The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) 2013 includes over 4000 concepts for global nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions and is a large and complex set of standardised nursing concepts and expressions. Nurses may use subsets from the ICNP as concepts and expressions for research, education and clinical practice. The objective of this study was to identify and validate concepts for an ICNP subset to guide observations and documentation of nursing care for patients with dementia.
The process model for developing ICNP subsets was followed, according to the guidelines adopted by the International Council of Nursing (ICN). To identify relevant and useful concepts for the subset, a modified form of the Delphi method was used. Six nurses working in healthcare services in three municipalities in Norway with postgraduate education in geriatric psychiatry and dementia care participated in two Delphi sessions. The participants reviewed and scored the concepts included in the suggested subset and had an opportunity to rewrite them and offer alternatives. To validate the subset after the Delphi study, a group interview was conducted with six other nurses with postgraduate education in geriatric psychiatry and dementia care. The group interview was recorded and transcribed, and summative content analysis was used.
Suitable concepts for an ICNP subset to guide observations and documentation of nursing care for patients with dementia were identified. In total, 301 concepts were identified, including 77 nursing diagnoses, 78 outcomes and 146 nursing interventions. An increased focus on concepts to describe basic psychosocial needs such as identity, comfort, connection, inclusion and engagement was recommended by nurses in the validation process.
Relevant and pre-formulated nursing diagnoses, goals and interventions were identified, which can be used to develop care plans and facilitate accuracy in the documentation of individuals with dementia. The participants believed that it may be difficult to find formulations for all steps of the nursing process. In particular, nursing diagnoses and psychosocial needs are often inadequately documented. The participants highlighted the need for the subset to contain essential information about psychosocial needs and communication.