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1.  Zinc and copper levels are not correlated with angiographically-defined coronary artery disease in sudanese patients 
We investigated zinc and copper levels in angiographically defined obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography in El-Shaab Hospital, Sudan. We performed a cross-sectional study. One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. Sociodemographic and medical characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Glucose, lipid, zinc, and copper levels were measured. Out of 142 patients, 102 (71.8%) had CAD and 40 (28.2%) had patent coronary arteries. There were no significant differences in median (interquartile range) zinc [118.5 (97.2–151.0) vs. 130.0 (106.0–174.0) μg/ml, P = 0.120] and copper [150.6 (125.0–183.0) vs. 158 (132.0–180.0) μg/mL, P = 0.478] levels between patients with CAD and those with patent coronary arteries. In linear regression analysis, there were no associations between CAD and zinc and copper levels. The current study failed to show any significant association between CAD and zinc and copper levels.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00191
PMCID: PMC4492078  PMID: 26217231
angiography; angina; coronary artery; copper; zinc
2.  Factors associated with HIV counseling and testing and correlations with sexual behavior of teachers in primary and secondary schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)  2015;7:197-208.
Background
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a global crisis that affects the lives of millions of people. Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT) serves as the entry point for HIV prevention, treatment, and care, it remains a low priority in many settings. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the factors associated with HCT and their correlation with the sexual behavior of primary and secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa.
Methods
A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 1,136 teachers. HCT and sexual health behavior-related data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was employed to examine the relationships between HCT, sociodemographics, and risky sexual behavior-related variables.
Results
Of the 1,136 eligible study participants, 1,034 (91.0%) teachers completed the self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The proportion of teachers who had ever tested for HIV was 739/1,034 (71.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 69.1–74.2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.63; 95% CI 0.44–0.90) was associated with a 37% decrease in odds of being ever tested for HIV compared with being female. Married teachers were less likely to have had HIV testing (AOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19–0.47) compared with unmarried teachers. Being aged ≥45 years (AOR 4.05; 95% CI 1.82–9.03), having high HCT-related knowledge (AOR 3.56; 95% CI 1.73–7.32), and having a perceived risk of HIV (AOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.04–1.96) were positively associated with HCT. Moreover, regarding the correlation of HCT with the sexual behavior of teachers, those teachers who never had HCT were more likely to have multiple sexual partners than those who had ever had HCT (AOR 1.85; 95% CI 1.08–3.15). In contrast, teachers who had ever been tested for HIV were less likely to have used condoms consistently than those who had never been tested (AOR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32–0.96).
Conclusion
No significant differences were observed between primary and secondary school teachers regarding factors associated with HCT and its correlation with sexual behavior. Gender, age, marital status, knowledge of HCT, and perceived risk were found to be factors associated with HCT uptake. Correlations between being faithful to a partner, inconsistent use of condoms, and HCT uptake of teachers were also observed. Thus, strengthening the current practice of HCT services in the education sector with due emphasis on the observed factors could play a pivotal role in bringing about positive changes in the sexual behavior of school community.
Video abstract
doi:10.2147/HIV.S82376
PMCID: PMC4493976  PMID: 26170719
schools; teachers; human immunodeficiency virus; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; counseling and testing; factors; correlations
3.  Comparison of physical quality assurance between Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 80 dental CT scanners 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2015;10:10.3402/ljm.v10.28038.
Background
The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentistry has proven to be useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of several oral and maxillofacial diseases. The quality of the resulting image is dictated by many factors related to the patient, unit, and operator.
Materials and methods
In this work, two dental CBCT units, namely Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 80, were assessed and compared in terms of quantitative effective dose delivered to specific locations in a dosimetry phantom. Resolution and contrast were evaluated in only 3D Accuitomo 80 using special quality assurance phantoms.
Results
Scanora 3D, with less radiation time, showed less dosing values compared to 3D Accuitomo 80 (mean 0.33 mSv, SD±0.16 vs. 0.18 mSv, SD±0.1). Using paired t-test, no significant difference was found in Accuitomo two scan sessions (p>0.05), while it was highly significant in Scanora (p>0.05). The modulation transfer function value (at 2 lp/mm), in both measurements, was found to be 4.4%. The contrast assessment of 3D Accuitomo 80 in the two measurements showed few differences, for example, the grayscale values were the same (SD=0) while the noise level was slightly different (SD=0 and 0.67, respectively).
