Poultry is the most frequent reservoir of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica for humans. Understanding the interactions between chickens and S. enterica is therefore important for vaccine design and subsequent decrease in the incidence of human salmonellosis. In this study we therefore characterized the interactions between chickens and phoP, aroA, SPI1 and SPI2 mutants of S. Enteritidis. First we tested the response of HD11 chicken macrophage-like cell line to S. Enteritidis infection monitoring the transcription of 36 genes related to immune response. All the mutants and the wild type strain induced inflammatory signaling in the HD11 cell line though the response to SPI1 mutant infection was different from the rest of the mutants. When newly hatched chickens were inoculated, the phoP as well as the SPI1 mutant did not induce an expression of any of the tested genes in the cecum. Despite this, such chickens were protected against challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis. On the other hand, inoculation of chickens with the aroA or SPI2 mutant induced expression of 27 and 18 genes, respectively, including genes encoding immunoglobulins. Challenge of chickens inoculated with these two mutants resulted in repeated induction of 11 and 13 tested genes, respectively, including the genes encoding immunoglobulins. In conclusion, SPI1 and phoP mutants induced protective immunity without inducing an inflammatory response and antibody production. Inoculation of chickens with the SPI2 and aroA mutants also led to protective immunity but was associated with inflammation and antibody production. The differences in interaction between the mutants and chicken host can be used for a more detailed understanding of the chicken immune system.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0224-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major late complications of diabetes. Treatment aimed at slowing down the progression of DN is available but methods for early and definitive detection of DN progression are currently lacking. The ‘Proteomic prediction and Renin angiotensin aldosterone system Inhibition prevention Of early diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria trial’ (PRIORITY) aims to evaluate the early detection of DN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a urinary proteome-based classifier (CKD273).
In this ancillary study of the recently initiated PRIORITY trial we aimed to validate for the first time the CKD273 classifier in a multicentre (9 different institutions providing samples from 165 T2D patients) prospective setting. In addition we also investigated the influence of sample containers, age and gender on the CKD273 classifier.
We observed a high consistency of the CKD273 classification scores across the different centres with areas under the curves ranging from 0.95 to 1.00. The classifier was independent of age (range tested 16–89 years) and gender. Furthermore, the use of different urine storage containers did not affect the classification scores. Analysis of the distribution of the individual peptides of the classifier over the nine different centres showed that fragments of blood-derived and extracellular matrix proteins were the most consistently found.
We provide for the first time validation of this urinary proteome-based classifier in a multicentre prospective setting and show the suitability of the CKD273 classifier to be used in the PRIORITY trial.
biomarkers; chronic kidney disease; diabetic nephropathy; diagnosis; urine proteomics
One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm’s status as organic or conventional.
The response of chicken to non-typhoidal Salmonella infection is becoming well characterised but the role of particular cell types in this response is still far from being understood. Therefore, in this study we characterised the response of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) to infection with two different S. Enteritidis strains by microarray analysis. The expression of chicken genes identified as significantly up- or down-regulated (≥3-fold) by microarray analysis was verified by real-time PCR followed by functional classification of the genes and prediction of interactions between the proteins using Gene Ontology and STRING Database. Finally the expression of the newly identified genes was tested in HD11 macrophages and in vivo in chickens. Altogether 19 genes were induced in CEFs after S. Enteritidis infection. Twelve of them were also induced in HD11 macrophages and thirteen in the caecum of orally infected chickens. The majority of these genes were assigned different functions in the immune response, however five of them (LOC101750351, K123, BU460569, MOBKL2C and G0S2) have not been associated with the response of chicken to Salmonella infection so far. K123 and G0S2 were the only ’non-immune’ genes inducible by S. Enteritidis in fibroblasts, HD11 macrophages and in the caecum after oral infection. The function of K123 is unknown but G0S2 is involved in lipid metabolism and in β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria.
