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1.  Pharmacokinetic analysis of topical tobramycin in equine tears by automated immunoassay 
Background
Ophthalmic antibiotic therapy in large animals is often used empirically because of the lack of pharmacokinetics studies. The purpose of the study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of topical tobramycin 0.3% ophthalmic solution in the tears of normal horses using an automated immunoassay analysis.
Results
The mean tobramycin concentrations in the tears at 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6 hours after administration were 759 (±414), 489 (±237), 346 (±227), 147 (±264), 27.6 (±28.4), 14.8 (±66.6), 6.7 (±18.6), and 23.4 (±73.4) mg/L. Mean tobramycin concentration was maintained above the MIC90 for commonly isolated bacteria for 68.5 min.
Conclusion
A single dose of topical tobramycin resulted in therapeutic concentrations of tobramycin in the tears for 1 h after administration. Therapeutic levels of tobramycin remained in equine tears 6 times longer than was reported in rabbit tears.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-141
PMCID: PMC3489562  PMID: 22909398
Antibiotic; Equine; Pharmacokinetics; Tear; Tobramycin; Topical; Ophthalmology
2.  An Investigation Comparing the Efficacy of Topical Ocular Application of Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine in Dogs 
The purpose of this paper was to determine the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus, compared to cyclosporine, for treating keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs. This study was a two-phase, randomized, controlled, masked clinical trial. Phase 1 evaluated ophthalmic 0.03% tacrolimus in normal dogs. Ocular examinations were performed daily. Phase 2 evaluated the efficacy of tacrolimus in treating KCS. Half the dogs received 2% cyclosporine A; the others received 0.03% tacrolimus, both diluted in olive oil. Four ophthalmic examinations were done over 12 weeks. There was no significant difference between groups in phase I. In phase 2, there was no significant difference in Schirmer tear test I (STT) results between the two groups, and both groups had a significant increase in STT over time. Both drugs were effective in increasing the STT in dogs naïve to lacrimostimulants. Tacrolimus was effective in increasing the STT in 4 dogs currently nonresponsive to cyclosporine.
doi:10.4061/2011/487592
PMCID: PMC3103853  PMID: 21647338

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