The number of caesarean sections (CS) is increasing globally, and repeat CS after a previous CS is a significant contributor to the overall CS rate. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) can be seen as a real and viable option for most women with previous CS. To achieve success, however, women need the support of their clinicians (obstetricians and midwives). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinician-centred interventions designed to increase the rate of VBAC.
The bibliographic databases of The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effectiveness of any intervention targeted directly at clinicians aimed at increasing VBAC rates. Included studies were appraised independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted independently by three reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool, ‘Effective Public Health Practice Project’. The primary outcome measure was VBAC rates.
238 citations were screened, 255 were excluded by title and abstract. 11 full-text papers were reviewed; eight were excluded, resulting in three included papers. One study evaluated the effectiveness of antepartum x-ray pelvimetry (XRP) in 306 women with one previous CS. One study evaluated the effects of external peer review on CS birth in 45 hospitals, and the third evaluated opinion leader education and audit and feedback in 16 hospitals. The use of external peer review, audit and feedback had no significant effect on VBAC rates. An educational strategy delivered by an opinion leader significantly increased VBAC rates. The use of XRP significantly increased CS rates.
This systematic review indicates that few studies have evaluated the effects of clinician-centred interventions on VBAC rates, and interventions are of varying types which limited the ability to meta-analyse data. A further limitation is that the included studies were performed during the late 1980s-1990s. An opinion leader educational strategy confers benefit for increasing VBAC rates. This strategy should be further studied in different maternity care settings and with professionals other than physicians only.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0441-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
VBAC; Systematic review; Interventions; Clinicians
To study the efficacy of novel rhenium compounds to treat triple node negative breast cancer.
Place and Duration
Six (6) novel rhenium pentycarbanato compounds (PC1-6) were synthesized and triple node negative breast cancer cell lines HTB-132 and Balb/c mouse kidney cell lines were treated with each of them for 48 hours. The results were analyzed by a common trypan blue cell death assay system and statistically analyzed.
Place and Duration
The compounds were synthesized, analyzed and evaluated at the Department of Chemistryof Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Department of Elizabeth City State University campus of the University of North Carolina system.
The novel rhenium compounds were synthesized from one-pot reactions of Re2(CO)10 with the corresponding α-diimine ligands in 1-pentanol.The compounds were characterized spectroscopically.
The cell lines were cultured by standard cell culture procedure and treated with each of the six compounds in DMSO for 48 hours with a negative control and a DMSO vehicular control along with a cisplatin positive control.The cytotoxicity was evaluated by standard trypan blue assay and the results were statistically analyzed.
The trypan blueassay reveals that these compounds have significant cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-468 (HTB-132) triple node negative breast cancer cell lines and are less nephrotoxic than cisplatin.
The novel rhenium compounds PC 1-6 can potentially find applications in the treatment of highly malignant triple node negative breast cancer.
Rhenium pentylcarbonato compounds; HTB-132 breast cancer cells; cytotoxicity; trypan blue assay
Wound care for partial-thickness burns should alleviate pain, decrease hospital length of stay, and be readily applied to a variety of wounds. The effectiveness of Biobrane (UDL Laboratories, Rockford, IL) is compared with that of Beta Glucan Collagen (BGC; Brennan Medical, St. Paul, MN) in a retrospective cohort study.
A retrospective chart review of all children treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between 2003 and 2009 identified patients with partial-thickness burns treated with Biobrane. These patients were compared with historical controls treated with BGC.
A total of 235 children between the ages of 4 weeks and 18 years with an average of 6.0% body surface area partial-thickness burns were treated with Biobrane. In a multivariate statistical analysis, patients treated with Biobrane healed significantly faster than those treated with BGC (Biobrane vs BGC: median, 9 vs 13 days; P = .019; hazard ratio, 1.68). In addition, patients who required inpatient treatment trended toward having shorter length of hospital stay in the Biobrane group (2.6 vs 4.1 days, P = .079).
