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1.  Evaluation of acepromazine-induced hemodynamic alterations and reversal with norepinephrine infusion in standing horses 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2013;54(2):150-156.
The effects of norepinephrine (NOR) infusion on hemodynamic alterations induced with sedative doses of acepromazine (ACP) were evaluated. Infusion of NOR at 1 μg/kg body weight (BW)/minute for 15 min was administered to 5 standing horses 45 min (T45) after intravenous injection of ACP at 0.1 mg/kg BW. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated on the median artery. Parameters were evaluated every 5 min from 45 to 65 min (T65) at 75 (T75), 90 (T90), and 105 (T105) minutes after ACP administration, and the vessel’s surface (SURF), diameter (DIAM), circumference (CIRC), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), volumetric flow (VF) and resistivity index (RI) of the flow were calculated. Acepromazine induced hypotension and vasodilation with a significant rise in SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV, and VF and a reduction in RI and SAP, which were significantly counteracted from T50 to T60 for EDV, VF, MV and RI, and to T65 for SAP, from T50 to T90 for CIRC and SURF and to T60 for DIAM. These findings demonstrate that a 1 μg/kg BW/minute NOR infusion can reverse ACP’s vasodilatory effects, restoring hemodynamic parameters and blood pressure in horses.
PMCID: PMC3552591  PMID: 23904638
2.  Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats 
Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established.
As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats.
PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.
PMCID: PMC3488548  PMID: 23067875
Goat; Pulsed wave; Doppler echocardiography; Reference intervals; Repeatability; Variability
3.  Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves 
Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves.
Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times the normal dose (25 mg/kg, BID) of oral doxycycline for five consecutive days (D1 to D5). Each calf was clinically examined daily. Measurement of serum AST, CK, Iso-CKs and LDH activities and an echocardiographic examination were performed before (D0) and one day after (D6) the last doxycycline administration. An ECG tracing was recorded at D0, D4, and D6.
In both groups, no clinical, blood, echocardiographic or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of a cardiomyopathy were observed. Only a decreased appetite was observed in the calves of the group 2 between D3 and D6.
This trial failed to reproduce cardiac changes reported in accidental doxycycline-poisoning in calves, suggesting that high doses of doxycycline may not be the only etiologic factor of the cardiomyopathy reported in the field cases.
PMCID: PMC3162890  PMID: 21787424
4.  Assessment of a bone biopsy technique for measuring tiludronate in horses: A preliminary study 
This study assessed the feasibility of measuring tiludronate in horses using a minimally invasive bone biopsy technique. Eight horses were treated with intravenous (IV) tiludronate [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)], either once (n = 4) or twice, 28 d apart (n = 4). The horses that were treated once were euthanized on days 1, 43, 57, or 92 and those that were treated twice, were euthanized on days 112, 154, 194, or 364. Bone samples were taken bilaterally from each horse at 4 sites: the third metacarpal bone (MCIII), the 13th rib (R13), the tuber coxae (TC), and the cuboid bone (CB). Test samples were taken with a 5-mm diameter dental drill, while larger reference samples were taken with an osteotome. The concentrations of tiludronate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The TC was the easiest site to sample, and no technical difficulties were encountered for extraction and measurement. Drill sampling at the MCIII was difficult. Moreover, both the extraction and measurement caused technical problems and results were unreliable in most cases (93%). Drill samples obtained from the R13 were very small and access to the CB required considerable dissection, which would not be feasible in vivo. Forty-six percent and 36% of the tiludronate measurements performed on the R13 and CB samples, respectively, were unreliable. The ratio of tiludronate concentrations ranged from 73% to 185% (median: 118%) in the TC, 65% to 208% (median: 81%) in the R13, and 26% to 110% (median: 57%) in the CB. In all but 1 horse, the highest concentrations of tiludronate were found in the TC. It was concluded that bone biopsies performed at the TC were adequate for measuring tiludronate in horses and should be considered in future for repeated measurements over time in living animals.
PMCID: PMC3062923  PMID: 21731184
5.  Change in blood antioxidant status of horses moved from a stable following diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2007;48(11):1165-1167.
The antioxidant status of 10 horses living in stable 1 where 2 cases of equine motor neuron disease had previously been diagnosed was assessed before and 9 weeks after moving to another stable. Duration of residence in stable 1, subsequent moving, or both, significantly affected several parameters of the antioxidant status.
PMCID: PMC2034427  PMID: 18050798

Results 1-5 (5)