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author:("Arai, tashiro")
1.  Preliminary Study Characterizing the Use of Sitagliptin for Glycemic Control in Healthy Beagle Dogs with Normal Gluco-Homeostasis 
Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor aimed at treating Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and T1DM, by increasing blood levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and insulin. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize Sitagliptin’s ability for glycemic control, in healthy dogs under an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) environment. Overall, Sitagliptin did not result in any significant changes to temporal glucose and insulin concentrations. However, a ~55% increase in median total GLP-1 AUC0–120min was observed, as compared to baseline control in healthy dogs (n=5), thus indicating a similar mode of action of Sitagliptin between healthy dogs and humans. Future studies to validate the use of Sitagliptin with dogs suffering from insulin independent diabetes are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4221172  PMID: 24931645
canine; GIP; GLP-1; glucose; insulin; Sitagliptin
2.  Comparison of plasma lipoprotein profiles and malondialdehyde between hyperlipidemia dogs with/without treatment 
The aim of this study is to compare metabolic parameters, malondialdehyde as a lipid oxidation marker, and lipid profiles between dogs with untreated hyperlipidemia and hyperlipidemia with treatment, in order to examine the usefulness of malondialdehyde and lipid profiles as diagnostic parameters at early stages of hyperlipidemia.
Dog samples were collected from four different veterinary clinics across Japan from March to June 2013. They were separated into three groups: control, untreated hyperlipidemia based on temporally screening, and hyperlipidemia with current anti-hyperlipidemic (statins and fibrates) treatment. Triglyceride levels of untreated hyperlipidemia dogs were significantly higher than those of control dogs. ALT levels of hyperlipidemic dogs with treatment were the highest among three groups. VLDL and LDL of both cholesterol and triglyceride of untreated hyperlipidemia dogs were the highest among three groups. HDL1 levels in triglyceride of hyperlipidemia dogs with treatment were significantly higher than those of control and untreated hyperlipidemia dog. Malondialdehyde concentrations of untreated hyperlipidemia dogs were significantly higher than those of control and hyperlipidemic dogs with treatment.
In this study, dogs with untreated hyperlipidemia clearly showed abnormal lipid status, whereas hyperlipidemic dogs under anti-hyperlipidemia treatment showed more normal lipid status suggesting the effectiveness of the therapy. Anti-hyperlipidemics (statins and fibrates) for dogs are also effective in relieving elevated levels of lipids and lipid oxidation. Plasma lipid (triglyceride and cholesterol) profiles and malondialdehyde are useful diagnostic tools for identifying early stages of untreatment hyperlipidemia in dogs.
PMCID: PMC3995584  PMID: 24625120
Dog; Hyperlipidemia; Lipid profiles; Malondialdehyde; Prevention; Screening criteria
3.  Age effects on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride profiles and metabolite concentrations in dogs 
In dogs, occurrence of lipid metabolism disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus has increased markedly in recent years. Hyperlipidemia has been regarded as a common characteristic for obese animals and hyperlipidemic condition may be associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid composition changes. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) profiles and metabolite concentrations in 24 dogs (young group: 0-7 years old, n = 12, aged group: 8-13 years old, n = 12).
Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations were significantly lower in aged dogs than those in young dogs (mean ± SD, 17.2 ± 10.0 μg mL-1 vs 29.3 ± 12.5 μg mL-1, respectively; P <0.05). Although there were no significant differences statistically, aged dogs showed significantly higher plasma alpha1- acid glycoprotein (alpah1-AG) levels compared to those in young dogs. Plasma cholesterol lipoprotein and TG lipoprotein were divided into four fractions by biphasic agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The levels of the third TG-lipoprotein fraction from the positive pole (TG Fraction 3) were significantly higher in aged dogs than in young dogs (mean ± SD, 143.0 ± 109.3 mg dL-1 vs 55.2 ± 31.3 mg dL-1, respectively; P <0.05). On the correlation coefficient analysis by Peason’s method, moderate positive correlations were seen between the age and TG (r = 0.446, P = 0.029), TG Fraction 3 (r = 0.516, P = 0.010), malondialdehyde (r = 0.146, P = 0.043), alpha-1 AG (r = 0.448, P = 0.028) levels, respectively. Moderate negative correlations were seen the age and total cholesterol (TC) Fraction 2 (r = -0.446, P = 0.029), glucose (r = -0.637, P = 0.001), ADN (r = -0.408, P = 0.048), respectively.
Present data suggest biochemical characteristics of lipid metabolism disorder may be affected by aging in dogs.
PMCID: PMC3946593  PMID: 24597741
Aged dog; Adiponectin; Superoxide dismutase; Alpha1-acid glycoprotein; Cholesterol lipoprotein; Triglyceride lipoprotein
4.  Change in mRNA expression of sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3 in cats fed on high fat diet 
Mammalian sirtuins are homologs to the yeast silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), which is an NAD-dependent deacetylase. Sirtuins are comprised of 7 proteins, and each has different target proteins. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays important roles in maintaining metabolic functions and immune responses, and SIRT3 protects cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Both SIRT1 and SIRT3 are regulated by metabolic status and aging. Hence, SIRT1 and SIRT3 have been researched in metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), fatty liver, and heart diseases. Although these diseases have been increasing, there is little information about relation between the diseases and SIRT1 and SIRT3 in cats. Therefore we cloned SIRT1 and SIRT3 cDNA, examined mRNA expression in cat tissues, and investigated the changes in SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocyte of cats fed on HFD for 6 weeks.
Cat SIRT1 and SIRT3 contained a catalytic core region and showed high sequence homology with other vertebrate SIRT1 (>61.3%) and SIRT3 (>65.9%) amino acids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that high expression levels were observed in the liver and skeletal muscle for SIRT1 and in the heart for SIRT3 in cats. In addition, both cat SIRT1 and SIRT3 expression levels in the pancreas were different between individuals. Cat SIRT1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes was significantly elevated in obese cats fed on HFD (P < 0.05).
Cat SIRT1 and SIRT3 genes are highly conserved among vertebrates, and HFD feeding may be related to SIRT1 mRNA expression mechanisms in cat peripheral blood leukocytes.
PMCID: PMC3849300  PMID: 24073959
Cat; Sirtuin; cDNA cloning; High-fat diet; Real-time PCR
5.  Comparison of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived canine mesenchymal stem cells 
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are potential cellular sources of therapeutic stem cells. MSCs are a multipotent population of cells capable of differentiating into a number of mesodermal lineages. Treatment using MSCs appears to be a helpful approach for structural restoration in regenerative medicine. Correct identification of these cells is necessary, but there is inadequate information on the MSC profile of cell surface markers and mRNA expression in dogs. In this study, we performed molecular characterization of canine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs using immunological and mRNA expression analysis.
Samples were confirmed to be multipotent based on their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. And these cells were checked as stem cell, hematopoietic and embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers by flow cytometry. BM- and AT-MSCs showed high expression of CD29 and CD44, moderate expression of CD90, and were negative for CD34, CD45, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. SSEA-1 was expressed at very low levels in AT-MSCs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog in BM- and AT-MSCs. There was no significant difference in expression of Oct3/4 and Sox2 between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs. However, Nanog expression was 2.5-fold higher in AT-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. Using immunocytochemical analysis, Oct3/4 and Sox2 proteins were observed in BM- and AT-MSCs.
Our results provide fundamental information to enable for more reproducible and reliable quality control in the identification of canine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs by protein and mRNA expression analysis.
PMCID: PMC3442961  PMID: 22937862
Canine; Mesenchymal stem cell; Cell surface markers; Embryonic stem cell markers

Results 1-5 (5)