Partial-thickness burn care consists of early debridement and application of a burn wound dressing. Biobrane dressings result in faster healing compared with BGC and may decrease hospital length of stay for patients requiring inpatient admission.
Pediatric burns; Partial-thickness; Burn treatment; Burn dressings; Biobrane
Despite the tremendous success of cisplatin and other platinum-based anticancer drugs, severe toxicity and resistance to tumors limit their applications. It is believed that the coordination (formation of covalent bond) of the metal (platinum) to the nitrogen bases of DNA cause the ruptures of the cancer as well as normal cells. A search for anticancer drugs with different modes of action resulted in the synthesis of variety of novel compounds. Many of them are in clinical trials now. Recently we synthesized a series of novel rhenium pentylcarbonato compounds (PC1–PC6). The rhenium atom in each compound is coordinated (bonded) to a planar polypyridyl aromatic ligand, thereby forcing each compound to intercalate between the DNA bases. We have investigated the DNA binding properties of one of the PC-series of compounds (PC6) using electronic spectroscopy. The UV absorption titration of PC6 with DNA shows hypochromic effect with concomitant bathochromic shift of the charge transfer band at 290 nm. These results suggest that the compound PC6 binds to DNA through intercalation. It is therefore likely that the other PC-series of compounds will behave in a similar manner. Thus it is expected that these compounds will exhibit negligible or no side effect. We have observed that the PC-series of compounds are strong cytotoxic agents against lymphosarcoma (average GI50 ≈ 2±2.6 µM), PC-3 prostate (average GI50 ≈ 3±2.8 µM) and myeloid leukemia (average GI50 ≈ 3±2.8 µM) cancer cell lines. The average GI50 values of the PC-series of compounds are 2–3 less than the corresponding GI50 values of cisplatin. Also each of the PC-series of compounds exhibits less toxicity than cisplatin in the glomerular mesangial cells.
Rhenium compounds; lymphosarcoma; PC-3 prostate; myeloid leukemia; cancer cells; mesangial cells; DNA binding; electronic spectroscopy; hypochromic effect; bathochromic shift
An increasing proportion of malaria cases diagnosed in UK residents with a history of travel to malaria endemic areas are due to Plasmodium falciparum.
In order to identify travellers at most risk of acquiring malaria a proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of acquiring malaria stratified by purpose of travel and age whilst adjusting for entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and duration of stay in endemic countries.
Travellers visiting friends and relatives and business travellers were found to have significantly higher hazard of acquiring malaria (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) relative to that of holiday makers 7.4, 95% CI 6.4–8.5, p < 0. 0001 and HR 3.4, 95% CI 2.9-3.8, p < 0. 0001, respectively). All age-groups were at lower risk than children aged 0–15 years.
These estimates of the increased risk for business travellers and those visiting friends and relatives should be used to inform programmes to improve awareness of the risks of malaria when travelling.
Imported malaria; Falciparum; Travel
The present study had two main objectives. The first objective was to compare the sleep architecture of young and older adults, with an emphasis on sleep spindle density and REM density. The second objective was to examine two aspects of age differences that have not been considered in previous studies: age differences in the variability of sleep measures as well as the magnitude of age differences in phasic events across the distribution of values (i.e., at each decile rather than a single measure of location such as the mean or median. A total of 24 young (mean age = 20.75±1.78 years) and 24 older (mean age = 71.17±6.15 years) adults underwent in-home polysomnography. Whole-night spindle density was significantly higher in young adults than older adults. The two age groups did not differ significantly in whole-night REM density, although significant increases in REM density across the night were observed in both age groups. These results suggest that spindle density is more affected by age than REM density. Although age differences were observed in the degree of absolute variability (older adults had significantly larger variances than young adults for sleep efficiency and time spent awake after sleep onset), a similar pattern was also observed within the two age groups: the four sleep measures with the lowest degrees of relative variability were the same and included time spent in REM and Stage 2 sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. The distributional analysis of age differences in sleep spindle density revealed that the largest age differences were initially observed in the middle of the distributions, but as the night progressed, they were seen at the upper end of the distributions. The results reported here have potential implications for the causes and functional implications of age-related changes in sleep architecture.
