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1.  Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2013;54(6):581-587.
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality.
PMCID: PMC3659454  PMID: 24155449
2.  Ultrasonography of the liver and kidneys of healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2012;53(12):1273-1278.
This study describes the ultrasonography of the liver and kidneys of healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Images of the liver were obtained from the 11th to 5th intercostal spaces (ICSs). The distance between the dorsal liver margin and the midline of the back was shortest (39.1 ± 7.4 cm) at the 11th ICS and increased cranially to 5th ICS. The size of the liver was largest at the 9th ICS and smallest at the 5th ICS. In 6 camels the right kidney was visualized from the 10th and 11th ICSs and upper right flank and in the 10th and 11th ICSs in the remaining 16 camels. In all camels, the left kidney was imaged from the caudal left flank. In 21 camels, the differentiation between the renal cortex and medulla was clearly visible in the ultrasonograms. Ultrasonographic description of the liver and kidneys provides a basic reference for diagnosing hepatic and renal disorders in camels.
PMCID: PMC3500117  PMID: 23729824
3.  Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2012;53(10):1063-1070.
This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3447308  PMID: 23543924
4.  Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne’s disease 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2012;53(5):543-548.
This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3327595  PMID: 23115369
5.  Echocardiography of the normal camel (Camelus dromedaries) heart: technique and cardiac dimensions 
Background
Echocardiography and intra-cardiac dimensions have not previously been reported in adult camels despite its potential application for medical purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a prospective study, aiming to report normal cardiac appearance and normal chamber dimensions in adult camels (Camelus dromedarius).
Results
On the right side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th intercostal space (ICS), the caudal long-axis four-chamber view of the ventricles, atria, and the interventricular septum was obtained. Placing the probe slightly more cranially in the 4th ICS, the caudal long-axis four-chamber view and the caudal long-axis view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were imaged. In 7 camels, a hybrid view between a “four-chamber” and “LVOT view” was imaged from the same position. The short-axis view of the ventricles was obtained in the 4th ICS where the transducer was rotated between 0° and 25°. Placement of the transducer in the 3rd ICS allowed visualisation of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). On the left side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th ICS, a four-chamber view was obtained. The LVOT is imaged in the 4th ICS and the RVOT was seen from the 3rd ICS.
Conclusions
This study showed that it is possible to obtain good-quality echocardiograms in adult camels and provide normal cardiac dimensions. This study could be used as a reference for further studies concerning camels with cardiac diseases.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-130
PMCID: PMC3430584  PMID: 22862855
6.  Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis 
This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.
PMCID: PMC3239146  PMID: 22753961
7.  Repeated pericardiocentesis as palliative treatment for tamponade associated with cardiac lymphoma in a Holstein cow 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2011;52(6):663-666.
Maintaining a good quality of life for cows with cardiac manifestation of lymphoma may be valuable, especially in high-producing cows. This report describes the medical management of cardiac lymphoma in a cow by means of repeated pericardiocentesis. The cow survived for 34 days and was productive.
PMCID: PMC3095169  PMID: 22131585
8.  Assessment of fetal well-being in cattle by ultrasonography in normal, high-risk, and cloned pregnancies 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2011;52(2):136-141.
This study determined ultrasonographic parameters of fetuses and uterine adnexa in late pregnancy in normal, cloned, and high-risk pregnancies in relation to perinatal and neonatal outcome. Ten cows with normal pregnancies (CONTROL, mean pregnancy length 273 d), 10 sick cows with potentially compromised pregnancies (HIGH-RISK, mean pregnancy length 267 d), and 10 heifers with cloned pregnancies (CLONED, mean pregnancy length 274 d) were examined at more than 260 d of gestation. There was no difference in mean fetal heart rates among the groups. The cloned calves were heavier (57 ± 8 kg) than calves from CONTROL group (36 ± 7 kg), and calves from HIGH-RISK group (37 ± 13 kg) (P = 0.003). The diameter of the thoracic aorta was positively correlated (R = 0.62) with fetal birth weight in the CONTROL group (P = 0.01). Fetal activity was not associated with survival. The results suggest that transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal well-being may serve as a potential tool for evaluation of the fetoplacental unit.
PMCID: PMC3022448  PMID: 21532817
9.  A study of heart diseases without clinical signs of heart failure in 47 cattle 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2010;51(11):1239-1246.
In this retrospective study, features of 47 cattle suffering from heart disease (HD) without clinical signs of heart failure (HF) were reviewed. The most common reasons for referral were respiratory problems (n =14), anorexia (n = 13), fever (n = 10), and lameness (n = 9). Thirty-nine animals were tachypneic. In 31 cases, cardiac auscultation revealed abnormalities. The final diagnoses were bacterial endocarditis (BE; n = 19), congenital heart disease (CHD; n = 18), pericarditis (n = 8), cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and lymphoma (n = 1). Echocardiography was performed in 39 cases. Gross pathology examination confirmed the echocardiographic diagnosis in 4 of 5 cases of pericarditis, 6 of 6 cases of BE, and 4 of 6 cases of CHD. Short-term prognosis was guarded with 19 cases (40.4%) being discharged. Premature death within 2 mo after discharge (n = 5), early culling because of poor breeding performance (n = 5), and normal productive life in the herd (n = 5) were observed in the cases that were followed. Echocardiography may be the most sensitive tool for the antemortem diagnosis of heart disease in cattle.
PMCID: PMC2957031  PMID: 21286323
10.  Heart disease in cattle with clinical signs of heart failure: 59 cases 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2010;51(10):1123-1129.