Conclusions
The radiation dose values in these two CBCT units are significantly less than those encountered in systemic CT scans. However, the dose seems to be affected more by changing the field of view rather than the voltage or amperage. The low doses were at the expense of the image quality produced, which was still acceptable. Although the spatial resolution and contrast were inferior to the medical images produced in systemic CT units, the present results recommend adopting CBCTs in maxillofacial imaging because of low radiation dose and adequate image quality.
doi:10.3402/ljm.v10.28038
PMCID: PMC4475257  PMID: 26091832
CBCT; image quality; resolution; contrast; radiation dose
4.  Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection 
Purpose
To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection.
Materials and methods
Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).
Results
This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy.
Conclusion
Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S81861
PMCID: PMC4445950  PMID: 26056429
malignant glaucoma; pars plana vitrectomy; silicone oil
5.  Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Naturally Infected Poultry in Egypt 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0120061.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and there is increasing concern for its potential to become highly transmissible among humans. Infection by HPAIV H5N1 has been described in experimentally challenged birds. However, the pathogenicity of the H5N1 isolated in Egypt has never been reported in naturally infected chickens and ducks. Here we report a 2013 outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry farms and backyards in Sharkia Province, Egypt. The main symptoms were ecchymosis on the shanks and feet, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, subcutaneous edema of the head and neck for chickens, and nervous signs (torticollis) for ducks. Within 48-72 hrs of the onset of illness, the average mortality rates were 22.8-30% and 28.5-40% in vaccinated chickens and non-vaccinated ducks, respectively. Tissue samples of chickens and ducks were collected for analyses with cross-section immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR for specific viral RNA transcripts. While viral RNA was detected in nearly all tissues and sera collected, viral nucleoprotein was detected almost ubiquitously in all tissues, including testis. Interestingly, viral antigen was also observed in endothelial cells of most organs in chickens, and clearly detected in the trachea and brain in particular. Viral nucleoprotein was also detected in mononuclear cells of various organs, especially pulmonary tissue. We performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the genomic sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and nonstructural proteins (NS) among the isolated viruses, the HPAIV circulated in Egypt in the past and currently, and some available vaccine strains. Further analysis of deduced amino acids of both HA and NS1 revealed that our isolates carried molecular determinants of HPAIV, including the multibasic amino acids (PQGERRRK/KR*GLF) in the cleavage site in HA and glutamate at position 92 (D92E) in NS1. This is the first report of the pathogenicity of the HPAIVH5N1 strain currently circulating in naturally infected poultry in Egypt, which may provide unique insights into the viral pathogenesis in HPAIV-infected chickens and ducks.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120061
PMCID: PMC4427178  PMID: 25962145
6.  Caloric restriction induces heat shock response and inhibits B16F10 cell tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo 
Aging (Albany NY)  2015;7(4):233-239.
Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is one of the most consistent strategies for increasing mean and maximal lifespan and delaying the onset of age-associated diseases. Stress resistance is a common trait of many long-lived mutants and life-extending interventions, including CR. Indeed, better protection against heat shock and other genotoxic insults have helped explain the pro-survival properties of CR. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo responses to heat shock were investigated using two different models of CR. Murine B16F10 melanoma cells treated with serum from CR-fed rats showed lower proliferation, increased tolerance to heat shock and enhanced HSP-70 expression, compared to serum from ad libitum-fed animals. Similar effects were observed in B16F10 cells implanted subcutaneously in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to CR. Microarray analysis identified a number of genes and pathways whose expression profile were similar in both models. These results suggest that the use of an in vitro model could be a good alternative to study the mechanisms by which CR exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects.
PMCID: PMC4429088  PMID: 25948793
caloric restriction; heat shock; stress response; tumorigenesis; aging
7.  Correlation of Climate Variability and Malaria: A Retrospective Comparative Study, Southwest Ethiopia 
Background
Climatic variables can determine malaria transmission dynamics. To see the correlation between malaria occurrence and climatic variables, records of malaria episodes over eight years period were analyzed incorporating climatic variables around Gilgel-Gibe Hydroelectric Dam and control sites.