Ovale malaria is caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasite: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Although clearly distinct genetically, there have been no studies comparing the morphology, life cycle or epidemiology of these parasites. We tested the hypothesis that the two species differ in the duration of latency prior to presentation with symptoms of blood-stage infection.
PCR was used to identify P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri infections among archived blood from UK malaria patients. Latency periods, estimated as the time between entry into the UK and diagnosis of malaria, were compared between the two groups.
UK National Reference Laboratory.
None. Archived parasite material and surveillance data for 74 P ovale curtisi and 60 P ovale wallikeri infections were analysed. Additional epidemiological data were taken from a database of 1045 imported cases.
No differences between the two species were identified by a detailed comparison of parasite morphology (N=9, N=8, respectively) and sex ratio (N=5, N=4) in archived blood films. The geometric mean latency period in P ovale wallikeri was 40.6 days (95% CI 28.9 to 57.0), whereas that for P ovale curtisi was more than twice as long at 85.7 days (95% CI 66.1 to 111.1; p=0.002). Further, the proportion of ovale malaria sensu lato which occurred in patients reporting chemoprophylaxis use was higher than for Plasmodium falciparum (OR 7.56; p<0.0001) or P vivax (OR 1.82; p<0.0001).
These findings provide the first difference of epidemiological significance observed between the two parasites which cause ovale malaria, and suggest that control measures aimed at P falciparum may not be adequate for reducing the burden of malaria caused by P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri.
To develop SAR at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for 3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles bearing moderately electron withdrawing substituents at C-4 of the naphthoyl moiety, 1-propyl and 1-pentyl-3-(4-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl) derivatives were prepared. To study the steric and electronic effects of substituents at the 8-position of the naphthoyl group, the 3-(4-chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl)indoles were also synthesized. The affinities of both groups of compounds for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were determined and several of them were evaluated in vivo in the mouse. The effects of these substituents on receptor affinities and in vivo activity are discussed and structure-activity relationships are presented. Although many of these compounds are selective for the CB2 receptor, only three JWH-423, 1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-422, 2-methyl-1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, the 2-methyl analog of JWH-423 and JWH-417, 1-pentyl-3-(8-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, possess the desirable combination of low CB1 affinity and good CB2 affinity.
cannabinoids; structure-activity relationships; cannabinoid receptors; aminoalkylindole
The recent crystal structure of two monoferric human serum transferrin (FeNhTF) molecules bound to the soluble portion of the homodimeric transferrin receptor (sTFR) has provided new details of this binding interaction which dictates iron delivery to cells. Specifically, substantial rearrangements in the homodimer interface of the sTFR occur as a result of the binding of the two FeNhTF molecules. Mutagenesis of selected residues in the sTFR highlighted in the structure was undertaken to evaluate the effect on function. Elimination of Ca2+ binding in the sTFR by mutating two of four coordinating residues ([E465A,E468A]) results in low production of an unstable and aggregated sTFR. Mutagenesis of two histidines ([H475A,H684A]) at the dimer interface had little effect on the kinetics of iron release at pH 5.6 from either lobe, reflecting the inaccessibility of this cluster to solvent. Creation of a H318A sTFR mutant allows assignment of a small pH dependent initial decrease in the fluorescent signal to His318. Removal of the four C-terminal residues of the sTFR, Asp757-Asn758-Glu759-Phe760, eliminates pH-stimulated iron release from the C-lobe of the Fe2hTF/sTFR Δ757–760 complex. The loss is accounted for by the inability of this sTFR mutant to bind and stabilize protonated hTF His349 (a pH-inducible switch) in the C-lobe of hTF. Collectively, these studies support a model in which a series of pH-induced events involving both TFR residue His318 and hTF residue His349 occurs in order to promote receptor-stimulated iron release from the C-lobe of hTF.