In this study we characterised the development of caecal microbiota in egg laying hens over their commercial production lifespan, from the day of hatching until 60 weeks of age. Using pyrosequencing of V3/V4 variable regions of 16S rRNA genes for microbiota characterisation, we were able to define 4 different stages of caecal microbiota development. The first stage lasted for the first week of life and was characterised by a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (phylum Proteobacteria). The second stage lasted from week 2 to week 4 and was characterised by nearly an absolute dominance of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (both phylum Firmicutes). The third stage lasted from month 2 to month 6 and was characterised by the succession of Firmicutes at the expense of Bacteroidetes. The fourth stage was typical for adult hens in full egg production aged 7 months or more and was characterised by a constant ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes formed by equal numbers of the representatives of both phyla.
Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life. However, infections within the first hours and days of their life are epidemiologically the most important, as newly hatched chickens are highly sensitive to Salmonella infection. Salmonella is initially recognized in the chicken caecum by TLR receptors and this recognition is followed by induction of chemokines, cytokines and many effector genes. This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria. The highest induction in expression is observed for matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). Expression of this gene is increased in the chicken caecum over 4000 fold during the first 10 days after the infection of newly hatched chickens. Additional highly inducible genes in the caecum following S. Enteritidis infection include immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), serum amyloid A (SAA), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (ExFABP), serine protease inhibitor (SERPINB10), trappin 6-like (TRAP6), calprotectin (MRP126), mitochondrial ES1 protein homolog (ES1), interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), avidin (AVD) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4). The induction of expression of these proteins exceeds a factor of 50. Similar induction rates are also observed for chemokines and cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL17, IL18, IL22, IFNγ, AH221 or iNOS. Once the infection is under control, which happens approx. 2 weeks after infection, expression of IgY and IgA increases to facilitate Salmonella elimination from the gut lumen. This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars.
Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.
Following infection and initial multiplication in the gut lumen, Salmonella Typhimurium crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier and comes into contact with cells of the host immune system. Mononuclear phagocytes which comprise macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are of key importance for the outcome of Salmonella infection. Although macrophages and DC may differentiate from a common precursor, their capacities to process and present antigen differ significantly. In this study, we therefore compared the response of porcine macrophages and DC differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes to S. Typhimurium and one of the most potent bacterial pathogen associated molecular patterns, bacterial lipopolysaccharide. To avoid any bias, the expression was determined by protein LC-MS/MS and verified at the level of transcription by quantitative RT-PCR.
Within 4 days of culture, peripheral blood monocytes differentiated into two populations with distinct morphology and expression of MHC II. Mass spectrometry identified 446 proteins in macrophages and 672 in DC. Out of these, 433 proteins were inducible in macrophages either after infection with S. Typhimurium or LPS exposure and 144 proteins were inducible in DC. The expression of the 46 most inducible proteins was verified at the level of transcription and the differential expression was confirmed in 22 of them. Out of these, 16 genes were induced in both cell types, 3 genes (VCAM1, HMOX1 and Serglycin) were significantly induced in macrophages only and OLDLR1 and CDC42 were induced exclusively in DC. Thirteen out of 22 up-regulated genes contained the NF-kappaB binding site in their promoters and could be considered as either part of the NF-kappaB feedback loop (IkappaBalpha and ISG15) or as NF-kappaB targets (IL1beta, IL1alpha, AMCF2, IL8, SOD2, CD14, CD48, OPN, OLDLR1, HMOX1 and VCAM1).
The difference in the response of monocyte derived macrophages and DC was quantitative rather than qualitative. Despite the similarity of the responses, compared to DC, the macrophages responded in a more pro-inflammatory fashion.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-014-0244-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Macrophage; Dendritic cell; Porcine; LPS; Salmonella; Response
Salmonellae are food-borne pathogens of great health and economic importance. To pose a threat to humans, Salmonellae normally have to cope with a series of stressful conditions in the food chain, including low temperature. In the current study, we evaluated the importance of the Clp proteolytic complex and the carbon starvation protein, CsrA, for the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to grow at low temperature.