Methods
Records of 99,206 confirmed malaria episodes registered between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed along with local meteorological data of the same duration. Data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software version 20 for Windows. Spearman correlation coefficient was estimated as a measure of the correlation.
Results
The major peaks of malaria prevalence were observed following the peaks of rainfall in the Gilgel-Gibe Hydroelectric Dam site. In the control site, the peaks of malaria in some years coincided with the peaks of rainfall, and the pattern of rainfall was relatively less fluctuating. Mean rainfall was negatively correlated with number of malaria cases at lags of 0 and 1 month, but positively correlated at lags of 2 to 4 months. Mean relative humidity showed significant positive correlations at lags of 3 to 4 months. Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures weakly correlated at lags of 0 to 4 months.
Conclusions
Correlations of malaria and climate variables were different for the two sites; in Gilgel-Gibe, rainfall and relative humidity showed positive correlations. However, in the control site, the correlation of weather variables and malaria episodes were insignificant. Exploration of additional factors such as vegetation index and physico-chemical nature of mosquito breeding site may improve understanding of determinants of malaria dynamics in the area.
PMCID: PMC4478264  PMID: 26124620
climatic variables; correlations; Ethiopia; Gilgel-Gibe; malaria
8.  In Vivo Assessment of NS1-Truncated Influenza Virus with a Novel SLSYSINWRH Motif as a Self-Adjuvanting Live Attenuated Vaccine 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0118934.
Mutants of influenza virus that encode C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-truncated mutants) characteristically induce high interferon responses. The dual activity of interferon in blocking virus replication and enhancing the development of adaptive immune responses makes these mutants promising as self-adjuvanting live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. Yet, among the NS1-truncated mutants, the length of NS1 is not directly correlated with the interferon-inducing efficiency, the level of attenuation, or effectiveness as LAIV. Using quantitative in vitro biologically active particle subpopulation analysis as a tool to identify potential LAIV candidates from a pool of NS1-truncated mutants, we previously predicted that a NS1-truncated mutant pc2, which was less effective as a LAIV in chickens, would be sufficiently effective as a LAIV in mammalian hosts. In this study, we confirmed that pc2 protected mice and pigs against heterologous virus challenge in terms of preventing clinical signs and reducing virus shedding. pc2 expresses a unique SLSYSINWRH motif at the C-terminus of its truncated NS1. Deletion of the SLSYSINWRH motif led to ~821-fold reduction in the peak yield of type I interferon induced in murine cells. Furthermore, replacement of the SLSYSINWRH motif with the wildtype MVKMDQAIMD sequence did not restore the interferon-inducing efficiency. The diminished interferon induction capacity in the absence of the SLSYSINWRH motif was similar to that observed in other mutants which are less effective LAIV candidates. Remarkably, pc2 induced 16-fold or more interferon in human lung and monkey kidney cells compared to the temperature-sensitive, cold-adapted Ann Arbor virus that is currently used as a master backbone for LAIVs such as FluMist. Although the mechanism by which the SLSYSINWRH motif regulates the vaccine properties of pc2 has not been elucidated, this motif has potential use in engineering self-adjuvanting NS1-truncated-based LAIVs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118934
PMCID: PMC4366013  PMID: 25790187
9.  Serum from calorie-restricted animals delays senescence and extends the lifespan of normal human fibroblasts in vitro 
Aging (Albany NY)  2015;7(3):152-166.
The cumulative effects of cellular senescence and cell loss over time in various tissues and organs are considered major contributing factors to the ageing process. In various organisms, caloric restriction (CR) slows ageing and increases lifespan, at least in part, by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases of the sirtuin family. Here, we use an in vitro model of CR to study the effects of this dietary regime on replicative senescence, cellular lifespan and modulation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway in normal human diploid fibroblasts. We found that serum from calorie-restricted animals was able to delay senescence and significantly increase replicative lifespan in these cells, when compared to serum from ad libitum fed animals. These effects correlated with CR-mediated increases in SIRT1 and decreases in p53 expression levels. In addition, we show that manipulation of SIRT1 levels by either over-expression or siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted in delayed and accelerated cellular senescence, respectively. Our results demonstrate that CR can delay senescence and increase replicative lifespan of normal human diploid fibroblasts in vitro and suggest that SIRT1 plays an important role in these processes. (185 words).