Efficient delivery of iron is critically dependent on the binding of diferric human serum transferrin (hTF) to its specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of actively dividing cells. Internalization of the complex into an endosome precedes iron removal. The return of hTF to the blood to continue the iron delivery cycle relies on the maintenance of the interaction between apohTF and the TFR after exposure to endosomal pH (≤ 6.0). Identification of the specific residues accounting for the pH-sensitive nanomolar affinity with which hTF binds to TFR throughout the cycle is important to fully understand the iron delivery process. Alanine substitution of eleven charged hTF residues identified by available structures and modeling studies allowed evaluation of the role of each in (1) binding of hTF to the TFR and (2) in TFR-mediated iron release. Six hTF mutants (R50A, R352A, D356A, E357A, E367A and K511A) competed poorly with biotinylated diferric hTF for binding to TFR. In particular, we show that Asp356 in the C-lobe of hTF is essential to the formation of a stable hTF/TFR complex: mutation of Asp356 in the monoferric C-lobe hTF background prevented the formation of the stoichiometric 2:2 (hTF:TFR monomer) complex. Moreover, mutation of three residues (Asp356, Glu367 and Lys511), whether in the diferric or monoferric C-lobe hTF, significantly affected iron release when in complex with the TFR. Thus, mutagenesis of charged hTF residues has allowed identification of a number of residues that are critical to formation of and iron release from the hTF/TFR complex.
Current recommendations do not support the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for low risk women during labour, yet EFM remains widespread in clinical practice. Consideration of the views, perspectives and experiences of individuals directly concerned with EFM application may be beneficial for identifying barriers to and facilitators for implementing evidence-based maternity care. The aim of this paper is to offer insight and understanding, through systematic review and thematic analysis, of research into professionals’ views on fetal heart rate monitoring during labour.
Any study whose aim was to explore professional views of fetal monitoring during labour was considered eligible for inclusion. The electronic databases of MEDLINE (1966–2010), CINAHL (1980–2010), EMBASE (1974–2010) and Maternity and Infant Care: MIDIRS (1971–2010) were searched in January 2010 and an updated search was performed in March 2012. Quality appraisal of each included study was performed. Data extraction tables were developed to collect data. Data synthesis was by thematic analysis.
Eleven studies, including 1,194 participants, were identified and included in this review. Four themes emerged from the data: 1) reassurance, 2) technology, 3) communication/education and 4) midwife by proxy.
This systematic review and thematic analysis offers insight into some of the views of professionals on fetal monitoring during labour. It provides evidence for the continuing use of EFM when caring for low-risk women, contrary to current research evidence. Further research to ascertain how some of these views might be addressed to ensure the provision of evidence-based care for women and their babies is recommended.
Fetal monitoring; Pregnancy; Labour; Views
To quantify geographical concentration of falciparum malaria cases in the UK at a hospital level. To assess potential delay-to-treatment associated with hub-and-spoke distribution of artesunate in severe cases.
Observational study using national and hospital data.
Setting and participants
3520 patients notified to the Malaria Reference Laboratory 2008–2010, 34 patients treated with intravenous artesunate from a tropical diseases centre 2002–2010.
Main outcome measures
Geographical location of falciparum cases notified in the UK. Diagnosis-to-treatment times for intravenous artesunate.
Eight centres accounted for 43.9% of the UK's total cases; notifications from 107 centres accounted for 10.2% of cases; 51.5% of hospitals seeing malaria notified 5 or fewer cases in 3 years. Centres that saw <10 cases/year treat 26.3% of malaria cases; 6.1% of cases are treated in hospitals seeing <2 cases/year. Concentration of falciparum malaria was highest in Greater London (1925, 54.7%), South East (515, 14.6%), East of England (402, 11.4%) and North West (192, 5.4%). The North East and Northern Ireland each notified 5 or fewer cases per year. Median diagnosis-to-treatment time was 1 h (range 0.5–5) for patients receiving artesunate in the specialist centre; 7.5 h (range 4–26) for patients receiving it in referring hospitals via the hub-and-spoke system (p=0.02); 25 h (range 9–45) for patients receiving it on transfer to the regional centre from a referring hospital (p=0.002).
