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1.  Roles in and barriers to metabolic screening for people taking antipsychotic medications: A survey of psychiatrists 
Schizophrenia research  2012;143(0):10.1016/j.schres.2012.08.031.
PMCID: PMC3823536  PMID: 23231879
Antipsychotic agents; schizophrenia; metabolic screening; psychiatry
2.  Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study 
Objective To assess risks of mortality associated with use of individual antipsychotic drugs in elderly residents in nursing homes.
Design Population based cohort study with linked data from Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set, the National Death Index, and a national assessment of nursing home quality.
Setting Nursing homes in the United States.
Participants 75 445 new users of antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone). All participants were aged ≥65, were eligible for Medicaid, and lived in a nursing home in 2001-5.
Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 180 day risks of all cause and cause specific mortality by individual drug, with propensity score adjustment to control for potential confounders.
Results Compared with risperidone, users of haloperidol had an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 2.26) and users of quetiapine a decreased risk (0.81, 0.75 to 0.88). The effects were strongest shortly after the start of treatment, remained after adjustment for dose, and were seen for all causes of death examined. No clinically meaningful differences were observed for the other drugs. There was no evidence that the effect measure modification in those with dementia or behavioural disturbances. There was a dose-response relation for all drugs except quetiapine.
Conclusions Though these findings cannot prove causality, and we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding, they provide more evidence of the risk of using these drugs in older patients, reinforcing the concept that they should not be used in the absence of clear need. The data suggest that the risk of mortality with these drugs is generally increased with higher doses and seems to be highest for haloperidol and least for quetiapine.
PMCID: PMC3285717  PMID: 22362541
3.  Stigma and Treatment for Alcohol Disorders in the United States 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;172(12):1364-1372.
Among a nationally representative sample of adults with an alcohol use disorder, the authors tested whether perceived stigmatization of alcoholism was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving alcohol-related services. Data were drawn from a face-to-face epidemiologic survey of 34,653 adults interviewed in 2004–2005 who were aged 20 years or older and residing in households and group quarters in the United States. Alcohol abuse/dependence was diagnosed by using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, version (AUDADIS-IV). The stigma measure used was the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale. The main outcome was lifetime intervention including professional services and 12-step groups for alcohol disorders. Individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder were less likely to utilize alcohol services if they perceived higher stigma toward individuals with alcohol disorders (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.76). Higher perceived stigma was associated with male gender (β = −0.75; P < 0.01), nonwhite compared with non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, lower income (β = 1.0; P < 0.01), education (β = 1.48; P < 0.01), and being previously married (β = 0.47; P = 0.02). Individuals reporting close contact with an alcohol-disordered individual (e.g., relative with an alcohol problem) reported lower perceived stigma (β = −1.70; P < 0.01). A link between highly stigmatized views of alcoholism and lack of services suggests that stigma reduction should be integrated into public health efforts to promote alcohol treatment.
PMCID: PMC2998202  PMID: 21044992
alcohol drinking; alcoholics anonymous; alcoholism; mental disorders; psychiatric therapeutic processes; shame; therapeutics; United States

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