This retrospective study identified clinical signs, underlying cardiac conditions, blood findings, echocardiographic findings, and prognosis for 59 cattle with clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Signalment; history; clinical signs; clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and radiographic findings; and treatment were determined by reviewing medical records. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone conversation with owners. Most patients were tachycardic (n = 50), and tachypneic (n = 55). Pericarditis of traumatic origin (n = 21), by extension from pleuritis (n = 3), or of idiopathic origin (n = 1) was diagnosed in 25 cases. Other diagnoses were congenital heart defect (n = 13), cardiomyopathy (n = 9), bacterial endocarditis (n = 7), and neoplasm (n = 5). Twelve cases (20%) were discharged. Long-term survival was good in 2 out of 3 cases treated by pericardiostomy. The prognosis is poor in cases of heart failure in cattle and deaths within 1 mo (n = 3) or between 1 to 3 mo after discharge (n = 3) were common in cases for which follow-up was available (n = 8).
PMCID: PMC2942051  PMID: 21197204
11.  Bovine tricuspid endocarditis as a cause of increased serum concentration of cardiac troponins 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2010;51(2):195-197.
A Holstein cow presented for weight loss and anorexia had tachycardia, heart murmur, and a chronic inflammatory process. Serum cardiac troponin I was increased at 3.52 ng/mL. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a thickened tricuspid valve and comet-tail artifacts compatible with gas in the affected area. This report suggests that serum cardiac troponin I may be increased in bacterial endocarditis in cattle.
PMCID: PMC2808287  PMID: 20436866
12.  Ultrasonographic fetal well-being assessment, neonatal and postpartum findings of cloned pregnancies in cattle: A preliminary study on 10 fetuses and calves 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2009;50(3):261-269.
Cloned pregnancies in cattle are considered to be at risk due to a variety of fetal or adnexal abnormalities. Data is lacking concerning the possibility of transabdominal ultrasonography in the assessment of these high risk pregnancies. Transabdominal ultrasonography has rarely been reported in the assessment of bovine cloned pregnancies. Ten Holstein heifers carrying 8-month-old cloned fetuses were assessed by transabdominal ultrasonographic examination during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal heart rates (FHR), movements, adnexal appearance, and placentome size were recorded. The outcome of the pregnancies was also noted and potential indicators of fetal demise recorded. Survival rate 1 week after birth was 30%. Mean FHR was 113 beats per minute (range: 92 to 128 bpm) during the fetal ultrasonography. No correlation between FHR and fetal activity was found. Fetal hyperactivity and imaging of hyperechoic particles in both allantoic and amniotic fluids were possible signs of fetal distress. Despite the size of the fetus and the deep bovine abdomen, fetal transabdominal ultrasonography can be performed in cattle. This preliminary study points to the necessity of further larger studies for defining normal and abnormal findings in bovine late pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC2643449  PMID: 19436477
13.  Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of upper respiratory obstruction in a calf 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2008;49(3):275-279.
In a calf with dyspnea, a mass located dorsal to the pharynx was visualized by ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a severe enlargement of the left medial retropharyngeal lymph node, compatible with an abscess. This is the first reported case of MRI use in bovine upper respiratory disease.
PMCID: PMC2249721  PMID: 18390100
14.  Portacaval shunt in a calf: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2007;48(4):407-410.
A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extra-hepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant.
PMCID: PMC1831516  PMID: 17494368
15.  Fetal well-being assessment in bovine near-term gestations: Current knowledge and future perspectives arising from comparative medicine 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2007;48(2):178-183.
Cloning technology is associated with multiple losses throughout pregnancy and in the neonatal period. Any maternal or fetal disease can compromise pregnancy. A paucity of data are available on bovine fetal well-being in late pregnancy; development of well-being assessment methods might augment early diagnosis of abnormal pregnancy or fetal distress, allowing early intervention. This review presents the current knowledge on fetal well-being based on bovine, ovine, equine, and human studies, as well as interesting research parameters that have been studied in other species and not yet investigated in cattle. Transabdominal ultrasonography allows for diagnosis of large placentomes and hydrallantois that frequently accompany clone pregnancies. Fetal inactivity or large hyperechoic particles imaged within the fetal annexes are associated with fetal distress or death, and should be reassessed to confirm compromised pregnancy. Measurements of different fetal parameters (thoracic aorta, metacarpal or metatarsal thickness) could be reliable tools for early detection of the large offspring syndrome commonly found in cloned calves.
PMCID: PMC1780236  PMID: 17334032
16.  Ventricular septal defects in cattle: A retrospective study of 25 cases 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2006;47(3):246-252.
Abstract
Clinical and complementary examination, pathological findings, and outcome were reviewed for 25 heifers diagnosed with ventricular septal defect (VSD). Age at presentation ranged from 36 h to 21 mo. The most common reasons for consultation were chronic respiratory problems (11 cases; 44%) or assessment of heart murmur (5 cases; 20%). A pansystolic murmur on the right thoracic side was audible in 20 cases (80%). Pneumonia that interfered with adequate cardiac auscultation was found in 15 calves (60%). Echocardiography was useful in establishing the final diagnosis of VSD (sensitivity of 94%). Prognosis was poor: only 10 calves were discharged and no heifer out of the 6 cases for which follow-up information was available had a productive life in the herd. Inadequate reproductive performance was owners’ most common complaint (4 of 6 heifers).
PMCID: PMC1371053  PMID: 16604981

Results 1-16 (16)