A clpP mutant was severely affected in growth and formed pin point colonies at 10°C. Contrary to this, rpoS and clpP/rpoS mutants were only slightly affected. The clpP mutant formed cold resistant suppressor mutants at a frequency of 2.5 × 10−3 and these were found not to express RpoS. Together these results indicated that the impaired growth of the clpP mutant was caused by high level of RpoS. Evaluation by microscopy of the clpP mutant revealed that it formed filamentous cells when grown at 10°C, and this phenotype too, disappered when rpoS was mutated in parallel indicating a RpoS-dependency. A csrA (sup) mutant was also growth attenuated a low temperature. An rpoS/csrA (sup) double mutant was also growth attenuated, indicating that the phenotype of the csrA mutant was independent from RpoS.
The cold sensitivity of clpP mutant was associated with increased levels of RpoS and probably caused by toxic levels of RpoS. Although a csrA mutant also accumulated high level of RpoS, growth impairment caused by lack of csrA was not related to RpoS levels in a similar way.
Salmonella; Cold adaptation; ClpP; RpoS; CsrA
International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1–2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes.
Salmonella vaccines used in poultry in the EU are based on attenuated strains of either Salmonella serovar Enteritidis or Typhimurium which results in a decrease in S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium but may allow other Salmonella serovars to fill an empty ecological niche. In this study we were therefore interested in the early interactions of chicken immune system with S. Infantis compared to S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, and a role of O-antigen in these interactions. To reach this aim, we orally infected newly hatched chickens with 7 wild type strains of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis as well as with their rfaL mutants and characterized the early Salmonella-chicken interactions. Inflammation was characterized in the cecum 4 days post-infection by measuring expression of 43 different genes. All wild type strains stimulated a greater inflammatory response than any of the rfaL mutants. However, there were large differences in chicken responses to different wild type strains not reflecting their serovar classification. The initial interaction between newly-hatched chickens and Salmonella was found to be dependent on the presence of O-antigen but not on its structure, i.e. not on serovar classification. In addition, we observed that the expression of calbindin or aquaporin 8 in the cecum did not change if inflammatory gene expression remained within a 10 fold fluctuation, indicating the buffering capacity of the cecum, preserving normal gut functions even in the presence of minor inflammatory stimuli.
Infection of newly hatched chicks with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) results in an inflammatory response in the intestinal tract which may influence the composition of gut microbiota. In this study we were therefore interested whether S. Enteritidis induced inflammation results in changes in the cecal microbiota. To reach this aim, we compared the cecal microbiota of non-infected chickens and those infected by S. Enteritidis by pyrosequencing the V3/V4 variable regions of genes coding for 16S rRNA.
Cecal microbiota of chickens up to 19 days of life was dominated by representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, followed by Lactobacillaceae. The presence of Lachnospiraceae did not change after S. Enteritidis infection. Enterobacteriaceae increased and Ruminococcaceae decreased after S. Enteritidis infection in two independent experiments although these results were not significant. A significant increase in both experiments was observed only for the representatives of Lactobacillaceae which may correlate with their microaerophilic growth characteristic compared to the obligate anaerobes from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae.
We conclude that S. Enteritidis infection influences the composition of the cecal microbiota in chickens but these changes are minor in nature and should be understood more as an indirect consequence of infection and inflammation rather than a positively selected evolutionary trait.
Chicken; Microbiome; Intestinal tract; Pyrosequencing; Salmonella
The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry.
In this study, we characterised the microbiota present in the faeces of 15- and 46-week-old egg laying hens before and after tetracycline or streptomycin therapy. In the first experiment, the layers were subjected to 7 days of therapy. In the second experiment, the hens were subjected to two days of therapy, which was repeated for an additional two days after 12 days of antibiotic withdrawal. This enabled us to characterise dynamics of the changes after antibiotic administration and withdrawal, and to identify genera repeatedly resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin.
