised data from general practice in three east-London primary care trusts (Newham, Tower Hamlets, and City and Hackney) with multiethnic populations of people who are socially deprived.
Method
Routine demographic, clinical, and hospital admission data from 140 practices were collected.
Results
Crude COPD prevalence was 0.9%; the highest recorded rates were in the white population. Severity of COPD, measured by percentage-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, did not vary by ethnicity. South Asians and black patients were less likely than white patients to have breathlessness, indicated by a Medical Research Council dyspnoea grade of ≥4 (odds ratio [OR] 0.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6 to 0.9] and 0.6 [95% CI = 0.4 to 0.8]). Black patients were less likely than white patients to receive inhaled medications. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine rates were highest among groups of South Asians (OR 3.0 [95% CI = 2.1 to 4.3] and 1.8 [95% CI = 1.4 to 2.3] respectively). Both minority ethnic groups had low referral rates to pulmonary rehabilitation. In Tower Hamlets, black patients were more likely to be admitted to hospital for respiratory causes.
Conclusion
Differences in COPD prevalence and severity by ethnicity were identified, and significant differences in drug and non-drug management and hospital admissions observed. Systematic ethnicity recording in general practice is needed to be able to explore such differences and monitor inequalities in healthcare by ethnicity.
doi:10.3399/bjgp12X625120
PMCID: PMC3268497  PMID: 22520773
chronic disease management; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ethnicity; general practice; health inequalities
6.  Type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of treatment, ethnic and social group influences on glycated haemoglobin 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001477.
Objectives
To assess whether in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c>7.5%) improvement in HbA1c varies by ethnic and social group.
Design
Prospective 2-year cohort of type 2 diabetes treated in general practice.
Setting and participants
All patients with type 2 diabetes in 100 of the 101 general practices in two London boroughs. The sample consisted of an ethnically diverse group with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes aged 37–71 years in 2007 and with HbA1c recording in 2008–2009.
Outcome measure
Change from baseline HbA1c in 2007 and achievement of HbA1c control in 2008 and 2009 were estimated for each ethnic, social and treatment group using multilevel modelling.
Results
The sample consisted of 6104 people; 18% were white, 63% south Asian, 16% black African/Caribbean and 3% other ethnic groups. HbA1c was lower after 1 and 2 years in all ethnic groups but south Asian people received significantly less benefit from each diabetes treatment. After adjustment, south Asian people were found to have 0.14% less reduction in HbA1c compared to white people (95% CI 0.04% to 0.24%) and white people were 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) times more likely to achieve HbA1c controlled to 7.5% or less relative to south Asian people. HbA1c reduction and control in black African/Caribbean and white people did not differ significantly. There was no evidence that social deprivation influenced HbA1c reduction or control in this cohort.
Conclusions
In all treatment groups, south Asian people with poorly controlled diabetes are less likely to achieve controlled HbA1c, with less reduction in mean HbA1c than white or black African/Caribbean people.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001477
PMCID: PMC3488709  PMID: 23087015
diabetes & endocrinology; primary care; therapeutics; public health
7.  Ethnic and social disparity in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes; cohort study in general practice 2004–9 
Objective
To determine whether ethnic group differences in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) changed over a 5-year period in people on medication for type 2 diabetes.
Design
Open cohort in 2004–9.
Setting
Electronic records of 100 of the 101 general practices in two inner London boroughs.
Participants
People aged 35 to 74 years on medication for type 2 diabetes.
Main outcome measures
Mean HbA1c and proportion with HbA1c controlled to ≤7.5%.
Results
In this cohort of 24,111 people, 22% were White, 58% South Asian and 17% Black African/Caribbean. From 2004 to 2009 mean HbA1c improved from 8.2% to 7.8% for White, from 8.5% to 8.0% for Black African/Caribbean and from 8.5% to 8.0% for South Asian people. The proportion with HbA1c controlled to 7.5% or less, increased from 44% to 56% in White, 38% to 53% in Black African/Caribbean and 34% to 48% in South Asian people. Ethnic group and social deprivation were independently associated with HbA1c. South Asian and Black African/Caribbean people were treated more intensively than White people.
Conclusion
HbA1c control improved for all ethnic groups between 2004–9. However, South Asian and Black African/Caribbean people had persistently worse control despite more intensive treatment and significantly more improvement than White people. Higher social deprivation was independently associated with worse control.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2012.110289
PMCID: PMC3407404  PMID: 22396467
8.  Cardiovascular multimorbidity: the effect of ethnicity on prevalence and risk factor management 
The British Journal of General Practice  2011;61(586):e262-e270.
Background
Multimorbidity is common in primary care populations. Within cardiovascular disease, important differences in disease prevalence and risk factor management by ethnicity are recognised.
Aim
To examine the population burden of cardiovascular multimorbidity and the management of modifiable risk factors by ethnicity.
Design and setting
Cross-sectional study of general practices (148/151) in the east London primary care trusts of Tower Hamlets, City and Hackney, and Newham, with a total population size of 843 720.
