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1.  Crystal structure of 2-chloro-1-(6-fluoro-3,4-di­hydro-2H-chromen-2-yl)ethanone 
In the title mol­ecule, C11H10ClFO2, the benzene ring, the F atom and the O atom of the di­hydro­pyran ring are essentially coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.007 Å. The di­hydro­pyran ring is in a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of weak C—H⋯π hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814019746
PMCID: PMC4257220  PMID: 25484686
crystal structure; chromene; di­hydro­pyran ring; hydrogen bonding; dimer formation; nebivolol inter­mediate
2.  Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Primary–Progressive Paired Oligodendroglial Tumors 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67139.
The aim of the present study was to identify genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the progression of oligodendroglial tumors. We characterized 21 paired, World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III oligodendroglial tumors from patients who received craniotomies for the partial or complete resection of primary and secondary oligodendroglial tumors. Tumor DNA was analyzed for alterations in selected genetic loci (1p36, 9p22, 10q23–24, 17p13, 19q13, 22q12), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and the CpG island methylation status of critical tumor-related genes (MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, Rb1). Alterations of these markers were common early in the tumorigenesis. In the primary tumors we identified 12 patients (57.1%) with 1p36 deletions, 17 (81.0%) with 19q13 deletions, 9 (42.9%) with 1p36/19q13 codeletions, 11 (52.3%) with 9p22 deletions, and 12 (57.1%) with IDH1 mutation. Epigenetic analysis detected promoter methylation of the MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, and Rb1 genes in 38.1%, 19.0%, 38.1%, 33.3%, 66.7%, and 14.3% of primary tumors, respectively. After progression, additional losses of 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q and 22q were observed in 3 (14.3%), 1 (4.8%), 3 (14.3%), 2 (9.5%), 1 (4.8%) and 3 (14.3%) cases, respectively. Additional methylations of the MGMT, P16, DAPK, PTEN, RASSF1A, and RB1 promoters was observed in 4 (19.0%), 2 (9.5%), 0 (0%), 6 (28.6%), 2(9.5%) and 3 (14.3%) cases, respectively. The status of IDH1 mutation remained unchanged in all tumors after progression. The primary tumors of three patients with subsequent progression to high-grade astrocytomas, all had 9p deletion, intact 1p, intact 10q and unmethylated MGMT. Whether this may represent a molecular signature of patients at-risk for the development of aggressive astrocytomas needs further investigation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067139
PMCID: PMC3691155  PMID: 23826216
3.  Modulation of ovine SBD-1 expression by 17beta-estradiol in ovine oviduct epithelial cells 
Background
Mucosal epithelia, including those of the oviduct, secrete antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMS). These have bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions against a variety of pathogens. Among the AIIMs, sheep β-defensin-1 (SBD-1) is one of the most potent. Even though the SBD-1 is an important AIIM and it is regulated closely by estrogenic hormone, the regulation mechanism of 17β-estradiol has not been clearly established. We investigated the effects of E2 and agonist or inhibitor on ovine oviduct epithelial cells in regard to SBD-1 expression using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, three different pathways were inhibited separately or simultaneously to confirm the effect of different inhibitors in the regulation mechanism.
Results
17beta-estradiol (E2) induced release of SBD-1 in ovine oviduct epithelial cells. SBD-1 expression was mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and Estrogen Receptors (ERs) activation in ovine oviduct epithelial cell. Inhibition of gene expression of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) led to a decreased SBD-1 expression.
Conclusions
Taken together, E2-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 expressions were GPR30-dependent during prophase and ERs-dependent during later-stage in ovine oviduct epithelial cells, and we assume that the effect was completed by the PKA, PKC, and NF-κB pathways simultaneous.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-143
PMCID: PMC3487956  PMID: 22920556
Sheep; Oviduct epithelial; SBD-1; Modulation; Signaling pathway

Results 1-3 (3)