Real-time PCRs specific for Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Clostridiales and Bifidobacteriales showed that changes in the microbiota in response to antibiotic therapy and antibiotic withdrawal were quite rapid and could be observed within 24 hours after the change in therapy status. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplified V3/V4 variable regions of 16S rRNA genes showed that representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales, Bifidobacteriales, Enterobacteriales, Erysipelotrichales, Coriobacteriales, Desulfovibrionales, Burkholderiales, Campylobacterales and Actinomycetales were detected in the faeces of hens prior to the antibiotic therapy. Tetracycline and streptomycin therapies decreased the prevalence of Bifidobacteriales, Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Desulfovibrionales, Burkholderiales and Campylobacterales in faecal samples in both experiments. On the other hand, Enterobacteriales and Lactobacillales always increased in prevalence in response to both therapies. Within the latter two orders, Escherichia and Enterococcus were the genera prevalence of which increased after all the antibiotic treatments.
The changes in microbiota composition induced by the antibiotic therapy were rapid and quite dramatic and only representatives of the genera Enterococcus and Escherichia increased in response to the therapy with both antibiotics in both experiments.
Chicken; Microbiome; Intestinal tract; Pyrosequencing; Tetracycline; Streptomycin
The characterization of the immune response of chickens to Salmonella infection is usually limited to the quantification of expression of genes coding for cytokines, chemokines or antimicrobial peptides. However, processes occurring in the cecum of infected chickens are likely to be much more diverse. In this study we have therefore characterized the transcriptome and proteome in the chicken cecum after infection with Salmonella Enteritidis. Using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, protein mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified 48 down- and 56 up-regulated chicken genes after Salmonella Enteritidis infection. The most inducible gene was that coding for MMP7, exhibiting a 5952 fold induction 9 days post-infection. An induction of greater than 100 fold was observed for IgG, IRG1, SAA, ExFABP, IL-22, TRAP6, MRP126, IFNγ, iNOS, ES1, IL-1β, LYG2, IFIT5, IL-17, AVD, AH221 and SERPIN B. Since prostaglandin D2 synthase was upregulated and degrading hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase was downregulated after the infection, prostaglandin must accumulate in the cecum of chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Finally, above mentioned signaling was dependent on the presence of a SPI1-encoded type III secretion system in Salmonella Enteritidis. The inflammation lasted for 2 weeks after which time the expression of the “inflammatory” genes returned back to basal levels and, instead, the expression of IgA and IgG increased. This points to an important role for immunoglobulins in the restoration of homeostasis in the cecum after infection.
In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP), immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), chemokine ah221 (AH221), trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, CD4, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes, we found that the above mentioned genes were preferentially expressed in macrophages. AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6 and SAA were induced also in the cecum of chickens orally infected with S. Enteritidis on day 1 of life or day 42 of life. Unusual results were obtained for the immunoglobulin encoding transcripts. Prior to the infection, transcripts coding for the constant parts of IgM, IgY, IgA and Ig light chain were detected in B-lymphocytes. However, after the infection, immunoglobulin encoding transcripts were expressed also by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6, SAA and all immunoglobulin genes can be therefore used for the characterization of the course of S. Enteritidis infection in chickens.
Within the last decade, macrophages have been shown to be capable of differentiating toward a classically activated phenotype (M1) with a high antimicrobial potential or an alternatively activated phenotype (M2). Some pathogens are capable of interfering with differentiation in order to down-regulate the anti-microbial activity and enhance their survival in the host.
To test this ability in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, we infected porcine alveolar macrophages with wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium and its isogenic mutants devoid of two major pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and SPI-2. The induction of genes linked with M1 or M2 polarization was determined by quantification of gene expression by RT-qPCR. The ΔSPI-1 mutant induced a high, dose-dependent M1 response but a low M2 response in infected macrophages. On the other hand, wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium induced a low M1 response but a high, dose-dependent M2 response in infected macrophages. The response to ΔSPI-2 mutant infection was virtually the same as the wild-type strain.