Method
Using MIQUEST, patient data were extracted from five cardiovascular registers. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the risk of being multimorbid by ethnic group, and the control of risk factors by ethnicity and burden of cardiovascular multimorbidity.
Results
The crude prevalence of cardiovascular multimorbidity among patients with at least one cardiovascular condition was 34%. People of non-white ethnicity are more likely to be multimorbid than groups of white ethnicity, with adjusted odds ratios of 2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94 to 2.15) for South Asians and 1.23 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.29) for groups of black ethnicity. Achievement of targets for blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher for patients who were multimorbid than unimorbid. For cholesterol and blood pressure, South Asian patients achieved better control than those of white and black ethnicity. For HbA1c levels, patients of white ethnicity had an advantage over other groups as the morbidity burden increased.
Conclusion
The burden of multiple disease varies by ethnicity. Risk factor management improves with increasing levels of cardiovascular multimorbidity, but clinically important differences by ethnicity remain and contribute to health inequalities.
doi:10.3399/bjgp11X572454
PMCID: PMC3080231  PMID: 21619750
cardiovascular diseases; comorbidity; ethnicity; primary care
10.  Author's response 
doi:10.3399/bjgp11X561357
PMCID: PMC3047327
11.  Health inequalities affect the health of all 
doi:10.3399/bjgp10X544005
PMCID: PMC2991738  PMID: 21144195
12.  The relationship of ethnicity to the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated chronic kidney disease 
BMC Nephrology  2011;12:41.
Background
The effect of ethnicity on the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated chronic kidney (CKD) disease in the UK is unknown.
Methods
We performed a cross sectional study of 49,203 adults with hypertension to establish the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated CKD by ethnicity. Routinely collected data from general practice hypertension registers in 148 practices in London between 1/1/07 and 31/3/08 were analysed.
Results
The crude prevalence of hypertension was 9.5%, and by ethnicity was 8.2% for White, 11.3% for South Asian and 11.1% for Black groups. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 among those with hypertension was 22%. Stage 3 CKD was less prevalent in South Asian groups (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67 - 0.88) compared to Whites (reference population) with Black groups having similar rates to Whites. The prevalence of severe CKD (stages 4-5) was higher in the South Asian group (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.17 - 2.0) compared to Whites, but did not differ between Black and White groups. In the whole hypertension cohort, achievement of target blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was better in South Asian (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.28 - 1.60) and worse in Black groups (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.74 - 0.84) compared to White patients. Hypertensive medication was prescribed unequally among ethnic groups for any degree of blood pressure control.
Conclusions
Significant variations exist in the prevalence of hypertension and associated CKD and its management between the major ethnic groups. Among those with CKD less than 50% were treated to a target BP of ≤ 130/80 mmHg. Rates of ACE-I/ARB prescribing for those with CKD were less than optimal, with the lowest rates (58.5%) among Black groups.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-12-41
PMCID: PMC3180366  PMID: 21896189
blood pressure; chronic kidney disease; eGFR; hypertension; ethnicity
13.  Vitamin D deficiency 
PMCID: PMC2151822  PMID: 17925145
15.  Primary care for refugees and asylum seekers 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;332(7533):62-63.
PMCID: PMC1326916  PMID: 16410557
17.  Boosting uptake of influenza immunisation: a randomised controlled trial of telephone appointing in general practice. 
BACKGROUND: Immunisation against influenza is an effective intervention that reduces serologically confirmed cases by between 60% and 70%. Almost all influenza immunisation in the UK is done within general practice. Current evidence on the effectiveness of patient reminders for all types of immunisation programmes is largely based on North American studies. AIM: To determine whether telephone appointments offered bygeneral practice receptionists increase the uptake of irfluenza immunisation among the registered population aged over 65 years in east London practices. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Three research general practices within the East London and Essex network of researchers (ELENoR). METHOD: Participants were 1,820 low-risk patients aged 65 to 74 years who had not previously been in a recall system for influenza immunisation at their general practice. The intervention, during October 2000, was a telephone call from the practice receptionist to intervention group households, offering an appointment for influenza immunisation at a nurse-run. clinic Main outcome measures were the numbers of individuals in each group receiving immunisation, and practice costs of a telephone-appointing programme. RESULTS: intention to treat analysis showed an immunisation rate in the control group of 44%, compared with 50% in the intervention group (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.63). Of the patients making a telephone appointment, 88% recieved immunisation, while 22% of those not wanting an appointment went on to be immunised. In the controlgroup, income generated was 11.35 pounds per immunisation, for each additional immunisation in the intervention group the income was 5.20 pounds. The 'number needed to telephone' was 17. CONCLUSION: Uptake of influenza immunisation among the low-risk older population in inner-city areas can be boosted by around 6% using a simple intervention by receptionists. Immunisation rates in this low-risk group fell well short of the 60% government target. Improving immunisation rates will require a sustained public health campaign. Retaining the item-of-service payments to practices should support costs of practice-based interventions.
PMCID: PMC1314410  PMID: 12236273

Results 1-24 (24)