PMCID: PMC4394727  PMID: 25855056
human diploid fibroblasts; senescence; caloric restriction; lifespan extension; SIRT1; aging
10.  Resolution of hypercalcemia of malignancy following radical cystectomy in a patient with paraneoplastic syndrome associated with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder 
Urology Annals  2015;7(1):86-87.
Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding associated with different types of cancers; however, its association with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is rare. We report a case of a 69-year-old male with nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who developed hypercalcemia that failed to respond to medical management, but resolved completely after undergoing resection of the tumor through radical cystectomy.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.148627
PMCID: PMC4310126  PMID: 25657552
Bladder cancer; hypercalcemia of malignancy; paraneoplastic syndrome
11.  Life threatening angioedema in a patient on ACE inhibitor (ACEI) confined to the upper airway 
Qatar Medical Journal  2014;2014(2):92-97.
Introduction: ACE inhibitors accounts for 8% of all cases of angioneurotic edema and the overall incidence is 0.1 to 0.7% of patients on ACE inhibitors. It is a leading cause (20-40%) of emergency room visits in the US with angioedema. We report a case of angioedema caused by ACE inhibitors confined to the upper airway after four years on treatment with Lisinopril which persisted for three weeks and required endotracheal intubation and subsequent tracheostomy due to delayed resolution. This case is one of the rare cases presented as upper airway edema which persisted for a long time. Presentation: A 60-year-old Sudanese male patient with osteoarthritis in both knees underwent bilateral total knee replacement under single-shot epidural anesthesia. He had significant past medical history of type II diabetes, bipolar affective disorder and hypertension managed with Lisinopril for the past four years. Postoperatively after 10 hours the patient desaturated and developed airway obstruction requiring intubation. Laryngoscopy revealed an edematous tongue and upper airway and vocal cords were not visualized. In view of this clinical picture a provisional diagnosis of angioedema secondary to Lisinopril was made and it was discontinued. CT scan of the neck and soft tissues revealed severe airway edema with snugly fitting endotracheal tube with no peritubal air. A repeat CT neck on the tenth postoperative day showed no signs of resolution and an elective tracheostomy was performed on the eleventh postoperative day. C1 inhibitor protein and C4 levels were assayed to exclude hereditary angioedema and were found to be within normal range. Decannulation of tracheostomy was done after airway edema resolved on the twenty-fourth postoperative day as confirmed by CT scan. Subsequently he was transferred to the ward and discharged home. Conclusion: ACEI induced angioedema is a well-recognized condition. Early diagnosis based on a high index of suspicion, immediate withdrawal of the offending drug followed by supportive therapy is the cornerstone of management.
doi:10.5339/qmj.2014.15
PMCID: PMC4344982  PMID: 25745598
angioedema; ACE inhibitor; life threatening.
12.  Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax in a micro-ecological setting, Southwest Ethiopia: effects of altitude and proximity to a dam 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:625.
Background
Refining the spatial and temporal data on malaria transmissions at a defined ecological setting has practical implications for targeted malaria control and enhancing efficient allocation of resources. Spatial and temporal distribution of P. falciparium and P. vivax were explored around the Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Dam (GGHD) in southwest Ethiopia.
Methods
A review of confirmed malaria episodes recorded over eight years at primary health services was conducted. Using individual identifiers and village names malaria records were cross-linked to location and individual records of Gilgel Gibe Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data, which had already been geo-referenced. The study setting was categorized in to buffer zones with distance interval of one kilometer. Similarly, altitude of the area was categorized considering 100 meters height intervals. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson model for the buffer zones and for the altitudinal levels by adjusting for the underlying population density as an offset variable. Yearly temporal variations of all confirmed malaria cases were also evaluated based on the Poisson model using STATA statistical software version 12.
Results
A considerable proportion (45.0%) of the P. falciparium episodes were registered within one kilometer radius of the GGHD. P. falciparium showed increment with distance from the GGHD up to five kilometers and with altitude above 1900 meters while P. vivax exhibited the increase with distance but, decrease with the altitude. Both species showed significantly higher infection among males than females (P <0.01). Temporally, malaria episodes manifested significant increments in the years between 2006/7 to 2009/10 while reduction of the malaria episodes was indicated during 2004/5, 2005/6 and 2010/11 compared to 2003/4 (P <0.01). On average, P. vivax was 52% less than P. falciparium over the time period considered. P. vivax was significantly higher in the years 2004/5 to 2007/8 and 2010/11 (P <0.001).
