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1.  Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria 
Background
Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis.
Results
The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows) while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters). The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44), while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176). A total of 32.33% (97/300) had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300) had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300) had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300) had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300). The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR = 0.283; P < 0.001; 95%CI = 0.155; 0.516). The Rahaji breed had significantly higher risk compared with the White Fulani breed (OR = 8.205; P = 0.013; 95% CI = 1.557; 43.226). Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking) will decrease the risk of SCM (OR = 0.173; P = 0.003; 95% CI = 0.054; 0.554).
Conclusion
SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters) and milking practices (hand washing).Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-134
PMCID: PMC3477040  PMID: 22894639
Risk factors; Sub-clinical mastitis; Cattle; Nigeria
2.  Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Graft Failure Following Lung Transplantation 
In spite of advances in the field of lung transplantation, the median survival following lung transplant remains below 5 years, an outcome which is significantly worse than other solid organ transplants. Efforts to understand the unique hurdles faced in lung transplant have revealed gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as a risk factor for ultimate graft failure. The link between GERD and chronic lung rejection parallels the association between GERD and other forms of lung disease such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Understanding how GERD predisposes to graft failure is an important issue as it may lead to therapies such as surgical correction which aim to lessen the exposure of the pulmonary epithelium to gastric contents. Here we review the link between GERD and lung disease and discuss the preclinical and clinical studies which are starting to elucidate a mechanism for this association.
doi:10.1016/j.trre.2010.01.003
PMCID: PMC2992955  PMID: 20153957
3.  Obstetric hemorrhage and shock management: using the low technology Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment in Nigerian and Egyptian tertiary care facilities 
Background
Obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. The Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) is a low-technology, first-aid compression device which, when added to standard hypovolemic shock protocols, may improve outcomes for women with hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage in tertiary facilities in low-resource settings.
Methods
This study employed a pre-intervention/intervention design in four facilities in Nigeria and two in Egypt. Primary outcomes were measured mean and median blood loss, severe end-organ failure morbidity (renal failure, pulmonary failure, cardiac failure, or CNS dysfunctions), mortality, and emergency hysterectomy for 1442 women with ≥750 mL blood loss and at least one sign of hemodynamic instability. Comparisons of outcomes by study phase were assessed with rank sum tests, relative risks (RR), number needed to treat for benefit (NNTb), and multiple logistic regression.
Results
Women in the NASG phase (n = 835) were in worse condition on study entry, 38.5% with mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg vs. 29.9% in the pre-intervention phase (p = 0.001). Despite this, negative outcomes were significantly reduced in the NASG phase: mean measured blood loss decreased from 444 mL to 240 mL (p < 0.001), maternal mortality decreased from 6.3% to 3.5% (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89), severe morbidities from 3.7% to 0.7% (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.50), and emergency hysterectomy from 8.9% to 4.0% (RR 0.44, 0.23-0.86). In multiple logistic regression, there was a 55% reduced odds of mortality during the NASG phase (aOR 0.45, 0.27-0.77). The NNTb to prevent either mortality or severe morbidity was 18 (12-36).
Conclusion
Adding the NASG to standard shock and hemorrhage management may significantly improve maternal outcomes from hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage at tertiary care facilities in low-resource settings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-64
PMCID: PMC2966449  PMID: 20955600
4.  The triad-iodine deficiency, hyperlipidaemia, high coronary risk— in a ‘maternal-neonate’ population of rural Africa 
In order to see the pattern of changes in differential serum lipid and lipoprotein fractions as a risk marker of coronary complication in paired ‘maternal—neonate’ blood samples in an iodine deficient zone, 26 pregnant women and their corresponding new born infants at term delivery from the iodine deficient Bassa region of Plateau state, Nigeria were assessed and the results were compared with those seen in a similar 44 group of women and their newborns assessed in non lodine deficient region of Jos. The serum thyroid function and lipid and lipoprotein profiles were determined by ‘ELISA’ and ‘enzymatic’ methods respectively. Urinary iodide excretion level was also measured in 14 pregnant women in Bassa, 23 pregnant women in Jos and 16 non pregnant control from Jos. Results indicate that the pregnant women assessed in Bassa were iodine deficient (P<0.01) and their thyroid status was strikingly reduced as reflected by a drop in serum level of T4/TBG ratio (P<0.01) and a rise in TSH (P<0.005) in comparison to that seen in Jos. There was marked hypertriglyceridaemia and total hypercholesterolaemia (P<0.005), with differential significant rise in LDL cholestotol fraction (P<0.005) in the women assessed in Bassa as compared to Jos. The HDL cholesterol however dropped less significantly in the group (P<0.05) with a concurrent marked rise (P<0.001) in the serum ratio of LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol in the lodine deficient group. A similar pattern of changes were seen in the corresponding neonates in the Bassa group as compared to Jos group. It is concluded that the pregnant women and their newborn offsprings living in a longstanding environmental iodine deficiency run a higher risk of developing coronary complications than those living in non endemic region. It is striking that such newborns surrounded by a continued state of lodine deficient may at a later adult-period of life develop marked risk of coronary complication and other features of hyperlipidaemias associated with varying thyroid insufficiency and accompanied iodine deficiency disorders. Prophylaxis measures as intervention has been highlighted.
