PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-3 (3)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Routine care of peripheral intravenous catheters versus clinically indicated replacement: randomised controlled trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2008;337(7662):157-160.
Objective To compare routine replacement of intravenous peripheral catheters with replacement only when clinically indicated.
Design Randomised controlled trial.
Setting Tertiary hospital in Australia.
Participants 755 medical and surgical patients: 379 allocated to catheter replacement only when clinically indicated and 376 allocated to routine care of catheter (control group).
Main outcome measure A composite measure of catheter failure resulting from phlebitis or infiltration.
Results Catheters were removed because of phlebitis or infiltration from 123 of 376 (33%) patients in the control group compared with 143 of 379 (38%) patients in the intervention group; the difference was not significant (relative risk 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.40). When the analysis was based on failure per 1000 device days (number of failures divided by number of days catheterised, divided by 1000), no difference could be detected between the groups (relative risk 0.98, 0.78 to 1.24). Infusion related costs were higher in the control group (mean $A41.02; £19.71; €24.80; $38.55) than intervention group ($A36.40). The rate of phlebitis in both groups was low (4% in intervention group, 3% in control group).
Conclusion Replacing peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated has no effect on the incidence of failure, based on a composite measure of phlebitis or infiltration. Larger trials are needed to test this finding using phlebitis alone as a more clinically meaningful outcome.
Registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12605000147684.
doi:10.1136/bmj.a339
PMCID: PMC2483870  PMID: 18614482
2.  X Box Binding Protein XBP-1s Transactivates the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF50 Promoter, Linking Plasma Cell Differentiation to KSHV Reactivation from Latency▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(24):13578-13586.
Reactivation of lytic replication from viral latency is a defining property of all herpesviruses. Despite this, the authentic physiological cues for the latent-lytic switch are unclear. Such cues should ensure that viral lytic replication occurs under physiological conditions, predominantly in sites which facilitate transmission to permissive uninfected cells and new susceptible hosts. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with the B-cell neoplasm primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), in which the virus remains latent. We have previously shown that PEL cells have the gene expression profile and immunophenotype of cycling preplasma cells (plasmablasts). Here, we show that the highly active spliced isoform of plasma cell transcription factor X box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s) is a lytic switch for KSHV. XBP-1s is normally absent in PEL, but the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to XBP-1s generation, plasma cell-like differentiation, and lytic reactivation of KSHV. XBP-1s binds to and activates the KSHV immediate-early gene ORF50 and synergizes with the ORF50 gene product RTA to induce a full lytic cycle. These data suggest that KSHV remains latent until B-cell terminal differentiation into plasma cells, the transcriptional environment of which provides the physiological “lytic switch” through XBP-1s. This links B-cell terminal differentiation to KSHV lytic reactivation.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01663-07
PMCID: PMC2168861  PMID: 17928342
3.  Routine care of peripheral intravenous catheters versus clinically indicated replacement: randomised controlled trial 
Objective To compare routine replacement of intravenous peripheral catheters with replacement only when clinically indicated.
Design Randomised controlled trial.
Setting Tertiary hospital in Australia.
Participants 755 medical and surgical patients: 379 allocated to catheter replacement only when clinically indicated and 376 allocated to routine care of catheter (control group).
Main outcome measure A composite measure of catheter failure resulting from phlebitis or infiltration.
Results Catheters were removed because of phlebitis or infiltration from 123 of 376 (33%) patients in the control group compared with 143 of 379 (38%) patients in the intervention group; the difference was not significant (relative risk 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.40). When the analysis was based on failure per 1000 device days (number of failures divided by number of days catheterised, divided by 1000), no difference could be detected between the groups (relative risk 0.98, 0.78 to 1.24). Infusion related costs were higher in the control group (mean $A41.02; £19.71; €24.80; $38.55) than intervention group ($A36.40). The rate of phlebitis in both groups was low (4% in intervention group, 3% in control group).
Conclusion Replacing peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated has no effect on the incidence of failure, based on a composite measure of phlebitis or infiltration. Larger trials are needed to test this finding using phlebitis alone as a more clinically meaningful outcome.
Registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12605000147684.
doi:10.1136/bmj.a339
PMCID: PMC2483870  PMID: 18614482

Results 1-3 (3)