We therefore propose that Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 studied here can polarize macrophages towards the less bactericidal M2 phenotype and that this polarization is dependent on the type III secretion system encoded by SPI-1.
In order to design a new Salmonella enterica vaccine, one needs to understand how naive and immune chickens interact differently when exposed to S. enterica. In this study we therefore determined the immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Using flow cytometry we showed that 4 days post infection (DPI), counts of CD4 and B-lymphocytes did not change, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes decreased and macrophages and heterophils increased in the spleen. When vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were compared, only macrophages and heterophils were found in significantly higher counts in the spleens of the non-vaccinated chickens. The non-vaccinated chickens also expressed higher anti-LPS antibodies than the vaccinated chickens. The expression of interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL8, IL18, LITAF, IFNγ and iNOS did not exhibit any clear pattern in the cells sorted from the spleens of vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Only IL17 and IL22 showed a differential expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes of the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens at 4 DPI, both being expressed at a higher level in the non-vaccinated chickens. Due to a similar IFNγ expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes in both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens, and a variable IL17 expression oscillating around IFNγ expression levels, the IL17∶IFNγ ratio in CD4 T-lymphocytes was found to be central for the outcome of the immune response. When IL17 was expressed at higher levels than IFNγ in the non-vaccinated chickens, the Th17 immune response with a higher macrophage and heterophil infiltration in the spleen dominated. However, when the expression of IL17 was lower than that of IFNγ as in the vaccinated chickens, the Th1 response with a higher resistance to S. Enteritidis infection dominated.
In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.
Helicobacter (H.) suis colonizes the stomach of pigs and is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Limited information is available on host immune responses after infection with this agent and it is unknown if variation in virulence exists between different H. suis strains. Therefore, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were used to compare colonization ability and gene expression of various inflammatory cytokines, as determined by real-time PCR, after experimental infection with 9 different H. suis strains. All strains were able to persist in the stomach of mice, but the number of colonizing bacteria at 59 days post inoculation was higher in stomachs of C57BL/6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. All H. suis strains caused an upregulation of interleukin (IL)-17, which was more pronounced in BALB/c mice. This upregulation was inversely correlated with the number of colonizing bacteria. Most strains also caused an upregulation of regulatory IL-10, positively correlating with colonization in BALB/c mice. Only in C57BL/6 mice, upregulation of IL-1β was observed. Increased levels of IFN-γ mRNA were never detected, whereas most H. suis strains caused an upregulation of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-4, mainly in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, the genetic background of the murine strain has a clear impact on the colonization ability of different H. suis strains and the immune response they evoke. A predominant Th17 response was observed, accompanied by a mild Th2 response, which is different from the Th17/Th1 response evoked by H. pylori infection.
Genes localized at Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) are involved in Salmonella enterica invasion of host non-professional phagocytes. Interestingly, in macrophages, SPI-1-encoded proteins, in addition to invasion, induce cell death via activation of caspase-1 which also cleaves proIL-1β and proIL-18, precursors of 2 proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we were therefore interested in whether SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) may influence proinflammatory response of macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages with wild-type S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis and their isogenic SPI-1 deletion mutants. ΔSPI1 mutants of both serovars invaded approx. 5 times less efficiently than the wild-type strains and despite this, macrophages responded to the infection with ΔSPI1 mutants by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, IL-23α and GM-CSF. Identical macrophage responses to that induced by the ΔSPI1 mutants were also observed to the infection with sipB but not the sipA mutant. The hilA mutant exhibited an intermediate phenotype between the ΔSPI1 mutant and the wild-type S. Enteritidis. Our results showed that the SPI-1-encoded T3SS is required not only for cell invasion but in macrophages also for the suppression of early proinflammatory cytokine expression.