Conclusions
Spatial and temporal variations of malaria were observed. The spatial and temporal variations of malaria episodes were also different for the two main malaria species in the area.
doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0625-x
PMCID: PMC4240866  PMID: 25407982
Ethiopia; Gilgel Gibe; Malaria episodes; Spatiotemporal dynamics
13.  Prevalence of “HIV/AIDS related” parental death and its association with sexual behavior of secondary school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:1120.
Background
Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a global crisis that represents a serious health threat, particularly among younger people. Various studies show that both orphan and non-orphan adolescents and youths experience vulnerability to HIV. Nevertheless, the findings hitherto are mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of parental death and its association with multiple sexual partners among secondary school students for evidence based interventions.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 2,169 school youths. Sexual health behavior related data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was employed to examine the relation between parental death and multiple sexual partners.
Results
Among the 2,169 eligible study participants 1948 (90%) completed the self-administered questionnaires. Of those 1,182(60.7%) were females. The overall prevalence of parental death was 347(17.8%.) with 95% CI (16.2%, 19.6%). The HIV/AIDS proportionate mortality ratio was 28% (97/347).
A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high HIV/AIDS related knowledge (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.84), positive attitude towards HIV prevention methods (AOR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.97), being tested for HIV (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.87) and chewing Khat (AOR = 2.59; 95% CI,1.28-5.26)] were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners among secondary school youths.
Conclusions
Significant proportion of secondary school youths had lost at least one parent due to various causes. High knowledge of HIV/AIDS, positive attitude towards ‘ABC’ rules for HIV prevention, being tested for HIV and chewing khat are more likely to be factors associated with multiple sexual partnership among secondary school students in Addis Ababa.
Therefore, the school based interventions against the HIV/AIDS epidemic should be strengthened with particular emphasis on the effects of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude towards preventive measures, mechanisms for improving HIV Counseling and Testing coverage and the associated prevailing risk factors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1120
PMCID: PMC4228087  PMID: 25359693
Secondary school; Youth; Orphan; Non-orphan; Multiple sexual partners; HIV/AIDS
14.  Isolation, Characterization, Crystal Structure Elucidation, and Anticancer Study of Dimethyl Cardamonin, Isolated from Syzygium campanulatum Korth 
Syzygium campanulatum Korth is an equatorial, evergreen, aboriginal shrub of Malaysia. Conventionally it has been used as a stomachic. However, in the currently conducted study dimethyl cardamonin or 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3′,5′-dimethylchalcone (DMC) was isolated from S. campanulatum Korth, leaf extract. The structural characterization of DMC was carried out by making use of various techniques including UV, IR, NMR spectral followed by LC-MS, and X-ray crystallographic techniques. For determining the purity of compound, highly effective techniques including TLC, HPLC, and melting point were used. The cytotoxicity of DMC and three different extracts of S. campanulatum was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) by three different assays. DMC and ethanolic extract revealed potent and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell line with IC50 12.6 and 90.1 µg/mL, respectively. Quite astonishingly to our knowledge, this is the very first report on S. campanulatum as being a rich source (3.5%) of DMC, X-ray crystallography, and anticancer activity on human colon cancer cells.
doi:10.1155/2014/470179
PMCID: PMC4228816  PMID: 25530783
15.  Identification of congenital rubella syndrome in Sudan 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:305.
Background
Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects.
Methods
Between February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and dried blood spot samples were collected from 98 infants aged up to 12 months. These infants were enrolled during their visits to five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical samples were screened for rubella IgM and for ≥ 6 months old infants also for IgG antibodies by ELISA. The oral fluid of IgM and/or IgG positive patients was tested for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR.
Results
Our findings revealed that two children (2.0%) were IgM positive and another five children (5.1%) were positive for IgG antibodies. None of the five infants of which enough oral fluid was available for RNA investigation was PCR positive.