Most UK hospitals see few cases of falciparum malaria and geographical distances are significant. Over 25% of cases are seen in hospitals where malaria is rare, although 60% are seen in hospitals seeing over 50 cases over 3 years. A hub-and-spoke system minimises drug wastage and ensures availability in centres seeing most cases but is associated with treatment delays elsewhere. As with all observational studies, there are limitations, which are discussed.
Infectious Diseases; Parasitology
MegaCell DCS, an animal product-free culture medium formulated for storing corneas, is superior to the traditionally used MEM (Eagle’s) with Earles salts, Hepes, and supplemented with foetal calf serum (2 %), glutamine and an antibiotic cocktail (EB MEM). Because this medium does not prevent corneal swelling, and Dextran T500, which is traditionally used for reversing this process before transplant may have adverse effects on corneas, the purpose of the current investigation was to identify an alternative polymer that is compatible with MegaCell DCS.
Corneas maintained in MegaCell DCS or EB MEM were transferred to either EB MEM 5 % Dextran T500 or MegaCell DCS containing 5 % Dextran T500, 4 % polyethylene glycol (PEG) 10,000, PEG 35,000 (2 %, 3 %, 4 %) or Poloxamer 188 (4 %). Endothelial cell losses were determined and corneal hydration levels measured. Stromal cell cultures were generated and immunostained with anti α-SMA antibody. Janus Green was used to compare the viability of endothelial cells of corneas maintained in MegaCell DCS and EB MEM and respectively thinned with PEG 35,000 and Dextran T500.
The rates of endothelial cell loss from corneas held in MegaCell DCS and thinned in MegaCell DCS containing 5 % Dextran T500, 4 % PEG 10,000 and 4 % Poloxamer 188 for 6 days were similar. When explants of these corneas were cultured myofibroblasts were generated. Although at concentrations of 4 % (w/v) both PEG 10,000 and Poloxamer 188 caused excessive dehydration, the hydration levels of corneas held in MegaCell DCS containing 3 % PEG 35,000 were similar to those of corneas held in EB MEM 5 % Dextran T500. Endothelial cell losses after 6 days were negligible, explants of the corneas generated uniform fibroblastic stromal cell cultures and the extents of Janus Green staining were similar. Over 20 days the inclusion of 5 % Dextran T500 in EB MEM but not 3 % PEG 35,000 in MegaCell DCS, increased the rate of endothelial cell loss.
PEG 35,000 at a concentration of 3 % w/v does not induce endothelial cell loss and is compatible with MegaCell DCS for thinning corneas prior to transplantation.
Cornea; Corneal organ culture medium; Corneal transplant; Corneal endothelium; Epithelial cells; Keratocytes
Essential to iron transport and delivery, human serum transferrin (hTF) is a bilobal glycoprotein capable of reversibly binding one ferric ion in each lobe (the N- and C-lobes). A complete description of iron release from hTF, as well as insight into the physiological significance of the bilobal structure, demands characterization of the isolated lobes. Although production of large amounts of isolated N-lobe and full-length hTF has been well documented, attempts to produce the C-lobe (by recombinant and/or proteolytic approaches) have met with more limited success. Our new strategy involves replacing the hepta-peptide, PEAPTDE (comprising the bridge between the lobes) with the sequence ENLYFQ/G in a His-tagged non-glycosylated monoferric hTF construct, designated FeChTF. The new bridge sequence of this construct, designated FeCTEV hTF, is readily cleaved by the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease yielding non-glycosylated C-lobe. Following nickel column chromatography (to remove the N-lobe and the TEV protease which are both His tagged), the homogeneity of the C-lobe has been confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Differing reactivity with a monoclonal antibody specific to the C-lobe indicates that introduction of the TEV cleavage site into the bridge alters its conformation. The spectral and kinetic properties of the isolated C-lobe differ significantly from those of the isolated N-lobe.
