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1.  In-vitro comparison of LC-DCP- and LCP-constructs in the femur of newborn calves – a pilot study 
Background
To compare the biomechanical in-vitro characteristics of limited-contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) and locking compression plate (LCP) constructs in an osteotomy gap model of femoral fracture in neonatal calves. Pairs of intact femurs from 10 calves that had died for reasons unrelated to the study were tested. A 7-hole LC-DCP with six 4.5 mm cortical screws was used in one femur and a 7-hole LCP with four 5.0 mm locking and two 4.5 mm cortical screws was used in the corresponding femur. The constructs were tested to failure by cyclic compression at a speed of 2 mm/s within six increasing force levels.
Results
The bone-thread interface was stripped in 21 of 80 cortical screws (26.3%) before a pre-set insertion torque of 3 Nm was achieved. Only 3 corresponding intact pairs of constructs could be statistically compared for relative structural stiffness, actuator excursion and width of the osteotomy gap. Relative structural stiffness was significantly greater, actuator excursion and width of the osteotomy gap were significantly smaller in the LCP constructs. While failure occurred by loosening of the screws in the LC-DCP constructs, locking constructs failed by cutting large holes in the soft distal metaphyseal bone.
Conclusions
An insertion torque sufficient to provide adequate stability in femurs of newborn calves could not be achieved reliably with 4.5 mm cortical screws. Another limiting factor for both constructs was the weak cancellous bone of the distal fracture fragment. LCP constructs were significantly more resistant to compression than LC-DCP constructs.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-139
PMCID: PMC3514370  PMID: 22909337
2.  Clinical findings and treatment in cattle with caecal dilatation 
Background
This retrospective study describes the clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of 461 cattle with caecal dilatation.
Results
The general condition and demeanor were abnormal in 93.1% of cases, and 32.1% of the patients had colic. Ruminal motility was reduced or absent in 78.3% of cattle. In 82.6% of cases, swinging and/or percussion auscultation were positive on the right side, and 82.4% had little or no faeces in the rectum. Caecal dilatation could be diagnosed via rectal palpation in 405 (88.0%) cattle. There was caudal displacement of the dilated caecum in 291 patients, torsion around the longitudinal axis in 20 and retroflexion in 94. The most important laboratory finding was hypocalcaemia, which occurred in 85.1% of cases. Of the 461 cattle, 122 (26.5%) initially received conservative therapy (intravenous fluids, neostigmine, calcium borogluconate) and 329 (71.4%) underwent surgical treatment. Ten patients were slaughtered or euthanased after the initial physical examination. Of the 122 cattle that received conservative treatment, 42 did not respond after one to two days of therapy and required surgical treatment. The final number of cattle that were operated was 371 (80.5%). Because of a grave prognosis, 24 cases were euthanased or slaughtered intraoperatively. Another 24 cattle did not respond to one or more operations and were euthanased or slaughtered. Of the 461 patients, 403 (87.4%) responded to either conservative or surgical treatment and were cured, and 58 were euthanased or slaughtered.
Conclusions
Caecal dilatation can usually be diagnosed based on clinical findings and treated conservatively or surgically. Swinging and percussion auscultation as well as rectal examination are important diagnostic tools. Conservative treatment is not rewarding in cattle considered surgical candidates with suspected caecal torsion or retroflexion and surgery should not be delayed in these patients.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-75
PMCID: PMC3391992  PMID: 22656369
3.  Diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf 
Background
The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical findings, treatment and outcome of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf.
Case Presentation
A 5.5-month-old calf was presented with difficulty in rising, a stiff and slightly ataxic gait in the hind limbs and a shortened stride. The lumbosacral region was severely painful on palpation.
Radiographic examination confirmed lumbosacral discospondylitis. Medical treatment with stall rest was instituted over six weeks. Radiographic and ultrasonographic follow-up examinations showed lysis of the endplates initially, then collapse of the intervertebral space at the lumbosacral junction and progressive sclerosis in the periphery of the lytic zones. Four weeks after institution of treatment, the calf could rise normally and the general condition gradually had returned to normal. The calf was discharged after 6 weeks and was sound at 3.5 months clinical and radiographic follow up examination. Thereafter, it was kept on alpine pastures without problems and was pregnant 1 year after the last examination.
Conclusions
This report shows that recovery from lumbosacral discospondylitis is possible in heifers, provided that treatment is started before major neurologic deficits have developed and is continued for an extended period of time.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-53
PMCID: PMC3180387  PMID: 21910913
4.  Identification, Molecular Characterization, and Occurrence of Two Bovine Hemoplasma Species in Swiss Cattle and Development of Real-Time TaqMan Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis of Bovine Hemoplasma Infections▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(10):3563-3568.
Concomitantly with an outbreak of fatal anaplasmosis in a cattle herd in Switzerland in 2002, we detected two bovine hemoplasma species in diseased animals: Mycoplasma wenyonii (formerly Eperythrozoon wenyonii) and a second, novel bovine hemoplasma species later designated “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos” (synonym, “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobovis”). The second species was characterized by a shorter 16S rRNA gene. The aims of the present study were to provide a detailed molecular characterization of this species, to develop specific quantitative real-time PCR assays for the two bovine hemoplasma species, and to apply these assays in order to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of the hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the near-complete 16S rRNA gene of the second hemoplasma revealed that it was 94% identical to that of Mycoplasma haemofelis, an anemia-inducing feline hemoplasma species, but less than 85% identical to that of the bovine hemoplasma M. wenyonii. Using the newly developed assays, a total of 159 animals from the anaplasmosis outbreak were reexamined. In addition, we tested 57 clinically ill and 61 healthy Swiss cattle, as well as 47 calves. Both hemoplasmas were highly prevalent in adult cattle but occurred rarely in calves. Animals from the herd with the fatal anemia outbreak were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii and exhibited higher M. wenyonii blood loads than animals with unrelated diseases and healthy animals. Coinfections may increase the pathogenicity and clinical significance of bovine hemoplasmosis.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02224-09
PMCID: PMC2953077  PMID: 20686093

Results 1-4 (4)