Conclusions
This study documented the presence of CRS in Sudan and highlighted the importance of rubella vaccine introduction for preventing future CRS cases in the country.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-305
PMCID: PMC4059485  PMID: 24898017
Congenital rubella syndrome; Eye defects; Oral fluid; Dried blood spot; Sudan
16.  Analysis of trend of malaria prevalence in south-west Ethiopia: a retrospective comparative study 
Malaria Journal  2014;13:188.
Background
The temporal analysis of pertinent malaria data on the health care system is crucially important to measure success or failure of malaria programmes and identify remaining malaria hot spots. The objectives of this study were to analyse and compare trends of malaria prevalence around Gilgel-Gibe Hydroelectric Dam (GGHD), and a control site over an eight-year period.
Methods
A retrospective record review of health care services was conducted in southwest Ethiopia. Records of malaria cases over an eight-year period in primary health care units of two localities were reviewed. One study site was selected from villages around a man-made lake, GGHD, within a distance of 10 km, and a control site with similar geographic features was identified. Data were summarized in tables; prevalence of malaria was analysed and described by person, place and time using line graphs. Odds ratio was used to examine significant difference of malaria occurrence in the two sites.
Results
Records of 163,918 malaria cases registered over eight years (September 2003 to August 2011) were explored. Close to one thirds (32.7%) of these cases were from GGHD site and two-thirds (67.3%) of them were from the control site. Among the confirmed cases, Plasmodium falciparum constituted 54.6%, Plasmodium vivax accounted for 41.6%, and mixed infection was 3.8%. There were three peaks of malaria prevalence in the control site whereas only one major peak was identified during the eight-year period in GGHD site; and prevalence of malaria in GGHD site was lower than control site. Children in the age range ten to 14 years were the most affected by the disease, followed by children below the age group five to nine years, which demands due consideration in the effort of malaria control.
Conclusions
More malaria prevalence was observed in the control site compared to GGHD site almost throughout the time period considered. The present finding did not show evidence of the excess malaria burden in the GGHD site due to the presence of the dam.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-188
PMCID: PMC4046071  PMID: 24886236
Ethiopia; Gilgel-Gibe; Health service; Malaria trend; Malaria prevalence
17.  Bladder necrosis secondary to internal iliac artery embolization following pelvic fracture 
Urology Annals  2014;6(2):166-168.
A 49-year-old man following a road traffic accident (RTA) had an unstable pelvic fracture with urethral injury. Internal pelvic fixation with Supra-pubic catheter (SPC) drainage of his bladder was done. This failed to stop the bleeding and a pelvic angiography with bilateral internal iliac embolization using steel coils was performed successfully controlling the bleeding. After 4 weeks, the patient developed wound infection (Clavien Grade III) and on exploration, bladder necrosis was found. A urinary diversion using ileal conduit with excision of bladder was performed. A biopsy of the excised bladder confirmed bladder necrosis with a foreign material (coil) in one arterial lumen.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.130657
PMCID: PMC4021662  PMID: 24833834
Bladder necrosis; embolization; internal iliac artery; pelvic fracture
18.  Epidemiology of Major Non-communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review 
Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed.
PMCID: PMC4089066  PMID: 24847587
Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Diabetes; Risk factors; Ethiopia
19.  Is the Epidemiology of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Changing? : A Three-Year Overview in Saudi Arabia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e85564.
Background
The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Setting
Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Design
Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1st-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011.
Results
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV) disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third of cases had no direct contact with animals or its products. Almost all cases had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Case fatality rate was less than 1%.
Conclusions
Findings in this study showed the mode of transmission of AHFV virus may not be limited to direct contact with animals or its products. Gastro-intestinal symptoms were not previously documented. Observed low case fatality rate contradicted earlier reports. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of AHFV is recommended to aid appropriate diagnosis. Housewives are advised to wear gloves when handling animals and animal products as a preventive measure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085564
PMCID: PMC3916301  PMID: 24516520
20.  Development of Pulsating Twin Jets Mechanism for Mixing Flow Heat Transfer Analysis 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:767614.
Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
doi:10.1155/2014/767614
PMCID: PMC3929578  PMID: 24672370
21.  Ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria prevention in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia: complex samples data analysis 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:99.