In this study we were interested in the colonisation and early immune response of Balb/C mice to infection with Salmonella Enteritidis and isogenic pathogenicity island free mutants.
The virulence of S. Enteritidis for Balb/C mice was exclusively dependent on intact SPI-2. Infections with any of the mutants harbouring SPI-2 (including the mutant in which we left only SPI-2 but removed SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-4 and SPI-5) resulted in fatalities, liver injures and NK cell depletion from the spleen. The infection was of minimal influence on counts of splenic CD4 CD8 T lymphocytes and γδ T-lymphocytes although a reduced ability of splenic lymphocytes to respond to non-specific mitogens indicated general immunosuppression in mice infected with SPI-2 positive S. Enteritidis mutants. Further investigations showed that NK cells were depleted also in blood but not in the caecal lamina propria. However, NK cell depletion was not directly associated with the presence of SPI-2 and was rather an indicator of virulence or avirulence of a particular mutant because the depletion was not observed in mice infected with other attenuated mutants such as lon and rfaL.
The virulence of S. Enteritidis for Balb/C mice is exclusively dependent on the presence of SPI-2 in its genome, and a major hallmark of the infection in terms of early changes in lymphocyte populations is the depletion of NK cells in spleen and blood. The decrease of NK cells in circulation can be used as a marker of attenuation of S. Enteritidis mutants for Balb/C mice.
Salmonella is a highly successful parasite of reptiles, birds and mammals. Its ability to infect and colonise such a broad range of hosts coincided with the introduction of new genetic determinants, among them 5 major pathogenicity islands (SPI1-5), into the Salmonella genome. However, only limited information is available on how each of these pathogenicity islands influences the ability of Salmonella to infect chickens. In this study, we therefore constructed Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with each SPI deleted separately, with single individual SPIs (i.e. with the remaining four deleted) and a mutant with all 5 SPIs deleted, and assessed their virulence in one-day-old chickens, together with the innate immune response of this host.
The mutant lacking all 5 major SPIs was still capable of colonising the caecum while colonisation of the liver and spleen was dependent on the presence of both SPI-1 and SPI-2. In contrast, the absence of SPI-3, SPI-4 or SPI-5 individually did not influence virulence of S. Enteritidis for chickens, but collectively they contributed to the colonisation of the spleen. Proinflammatory signalling and heterophil infiltration was dependent on intact SPI-1 only and not on other SPIs.
SPI-1 and SPI-2 are the two most important pathogenicity islands of Salmonella Enteritidis required for the colonisation of systemic sites in chickens.
In this study we characterized aro mutants of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium, which are frequently used as live oral vaccines. We found that the aroA, aroD, and aroC mutants were sensitive to blood serum, albumen, EDTA, and ovotransferrin, and this defect could be complemented by an appropriate aro gene cloned in a plasmid. Subsequent microarray analysis of gene expression in the aroD mutant in serovar Typhimurium indicated that the reason for this sensitivity might be the upregulation of murA. To confirm this, we artificially overexpressed murA from a multicopy plasmid, and this overexpression caused sensitivity of the strain to albumen and EDTA but not to serum and ovotransferrin. We concluded that attenuation of aro mutants is caused not only by their inability to synthesize aromatic metabolites but also by their defect in cell wall and outer membrane functions associated with decreased resistance to components of innate immune response.
Cats can shed antimicrobial drug−resistant Salmonella serotypes in the environment.
To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. Salmonella isolates were of serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Bovismorbificans and 4:i:-. Acquired antimicrobial resistance was found in serotype Typhimurium (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; to ampicillin; and to chloramphenicol) and 4:i:- strains (resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim). Cats that excrete Salmonella can pose a public health hazard to people who are highly susceptible to Salmonella, such as children, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons.
zoonoses; Salmonella Infections; cats; disease reservoirs; research