Tobacco etch virus protease; transferrin; stopped-flow fluorescence; intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence; absorption coefficient determination; cooperativity
Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.
The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review's conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions.
Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research.
Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.
Sorsby's fundus dystrophy (SFD) is a degenerative retinopathy characterised by accumulation of mutant TIMP‐3 protein in Bruch's membrane.
To compare the stability of matrix bound SFD mutant TIMP‐3s with wild type TIMP‐3.
COS‐7 cells were transfected with plasmids containing wild type, Ser 181, Gly‐167, Ser‐156, and Tyr‐168 TIMP‐3 cDNA. The cells and their matrices were subsequently harvested and homogenised. After measuring the bound wild type and SFD mutant TIMP‐3 concentrations by ELISA, aliquots of the homogenates were heated to 100°C. The rates of denaturation of the TIMP proteins at this temperature were monitored by reverse zymography.
Over a period of 24 h at 100°C the biological activity of both wild type and SFD mutant TIMP‐3 was lost. Over a period of 6 h at this temperature the biological activity of the SFD mutant TIMP‐3s was fully retained whereas that of the wild type TIMP‐3 was lost.
Matrix bound SFD mutant TIMP‐3s are thermodynamically more stable than wild type. This may explain why SFD starts earlier in life than age related macular degeneration.
Bruch's membrane; TIMP‐3 gene transfer; Sorsby's fundus dystrophy; age related macular degeneration
Despite the impact of hypertension and widely accepted target values for blood pressure (BP), interventions to improve BP control have had limited success.
We describe the design of a 'translational' study that examines the implementation, impact, sustainability, and cost of an evidence-based nurse-delivered tailored behavioral self-management intervention to improve BP control as it moves from a research context to healthcare delivery. The study addresses four specific aims: assess the implementation of an evidence-based behavioral self-management intervention to improve BP levels; evaluate the clinical impact of the intervention as it is implemented; assess organizational factors associated with the sustainability of the intervention; and assess the cost of implementing and sustaining the intervention.
The project involves three geographically diverse VA intervention facilities and nine control sites. We first conduct an evaluation of barriers and facilitators for implementing the intervention at intervention sites. We examine the impact of the intervention by comparing 12-month pre/post changes in BP control between patients in intervention sites versus patients in the matched control sites. Next, we examine the sustainability of the intervention and organizational factors facilitating or hindering the sustained implementation. Finally, we examine the costs of intervention implementation. Key outcomes are acceptability and costs of the program, as well as changes in BP. Outcomes will be assessed using mixed methods (e.g., qualitative analyses--pattern matching; quantitative methods--linear mixed models).
The study results will provide information about the challenges and costs to implement and sustain the intervention, and what clinical impact can be expected.
Human serum transferrin (hTF), with two Fe3+ binding lobes transports iron into cells. Diferric hTF preferentially binds to a specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of cells and the complex undergoes clathrin dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin-coated vesicle fuses with an endosome where the pH is lowered, facilitating iron release from hTF. On a biologically relevant timescale (2-3 min), the factors critical to iron release include pH, anions, a chelator and the interaction of hTF with the TFR. Previous work, in which the increase in the intrinsic fluorescence signal was used to monitor iron release from the hTF/TFR complex, established that the TFR significantly enhances the rate of iron release from the C-lobe of hTF. In the current study, the role of the five C-lobe Trp residues in reporting the fluorescence change has been evaluated (± sTFR). Only four of the five recombinant Trp→ Phe mutants produced well. A single slow rate constant for iron release is found for the monoferric C-lobe (FeC hTF) and the four Trp mutants in the FeC hTF background. The three Trp residues equivalent to those in the N-lobe differed from the N-lobe and each other in their contributions to the fluorescent signal. Two rate constants are observed for the FeC hTF control and the four Trp mutants in complex with the TFR: kobsC1 reports conformational change(s) in the C-lobe initiated by the TFR and kobsC2 is ascribed to iron release. Excitation at 295 nm (Trp only) and at 280 nm (Trp and Tyr) reveals interesting and significant differences in the rate constants for the complex.