Background
Despite the encroaching of endemic malaria to highland-fringe areas above 2000 meters above sea level in Ethiopia, there is limited information on ownership and use of mosquito nets for malaria prevention. Thus, this study was designed to assess long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) possession and use for malaria prevention in highland-fringe of south-central Ethiopia.
Methods
A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to obtain household data from randomly selected households using household head interview in October and November 2008. Household LLIN possession and use was assessed using adjusted Odds Ratio obtained from complex samples logistic regression analysis.
Results
Only less than a quarter (23.1%) of 739 households interviewed owned LLINs with more differences between low (54.2%) high (3.5%) altitudes (Χ2 =253, P < 0.001). Higher LLIN ownership was observed in illiterate (adj.OR 35.1 [10.6-116.2]), male-headed (adj.OR 1.7 [1.051-2.89]), owning two or more beds (adj.OR 2.7 [1.6-4.6]), not doing draining/refilling of mosquito breeding sites (adj.OR 3.4 [2.1-5.5]) and absence of rivers or streams (adj.OR 6.4 [3.5-11.8]) of household variables. The presence of ≥2 LLINs hanging (adj.OR 21.0 [5.2-85.1]), owning two or more LLINs (adj.OR 4.8 [1.3-17.5]), not doing draining/refilling of mosquito breeding sites (adj.OR 4.2 [1.3-13.6]), low wealth status (adj.OR 3.55 [1.04-12.14]), and < 1 km distance from absence of rivers or streams (adj.OR 3.9 [1.2-12.1]) of households was associated with more likely use of LLIN. The LLIN ownership was low in the highlands, and most of the highland users bought the bed nets themselves.
Conclusions
This study found a low household LLIN ownership and use in the highland-fringe rural area. Therefore, improving the availability and teaching effective use of LLIN combined with removal of temporary mosquito breeding places should be prioritized in highland-fringe areas.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-99
PMCID: PMC3914706  PMID: 24479770
Long-lasting insecticidal nets; Ownership; Use; Highland-fringe; Ethiopia
22.  Pelvic lipomatosis: Bladder sparing extirpation of pelvic mass to relieve bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain 
Pelvic lipomatosis is a rare benign disease, associated with overgrowth of fat in the perivesical and perirectal area. It is of unknown etiology. We describe a 45–year–old male with pelvic lipomatosis causing bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain that affected his quality of life. Surgical excision of the pelvic mass with bladder preservation was performed. After surgery, the patient had a marked improvement in his quality of life, with resolution of bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain.
doi:10.5173/ceju.2014.03.art15
PMCID: PMC4165674  PMID: 25247089
pelvic lipomatosis; bladder
23.  A rare approach to entero-atmospheric fistula 
Patient: Female, 60
Final Diagnosis: Recurrent incisional hernia
Symptoms: —
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Limited ileo-cecal resection
Specialty: Surgery
Objective:
Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents
Background:
Iatrogenic entero-atmospheric fistula is devastating and its management is extremely difficult because it is often associated with fluid and electrolyte disturbances, nutritional problems, and life-threatening sepsis.
Case Report:
A 60-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic repair of a recurrent incisional hernia that was complicated by iatrogenic cecal injury necessitating a limited ileocecal resection and onlay prosthetic mesh repair of the hernia. Postoperatively, sloughing of the overlying skin led to mesh exposure. An attempted rotational flap coverage was complicated by small bowel injury, which was recognized and repaired. However, an entero-atmospheric fistula developed after the removal of contaminated mesh. The fistula was initially treated by vacuum-assisted closure dressing and later was converted to a ‘stoma’. Six months later, the small bowel segment bearing the fistula was excised and bowel continuity was restored.
Conclusions:
In selected cases, the conversion of entero-atmospheric fistula to a ‘stoma’ allows the patient to be discharged home early and maintain good nutritional status while awaiting the definitive surgical intervention.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.889638
PMCID: PMC3835275  PMID: 24265846
laparoscopy; incisional hernia repair; colon injury; entero-atmospheric fistula; stoma
24.  Predictors of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership and utilization: evidence from community-based cross-sectional comparative study, Southwest Ethiopia 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:406.
