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author:("Tanaka, you")
1.  Evaluation of changes in left ventricular myocardial function observed in canine myocardial dysfunction model using a two-dimensional tissue tracking technique 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(3):355-362.
This study was conducted to assess the ability of two-dimensional tissue tracking (2DTT) to evaluate changes in left ventricular (LV) myocardial function associated with sustained high electrical pacing. Pacemakers were implanted at the right ventricular (RV) apex of five female Beagles, and sustained high electrical pacing of 250 beats per minute (bpm) was performed for three consecutive weeks. Conventional echocardiography and 2DTT were performed at baseline, and at every week for three weeks with pacing. The baseline parameters were then compared to those of weeks 1, 2, and 3. Three weeks of pacing resulted in significant reduction of radial and circumferential global strains (p < 0.001). Regional analysis revealed reduction of segmental strains in both radial and circumferential directions, as well as increased dyssynchrony after three weeks of pacing in the radial direction (p = 0.0007). The results of this study revealed the ability of 2DTT to measure radial and circumferential strains in dogs with sustained high-electrical pacing, and allowed assessment of global and regional myocardial function and the degree of dyssynchrony.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2013.14.3.355
PMCID: PMC3788162  PMID: 23820202
cardiology; dog; echocardiography; experimental animal model; myocardial failure
2.  Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on Left Atrial Pressure in Dogs with experimentally-induced Mitral Valve Regurgitation 
Background
One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP). There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine’s effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h) vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h), on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration.
Results
Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p < .01) but not after benazepril treatment (13.19 ± 3.47 mmHg, p > .05). LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p < .05) after 7 days compared to baseline. Other echocardiographic parameters did not change significantly.
Conclusions
LAP was significantly decreased after amlodipine treatment in dogs with surgically-induced MR but not after benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-166
PMCID: PMC3489586  PMID: 22989022
3.  The Relationship between Reactive Oxygen Species and Cardiac Fibrosis in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rat under ACEI Administration 
Enalapril maleate, the oldest and most widely distributed ACEI, and alacepril, the newest and antioxidant ACEI, were compared in the point of cardioprotective effect for Dahl salt-sensitive rat. In order to evaluate the correlation between the three factors, cardiac fibrosis and blood pressure/oxidative-stress marker (tissue TBARS), index of correlation was calculated. The results showed a significant difference in cardiac fibrosis between high-dose alacepril (30 mg/kg/day, group H) and enalapril maleate (10 mg/kg/day, group E). There was significant correlation between cardiac fibrosis and oxidative-stress marker, although there was no correlation between cardiac fibrosis and blood pressure. Fibrosis was more influenced by oxidative stress not by blood pressure, we should not select ACEI only by blood pressure-lowering effect and should more consider cardioprotective effects of ACEI.
doi:10.1155/2012/105316
PMCID: PMC3329713  PMID: 22577606

Results 1-3 (3)