doi:10.1007/BF02913319
PMCID: PMC3453811  PMID: 23105688
Iodine Deficiency; Serum lipid; Lipoproteins; Coronary markers; Maternal-neonates
5.  Prognostic factors in typhoid ileal perforation: a prospective study of 53 cases. 
BACKGROUND: Typhoid ileal perforation remains a serious complication of typhoid enteritis with high morbidity and mortality in many tropical countries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic factors in typhoid perforation in Kano, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-three consecutive patients with typhoid perforation managed surgically were prospectively studied at the general surgical unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, from March 2004 to February 2006. RESULTS: There were 26 (49.1%) males and 27 (50.9%) females, with age range of 2-55 years and a mean +/- SD of 12.2 +/- 10.2 years. The morbidity was 49.1% and the most common postoperative complications included wound infection, wound dehiscence, burst abdomen, residual intra-abdominal abscesses and enterocutaneous fistula. Mortality was 15.1% and was significantly affected by multiple perforations, severe peritoneal contamination and burst abdomen (p value <0.05, odds ratio >1). The mean duration of hospital stay for survivors was 16.1 days with a range of 8-57 days. CONCLUSION: This study has attempted to determine the factors that statistically influence mortality in typhoid perforation in our environment.
PMCID: PMC2575870  PMID: 17913115
6.  Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis. 
Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa.
PMCID: PMC2576076  PMID: 17534016
7.  Impact of iodine deficiency on thyroid function in pregnant African women — A possible factor in the genesis of ‘small for dates’ babies 
The effect of iodine deficiency (ID) on thyroid function in African women during pregnancy and postnatal period was examined, for which very limited information is available. Serum T4, T3, TSH, TBG, thyroxine binding capacity (TBK), free thyroxine index (FT4I=T4/TBK) and T4/TBG were determined by ELISA technique in 32 pregnant women (resident of Plateau state, Nigeria- an ID zone) through pregnancy upto term delivery, and in 5 women up to 6 weeks post delivery. Urinary iodide level was measured at delivery to determine the degree of iodine deficiency. Results were matched with a non pregnant control comprising 44 subjects. 5555 birth weights (BW) of term babies in the region were analysed to determine the prevalence of ‘small for dates’ (SFD) babies in the population. Results show that the level of serum FT4I was elevated very significantly at late gestation (P<.001) but the women were not hyperthyroid, suggesting a marked disturbance in binding of T4 with TBG during pregnancy. Five women with SFD babies were found in ‘compensated hypothyroid state’ and showed a significant depression (p<.01) in serum T4/TBG, T4, FT4I and T3 levels to a low normal range, with a concurrent significant rise (p.<.001) in TSH level (above normal range) throughout pregnancy. Incidence of SFD babies was higher (p.<.001) in ID zone (Bassa 15.2%) compared to control zone (Jos 9.8%). It is concluded that a state of maternal ‘subclinical (compensated) hypothyroidism’ during pregnancy possibly plays an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of SFD babies in Africans. A normal reference range for thyroid parameters at various stages of pregnancy in healthy African women is established for the first time.
doi:10.1007/BF02867398
PMCID: PMC3453828  PMID: 23105531
Africans; Iodine deficiency; Pregnancy; Thyroid function
8.  AIDS mortality in a tertiary health institution: A four-year review. 
Africa contains 70% of adults and 80% of children living with AIDS in the world and has buried 75% of the 21.8 million worldwide who have died of AIDS since the epidemic began. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has 5.8% of her adult population having HIV infection at the end of 2003. We reviewed the causes of death among AIDS patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria over four years. Four-hundred-fifty-five (9.9%) of the 4,574 adult medical admissions were due to HIV/AIDS-related diagnosis. HIV/AIDS admissions increased progressively from 45 cases in 2001 to 174 in 2004. HIV/AIDS caused 176 deaths over the period giving an HIV-related mortality of 38.7%. This also showed a gradual increase from 24 deaths in 2001 to 61 deaths in 2004. The most common causes of death were tuberculosis (33.4%), septicemia (23.8%), advanced HIV disease (9.1%), meningitis (7.4%), other pulmonary infections (5.1%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (4.5%). The present dismal situation of patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed. With the introduction of affordable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in several centers in Nigeria, it is hoped that infected patients can be made to live longer.
PMCID: PMC2569378  PMID: 16775907

Results 1-8 (8)