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1.  Alterations of global histone H4K20 methylation during prostate carcinogenesis 
BMC Urology  2012;12:5.
Background
Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stages of prostate cancer (PCA) carcinogenesis.
Methods
Global H4K20 methylation levels were evaluated using a tissue microarray in patients with clinically localized PCA (n = 113), non-malignant prostate disease (n = 27), metastatic hormone-naive PCA (mPCA, n = 30) and castration-resistant PCA (CRPC, n = 34). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess global levels of H4K20 methylation levels.
Results
Similar proportions of the normal, PCA, and mPCA prostate tissues showed strong H4K20me3 staining. CRPC tissue analysis showed the weakest immunostaining levels of H4K20me1 and H4K20me2, compared to other prostate tissues. H4K20me2 methylation levels indicated significant differences in examined tissues except for normal prostate versus PCA tissue. H4K20me1 differentiates CRPC from other prostate tissues. H4K20me1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastases, and H4K20me2 showed a significant correlation with the Gleason score. However, H4K20 methylation levels failed to predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Conclusions
H4K20 methylation levels constitute valuable markers for the dynamic process of prostate cancer carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-5
PMCID: PMC3323457  PMID: 22413846
Histone; Methylation; H4K20; Prostate cancer; Epigenetics
2.  C-reactive Protein in Patients with Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma: An Important Biomarker for Tumor-associated Inflammation 
Biomarker Insights  2007;1:87-98.
Two consecutive multi-center phase II trials were designed to prove the hypothesis, whether therapeutic modeling of tumor-associated inflammatory processes could result in improved tumor response.
Therapy in both trials consisted of low-dose capecitabine 1g/m2 twice daily p.o. for 14 days, every 3 weeks, day 1+, and rofecoxib 25 mg daily p.o., day 1+ (from 11/04 etoricoxib 60 mg daily instead) plus pioglitazone 60 mg daily p.o., day 1+. In study II low-dose IFN-α 4.5 MU sc. three times a week, week 1+, was added until disease progression.
Eighteen, and 33 patients, respectively, with clear cell renal carcinoma and progressive disease were enrolled. Objective response (48%) was exclusively observed in study II (PR 35%, CR 13%), and paralleled by a strong CRP response after 4 weeks on treatment, p = 0.0005, in all 29 pts (100%) with elevated CRP levels. Median progression-free survival could be more than doubled from a median of 4.7 months (95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4) to 11.5 months (6.8 to 16.2) in study II, p = 0.00001. Median overall survival of population II was 26 months.
Efficacious negative regulation of tumor-associated inflammation by transcription modulators may result in a steep increase of tumor response and survival.
PMCID: PMC2716790  PMID: 19690640
Anti-inflammatory therapy; Interferon-alpha; PPARgamma; COX-2
3.  Sporadic renal cell carcinoma in young and elderly patients: are there different clinicopathological features and disease specific survival rates? 
Background
Sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare in young adults. In the present retrospective study we reviewed clinicopathological features and disease specific survival rates in young patients (≤45 years) with RCC and compared them to old patients (≥75 years) with RCC.
Methods
Between 1992 and 2005 a total of 1042 patients were treated for RCC at our institution. We found 70 patients 45 years or younger (YP) and 150 patients 75 years or older (OP) at time of diagnosis. There were no differences in therapeutical approaches between both groups. Clinical and biologic parameters at diagnosis were compared and subjected to uni- and multivariate analysis to study cancer specific survival and progression rate. Mean postoperative follow-up in both groups was 50.1 months.
Results
Mean age was 39 years in YP and 80 years in OP, respectively. YP demonstrated significantly lower stage (pT1-pT2 N0 M0, p = 0.03), lower tumor grade (p = 0.01) and higher male-to-female ratio (p < 0.001). The rate of lymph node metastases or distant metastatic disease at presentation did not differ significantly between both groups. In multivariate analysis young age was independently associated with a higher 5-year cancer specific survival (95.2% vs. 72.3%, p = 0.009) and a lower 5-year progression rate (11.3% vs. 42.5%, p = 0.002).
Conclusion
Sporadic RCC in young patients have lower tumor stages and grades and a better outcome compared to elderly. Age≤45 years was an independent prognostic factor for survival and progression.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-16
PMCID: PMC1797177  PMID: 17280613

Results 1-3 (3)