The G65R mutation in the N-lobe of human transferrin was created to mimic a naturally occurring variant (G394R) found in the homologous C-lobe. Because Gly65 is hydrogen-bonded to the iron-binding ligand Asp63, it comprises part of the second shell hydrogen bond network surrounding the iron within the metal binding cleft of the protein. Substitution with an arginine residue at this position disrupts the network, resulting in much more facile removal of iron from the G65R mutant. As shown by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy, and by kinetic assays measuring the release of iron, the G65R mutant can exist in three forms. Two of the forms (yellow and pink in color) are inter-convertible. The yellow form predominates in 1 M bicarbonate; the pink form is generated from the yellow form upon exchange into 1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7.4. The third form (also pink in color) is produced by the addition of Fe3+-(nitrilotriacetate)2 to apo-G65R. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments are consistent with all forms of the G65R mutant assuming a more open conformation. Additionally, mass spectroscopic analysis reveals the presence of nitrilotriacetate in the third form. The inability to obtain crystals of the G65R mutant, led to development of a novel crystallization strategy in which the double mutation G65R/K206E stabilizes a single closed pink conformer and captures Arg65 in a single position. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of the hydrogen bond network in the cleft, as well as the inherent flexibility of the N-lobe which although able to adapt to accommodate the large arginine substitution exists in multiple conformations.
We previously demonstrated that decreasing the iron release rate of transferrin (Tf), by replacing the synergistic anion carbonate with oxalate, increases its in vitro drug carrier efficacy in HeLa cells. In the current work, the utility of this strategy has been further explored by generating two Tf mutants, K206E/R632A Tf and K206E/K534A Tf, exhibiting different degrees of iron release inhibition. The intracellular trafficking behavior of these Tf mutants has been assessed by measuring their association with HeLa cells. Compared to native Tf, the cellular association of K206E/R632A Tf and K206E/K534A Tf increased by 126 and 250%, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance studies clearly indicate that this increase in cellular association is due to a decrease in the iron release rate and not to differences in binding affinity of the mutants to the Tf receptor (TfR). Diphtheria toxin (DT) conjugates of K206E/R632A Tf and K206E/K534A Tf showed significantly increased cytotoxicity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 1.00 pM and 0.93 pM, respectively, compared to a value of 1.73 pM for the native Tf conjugate. Besides further validating our strategy of inhibiting iron release, these Tf mutants provide proof-of-principle that site-directed mutagenesis offers an alternative method for improving the drug carrier efficacy of Tf.
Transferrin; Diphtheria toxin; Site-directed mutagenesis; Intracellular trafficking; Targeted cancer therapy
All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.
amphipathicity; antimicrobial peptides; fatty acids; innate defence; pigments
The Friedel-Crafts acylation of N-p-toluenesulfonylpyrrole under Friedel-Crafts conditions has been reinvestigated. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that when AlCl3 is used as the Lewis acid, acylation proceeds via reaction of an organoaluminum intermediate with the acyl halide. This leads to the production of the 3-acyl derivative as the major product. With weaker Lewis acids (EtAlCl2, Et2AlCl) or less than one equivalent of AlCl3 the relative amount of 2-acyl product is increased. A mechanistic rationalization is presented to explain these data.
acylpyrrole; organoaluminum intermediates; Friedel-Crafts reaction; reaction mechanism
Two thirds of all falciparum malaria cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK) are acquired in West Africa (WA). To ensure recommendations and guidelines for malaria prophylaxis in travellers to West Africa correlate to the risk of infection, a study was undertaken to examine recent trends and predict future patterns of imported malaria acquired by UK residents visiting West Africa and West African visitors to the UK between 1993 and 2006.
Methods and Results
Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p < 0.0001. The risk for travellers from the UK visiting for other reasons declined 2.7 fold, at an annual decrease of 7.0%, with the incidence in West African visitors to the UK falling by 2.3 fold, a rate of 7.9% annually.
The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa.
With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.