Background
Malaria is the notorious impediment of public health and economic development. Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets/insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs/ITNs) are among major intervention strategies to avert the impact the disease. However, effectiveness of LLINs/ITNs depends on, inter alia, possessing sufficient number, proper utilization and timely replacement of nets. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends surveys to evaluate possession and proper use of LLINs/ITNs by households.
Methods
A cross-sectional comparative household survey was conducted during peak malaria transmission season using interviewer-introduced questionnaires in southwest Ethiopia. A study site was selected from villages around a man-made lake, Gilgel-Gibe (GG) and a control site, with similar geographic and socio-economic features but far away from the lake, was identified. A total of 2,373 households from randomly selected cluster of households were included into the study and heads/spouses of the households responded to interviews. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of LLIN ownership and utilization.
Results
LLIN/ITN ownership among the study populations was 56.6%, while 43.4% of households did not own a net. A higher proportion of households in GG reported owning at least one LLITN/ITN compared to control village (OR =2. 2, P <0.001) and more households in GG reported having only one LLITN/ITN in contrast to households in the control village (OR = 2.1, P <0.001). The mean number of LLINs/ITNs owned was 1.6 for GG residents and 1.8 for control village with a mean difference of -0.26 (95% CI = - 0.34, -0.19). The age of household heads, household relative wealth index (RWI), distance to nearest health service and accessibility to transportation showed a significant association with ownership of LLINs/ITNs. The probability of owning two or more LLINs/ITNs was positively associated with age of household head. Marital status of household heads, RWI, distance to nearest health service, accessibility to transport, residence and household size showed a significant association with utilization of LLINs/ITNs.
Conclusion
Attention needs to be given to the poor, distant and inaccessible households in the efforts of malaria intervention programmes, such as free distribution of LLINs/ITNs. Well-tailored information, education and communication is needed to address the problem of non-users.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-406
PMCID: PMC3827849  PMID: 24206749
Gilgel-gibe; Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets/insecticide-treated bed nets; Malaria; Ownership; Possession; Utilization
25.  Malaria risk factors in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:273.
Background
The highlands of Ethiopia, situated between 1,500 and 2,500 m above sea level, experienced severe malaria epidemics. Despite the intensive control attempts, underway since 2005 and followed by an initial decline, the disease remained a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify malaria risk factors in highland-fringe south-central Ethiopia.
Methods
This study was conducted in six rural kebeles of Butajira area located 130 km south of Addis Ababa, which are part of demographic surveillance site in Meskan and Mareko Districts, Ethiopia. Using a multistage sampling technique 750 households was sampled to obtain the 3,398 people, the estimated sample size for this study. Six repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted from October 2008 to June 2010. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression models fitted to Plasmodium infection status (positive or negative) and six variables. Both fixed- and random-effects differences in malaria infection were estimated using median odds ratio and interval odds ratio 80%. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the strength of association.
Results
Overall, 19,207 individuals were sampled in six surveys (median and inter-quartile range value three). Six of the five variables had about two-fold to eight-fold increase in prevalence of malaria. Furthermore, among these variables, October-November survey seasons of both during 2008 and 2009 were strongly associated with increased prevalence of malaria infection. Children aged below five years (adjusted OR= 3.62) and children aged five to nine years (adj. OR= 3.39), low altitude (adj. OR= 5.22), mid-level altitude (adj. OR= 3.80), houses with holes (adj. OR= 1.59), survey seasons such as October-November 2008 (adj. OR= 7.84), January-February 2009 (adj. OR= 2.33), June-July 2009 (adj. OR=3.83), October-November 2009 (adj. OR= 7.71), and January-February 2010 (adj. OR= 3.05) were associated with increased malaria infection.
The estimates of cluster variances revealed differences in malaria infection. The village-level intercept variance for the individual-level predictor (0.71 [95% CI: 0.28-1.82]; SE=0.34) and final (0.034, [95% CI: 0.002-0.615]; SE=0.05) were lower than that of empty (0.80, [95% CI: 0.32-2.01]; SE=0.21).
Conclusion
Malaria control efforts in highland fringes must prioritize children below ten years in designing transmission reduction of malaria elimination strategy.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-273
PMCID: PMC3750841  PMID: 23914971
Malaria risk; Multilevel analysis; Highland-fringe; Butajira area; Ethiopia

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